Reports: Cumulative Subject Index for vols. 1-27

A || B || C || D || E || F || G || H || I || J || K || L || M || N || O || P || Q || R || S || T || U || V || W || X || Y || Z

A

ABANDONMENT, see also Attorneys and Counselors; Default; Divorce; Husband and Wife.

Judgment by default may be rendered after counsel has indicated. Cole v. Industrial Building Contractors, 17:476.

Of cause by absence of counsel from hearing of which he was notified. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:472.

ABATEMENT, see also Actions; Civil Procedures; Pleadings.

Death of plaintiff-in-error. Lewis v. Republic, 1:93.

Legal representative may continue actions other than for personal injuries. Oliver v. Dunbar, 1:66.

Withdrawal of suit without reserving right to renew operates as bar. Minus v. Crayton, 1:73.

ACCESSORIES, see also Crimes and Offenses.

After the fact. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Corroboration of testimony necessary. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

Definition of accessory before the fact. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

ACCOMPLICES, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Witnesses.

Conviction as accessory before and after the fact may be based on corroborated testimony of accomplice. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Uncorroborated testimony of insufficient basis for conviction. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

ACCOUNTS AND ACCOUNTING, see also Bankruptcy and Insolvency; Banks and Banking; Bonds; Debt; Evidence; Executors and Administrators; Personal Property; Probate Courts.

Acceptance by merchants of doubtful accounts. Alston v. Castro, 3:3.

Account stated defined. Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263.

Account stated presumed correct. Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263.

Acknowledgment by defendant of balance due. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Attorney's bill of particulars for service as account state. Beysolow v. Dukuly, 5:325.

Balance. Moddermann v. Green, 1:204; Attia v. Payne, 1:205.

Between principal and agent. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Bill in equity to compel accounting. Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Blending into accounts. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

Bookkeeping principles. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

Books of, admission into evidence. Harmon v. Woodin & Co., Ltd., 2:334.

Certificate of correctness of balance not a promissory note. Logan v. Meyer, 2:200.

Closing by statement of balance. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Current. McGill's Trustees v. Worrell, 1:175; Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263.

Debt on book account may be proved by extrinsic evidence. McCauley v. Brown, 2:359.

Deficit as evidence of embezzlement. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Deficit as evidence of fraud. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347.

Equitable claims as establishing right to. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:425.

Executor not exempt from accounting. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Factors, acceptance of doubtful accounts of. Alston v. Castro, 3:3.

Genuineness. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

Interest payable on loans or debit balances. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Investment defined. Massaquoi v. Kutu, 10:3.

Of coparceners' interests. Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Outstanding acceptance by merchants. Alston v. Castro, 3:3.

Surcharge defined. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

ACT OF GOD.

Defined. Steinberg v. Greywood, 2:238.

Distinguished from inevitable accident. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52.

ACTIONS, see also Attachments; Attorneys and Counselors; Civil Procedures; Complaints; Costs; Courts; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Damages; Debt; Divorce; Ejectment; Equity; Executors and Administrators; Fraud; Injunctions; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Laches; Limitations of Actions; Parties; Personal Property; Pleadings; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Real Property; Reargument; Replevin; Republic of Liberia; Restitution; Revenue Stamps; Sheriffs; Specific Performance; Trials.

Abandonment not found where notice to court that attorney can no longer represent client. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Abatement of, when substitution of parties, will not achieve an effective judgment. Judge of Debt Court v. Horton, 24:392.

Admiralty defined. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Attachment, no main suit required for writ of. Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:512.

Classification. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

Consolidation of, effect. Russell v. Nah, 21:515.

Criminal acts, civil liability for. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:425.

Criminal conversation. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Damage to another's property not redressable by suit in own behalf. Nowa v. Wolo, 8:355.

Debt, actionable defined. Gbeh v. Gblah, 24:347.

Debt not maintainable to foreclose mortgage. Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

Debt not triable in labor court. Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Defined. Ex parte Williams, 4:189; Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

Election of remedies; right to found single cause of action on contract and tort. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Equity, cancellation of deed for fraud as. Wilson v. Wilson, 27:182.

For injunction commenced by issuance of writ. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Forms of. No form entitle "action for damages on injunction bond and for wrongful injunction." Urey-Holder . Dennis, 15:264.

Forms of. No form entitled "action of claim." Kaba v. Saleeby Bros. 14:275.

Forms of. No form entitle "failing to make complete payments with plaintiff after services rendered." Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Forms of. Wrong for dismissible. Jantzen v. Coleman, 2:208; Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:35; Rached v. Knowlden, 13:68.

Incompatible causes of. Henrichsen v. Moore, 6:351.

Injunction. Remedy for indemnification of successful defendant is motion, not action for damages. Urey-Holder v. Dennis, 15:264.

Intervention, not required by persons not parties to but having knowledge that action may affect rights. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Intervention, commencement of own action by person entitled to. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Joinder of debt and detinue improper. Dormah v. Pierce, 10:420.

Joinder of ejectment with injunction improper. Fiske v. Artis, 11:334.

Judgment. Action for construction of, not maintainable. Richardson v. Gabbidon, 16:282.

Lease. Remedy for breach of covenant is action on contract, not ejectment. Tubman v. Westphal et al., 1:367.

Malicious mischief. Witherspoon v. Witherspoon, 3:284.

Malicious prosecution. Ross v. Arrivets, 7:80; Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Misnomer. Notice of plea. Mamodou v. Woermann & Brussells Co., Ltd., 12:53.

No limit on number of counsel litigant may retain. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Nondomiciliary, authority of Liberian counsel to institute in behalf of. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay's Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:520.

Nonjoinder of parties not ground for dismissal. King v. Simpson, 17:226.

Nonsuit and retraxit distinguished and defined. Johnson v. Johnson, 1:29.

Notice of appeal may be served on counsel where appellee could not be served personally. Wright v. Tay, 12:189.

Patents. Infringement. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117.

Pension rights, actionable as a debt. Liberian Trading Corporation v. Hall (Chambers), 21:543.

Personal property. Damages for injury to, statutory. Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

Personal property. Injury to, distinguished from debt. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

Persons affected by but not made parties to, remedy of. Marshall v. Blaine, 6:70.

Power of judge to change nature at trial. Beysolow v. Dukuly, 5:325.

Probate proceedings are judicial inquiries, not civil actions. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Replevin. Parker v. Worrell, 2:525; Moore v. Bull, 13:106; Nahyahda v. Carter, 15:297.

Retraxit as bar to second action. Davison v. Davison, 3:36.

Specific performance based on breach of contract. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:99.

Trespass defined. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

Trespass on the case defined. Brown v. Brown, 1:1; G.F. Overbeck, Ltd., v. Davis, 3:210.

Trespass quare clausum fregit defined. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

Trespass vi et armis defined. Attia v. Summerville, 1:215.

Trover defined. Appleby v. Freeman, 2:271.

When other action involving same parties and subject matter pending, magistrate not compelled to exercise jurisdiction. Verdier v. Thompson, 17:625.

Withdrawal and refilling of. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Withdrawn. No time limit for refilling. Hill v. Hill, 13:257.

ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES.

Court's original jurisdiction over matters as to which government agency given original jurisdiction. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Hearings, lack of evidence as ground for appellate court's refusal to uphold decision and remanding case for new hearing. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Bolo, 27:358.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW.

Administrative remedies to be exhausted before raising constitutionality of statute. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Due process. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Executive branch cannot impose criminal sanctions. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE.

Appeals, authority of appeals board of labor agency to dismiss appeal as abandoned circumscribed. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Appeals, formal court procedure need not be followed by appeals board on summary review. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

ADMINISTRATORS, see Executors and Administrators.

ADMIRALTY, see also Civil Procedures; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Equity; Evidence; Judgments; Trials; Witnesses.

Action in rem and in personam, Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Amendment of pleadings. Massaquoi v. Republic, 2:461.

Confiscation of foreign vessel for violation of Liberian law. Harris v. Republic, 1:39.

Confiscation of goods for violation of customs regulations. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Court lacks jurisdiction of prosecution for smuggling. Mirza v. Republic, 13:41.

Court should be convened as occasion demands. Republic v. Smith, 1:13.

Intervention by agent of shipowner in action in personam against employee. Kruger v. Johns, 2:89.

Jurisdiction as to revenue laws. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145; Lee v. Republic, 1:184; Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Jurisdiction in rem and in personam. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Jurisdiction of action on marine contract of affreightment. Liles v. Harmon, 2:37.

Jurisdiction of prosecution for theft from post office. McGill v. Republic, 1:169.

Jurisdiction over ships and other ocean-going craft. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Libellant is party entitled to relief. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Moniton issuable after call for trial. Kra v. Republic, 1:440.

Plea of abatement not allowed. Muller v. Republic, 2:187.

Plea of ignorance of laws relating to, by a foreigner. Harris v. Republic, 1:39.

Setoff arising from non admiralty matter disallowed. Sherman v. Republic 1:145.

Suits not dismissible on technicalities. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Trial without jury. Kruger v. Johns, 2:90.

ADULTERY, see Divorce; Husband and Wife.

ADVERSE POSSESSION, see also Ejectment, Real Property.

Plea of, impliedly admits plaintiff's color of title in ejectment. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

Principles of in asserting title to real property. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97; Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Twelve years' occupancy not sufficient to support plea of. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

AFFIDAVITS, see also Civil Procedures; Notaries; Pleadings; Signatures.

Accompanying motion to dismiss unnecessary where defect apparent on record. Kennedy v. Morris, 2:134; Patten v. Republic, 7:397; Van Ee v. Republic, 7:397.

Annexed to pleading may be sworn to by counsel. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

Attached to complaint, effect of defect in. Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238.

Defective, deemed surplusage in pleadings. Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462.

Defined. Horace v. Johnson, 1:516; Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

Fraud in. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Function is to set forth facts. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

In record on appeal. Brohm v. Grant, 1:509.

Misuse. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Motion on matter of law requires no. Nagbe v. Republic, 17:656.

Must contain exact title of cause. Brown v. Allen, 2:113.

Not necessary to set out Christian name of attorney who signs as deponent. Brown v. Allen, 2:113.

Not necessary to state title of case in body of affidavit supporting application for injunction. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400.

Not required in summary Ejectment where no issue of fact. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Omission of officer's title in jurat a fatal defect.. Baffoe v. Shamag, 16:218.

Omission of service of in attachment proceeding, effect on jurisdiction of court. Halaby v. Farhart, 7:129.

Pleadings of facts not of record should be supported by. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Requirement of statement in jurat of place where taken. Gray v. Ware, 6:61.

Seal not required to validate deposition. Kra v. Republic, 1:440.

Signature of affiant. Blacklidge v. Blacklidge, 1:371; Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238.

Unnecessary in common-law pleadings. John v. Witherspoon, 8:462.

AGENT.

Employee of corporation, liability of, for personal negligence. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

AGENTS, see also Actions; Attorneys and Counselors; Contracts; Damages.

Accounts of. Clark v. Woods, 3:135.

Admissions of principal and agent regarding acting within scope of authority, admissibility of. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:99.

Authority, apparent. Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Authority, extent of question of fact for jury. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Authority, implied. Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Authority must be probated and registered. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 6:27.

Authority of sub-agents. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Authority, ratification. Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Authority terminates on death of principal. Miller v. McClain, 12:3; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Authority to sell real property. Miller v. McClain, 12:3.

Authority under contract. Jantzen v. Coleman, 2:208.

Authorization for bill of sale in name of agent may be oral. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:99.

Bank as agent of shipper when holding documents of title. Appleby v. Freeman & Son, 2:271.

Broker performing services for foreign insurer, relationship to foreign company. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Burglary in factory, liability for. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Consul as, not liable personally on contract made in official capacity. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Customs collectors as agents of Republic. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Death of principal terminates authority. Cooper v. Alamendine, 20:416.

Duty of good faith and loyalty. Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon.

Entry of deposit on passbook by bank clerk. Bank of Monrovia v. Kobbah, 10:281.

Existence of agency, question of fact for jury. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Fraud of embezzlement, action against, for. Zeiser v. Montgomery, 1:485.

Letter of foreign corporation sufficient authority for Liberian attorney to collect claim. Fazzah v. Rogers Bros. Shoes Inc., 12:300.

Liability for torts committed by order of principal. Tisdall v. Howard, 2:246; Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Liability of principal for agent's torts. Woodin & Co. v. Gibson, 2:409.

Misfeasance and nonfeasance by, distinguished. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Objections by third parties to validity of appointment. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Of Government, consul as. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Of President, members of Cabinet as. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

Power of attorney for local branch of foreign parent company to sue on behalf of parent unnecessary where branch absorbed and replaced prior local branch. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Power of attorney. Form of issuance. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Ratification of authority. Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Respondeat superior. Wooding & Co. v. Gibson, 2:409.

Service of process on clerk of business firm. Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293.

Signature written by someone else on request, validity of. Lone v. Republic, 27:148.

Statute of limitations begins to run from appointment. Jackson, Brierly v. Horace, 1:99.

Sub-agents. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Suit against in absence of principal from country. Payne v. McKenzie, 1:36.

AGREEMENTS, see Agents; Chattel Mortgages; Contracts; Deeds; Evidence; Fraud; Husband and Wife; Interest; Mortgages; Real Property; Sales; Signatures; Statute of Frauds; Stipulations; Wills.

AIDING AND ABETTING, see Crimes and Offenses.

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, see Licenses; Revenue Laws.

ALIBI, see Criminal Procedure.

ALIENS, see also Constitution; Leases; Real Property; Republic of Liberia.

Admission and deportation regulated. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Constitutional restrictions of rights as to real property. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; Williams v. Young, 1:293; West v. Dunbar, 1:313; Beavans v. Jurs, 3:28; African Industrial Co. v. Cole, 7:381; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Deportation can only be effected by strict adherence to statutory procedure. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

Deportation on account of serious crime requires court convictions. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

Exclusion of, or conditions for entering or remaining in country in discretion of immigration official. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Married woman may hold title to real property despite coverture by. Williams v. Young, 1:293; Curtis v. Brown, 3:320.

Protection by constitutional rights. Hassen v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:653.

Protection by Bill of Rights. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289; Fazzah Bros. v. Collins, 10:261.

Representation of associations. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 6:27.

Residence Act constitutional. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Rights of residents protected equally with those of citizens. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

ALIMONY, see also Divorce.

Wife compelled to leave husband. Davis v. Davis, 19:150.

AMICUS CURIAE, see also Attorneys and Counselors; Courts; Supreme Court.

Mandatory for counselor to serve when requested by Supreme Court. In re Simpson, 14:429.

May move to dismiss case for want of jurisdiction. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

ANIMALS.

Bailment of, subject to oral contract. Wear v. Kpah-Leandh-Jaiyawa, 8:361.

Damages for unlawful killing. Lackman v. Johns, 1:455.

ANSWERS, see also Pleadings.

Action tried on denial of facts when answer dismissed for untimely filing. Buchanan v. Juah, 17:79.



Appearance without answer as relegating defendant of general denial. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Cross-examine, dismissal of answer as depriving defendant of right to. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Denial and avoidance, effect of answer containing. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Denial and avoidance by affirmative defense, effect of answer containing. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Dismissal, effect of, on requirement that plaintiff prove allegations in complaint. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Dismissal and defendant ruled by court to bare denial as barring introduction of evidence. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Dismissal as barring affirmative matter at trial. Wolo v. Samobollah, 21:22.

Issues of law raised by pleadings, requirement that trial court rule on all, when answer dismissed on one point only. Claratown Engineers, Inc. v. Tucker, 23:211.

Lack of jurisdiction of subject matter may be asserted despite failure to file. Barclay v. Thompson, 17:351.

Matters constituting subject of general denial need not be specified. Vianini (Liberia) Ltd. v. McBourrough, 17:439.

Multiple defenses, how pleaded. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Not recognized if interposed by one acting as attorney but not licensed. Johnson v. Smith, 26:331.

Properly dismissed if not timely filed. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Testimony in rebuttal permitted through timely answer not filed. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Void and not merely voidable if not timely filed. Buchanan v. Juah, 17:79.

APPEAL BONDS.

Adequacy of, not bound by rule of thumb of one and one half times amount sued for. West African Trading Corporation v. Alraine (Liberia) Ltd., 24:224.

Adequacy of where additional consequential damages not alleged. Talawaly v. McGee (Chambers), 20:665.

Amount, when inadequate. Thompson v. George, 26:239.

Amount discrepancy not material where actual amount sufficient to reimburse appellee. McGill v. Mobil Oil Liberia, Inc., 26:68.

Amount of penalty, fixing of, sole responsibility of trial judge. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:443.

Amount to be clearly indicated by approving judge. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:27.

Application to correct after motion to dismiss for deficiency. Jackson v. Eastman-Mason, 21:216.

Approval by a judge regularly sitting or assigned other than "trial judge," proper. King Peter's Heirs v. Gigger, 27:287.

Approval of. Tarawallay v. Kawah, 19:403.

Arithmetical computation of. Estime v. Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 19:485.

Assessed valuation of real property, when adequately stated apart from affidavit. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 23:201.

Attorney-in-fact signing for surety sufficient although not disclosed on bond. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:27.

Bank certificate as security for cash bond, cashier's or manager's bank check as equivalent. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:443.

Certificate from Bureau of Internal Revenues, failure to submit. K. Resamny Bros. v. Bruent, 20:3; Baky v. Nah, 20:38.

Certificate from Bureau of Internal Revenues, lack of. Kamara v. Khalill Niam Bros., 21:402.

Certificate of valuation, failure to file. Brown v. Grandee, 21:157; Abraham v. Cooper, 21:157.

Certified check as security for. Wilson v. Wilson, 24:534.

Civil Procedure Law, requirements after publication of. Karney v. Dagadu, 20:79.

Consent of surety improperly obtained, procedure. Francis v. Mesurado Fishing Company, Ltd., 20:542.

Correct chain of appeal essential. Hodge v. H. Abraham Co., 19:81.

Counsel's signing of, disapproved. Leigh v. Bank of Monrovia, 22:360.

Counsel's signing of, not grounds for dismissal. Leigh v. Bank of Monrovia, 22:360.

Court, proper, for motion to correct. Jackson v. Eastman-Mason, 21:216.

Courts not of record, requirements on appeal from. Tubman v. Laquoi, 22:479.

Decedent's real property offered by administratrix, acceptable as security. Mines Management Associates v. Freeman, 27:297.

Defect as ground for dismissal. Talery v. Wesley, 21:116.

Defect as ground for dismissal when motion papers unstamped. Kamara v. Khalill Niam Bros., 21:402.

Defective bond. Bull v. Lartey, 18:208.

Defects on face. Talery v. Wesley, 21:116.

Description of property pledged, absolute statutory requirement. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:180.

Description of property pledged, sufficiency of. Kerpai v. Kpene, 25:422.

Description of property pledged, establishment by extrinsic factors when vague. Zayzay v. Jallah, 24:486.

Description of property pledged requires lot number and metes and bounds of lot. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:180.

Description of real property pledged necessary in affidavit of sureties. West African Trading Corporation v. Alrine (Liberia) Ltd., 25:3.

Description of realty pledged, sufficiency of. West Africa Trading Corporation v. Alraine (Liberia) Ltd., 24:224.

Dismissal, grounds for. Jagun v. Thompson, 19:360.

Dismissal of appeal for lack of, despite appellee's nonappearance. Garteh v. Paimore, 22:51.

Encumbrances against property pledged as security, unreported officially, judicial notice of. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 21:487.

Failure and defects. Ammons v. Barclay, 18:212.

Failure to file approved bond, ground for dismissal of appeal. Marh v. Sinoe, 27:320.

Failure to name all appellees in appeal bond as rendering appeal defective. Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 23:285.

Failure to serve notice of filing is not ground for dismissal of appeal where appellee otherwise had notice. McGill v. Mobil Oil Liberia, Inc., 26:68.

Failure to timely file approved bond. Dadzie v. Dadzie, 19:7.

Forum in which to move for insufficiency. Estime v. Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 19:485.

Improper approval. Tarawallay v. Kawah, 19:403.

Incurable defects require dismissal of appeal. Everyday v. Due, 27:291.

Indemnification, amount of, required. Agip (Liberia) Corporation v. Sodatonow, 20:222.

Indemnification, burden of appellant to establish sufficiency of. Agip (Liberia) Corporation v. Sodatonow, 20:222.

Indemnification, failure to include amount of. Jackson v. Eastman-Mason, 21:216.

Indemnification in embezzlement. Koffah v. Republic, 19:479.

Indemnification in sureties; affidavit, insufficiency of. Beaver Company v. Bsaibes, 20:322.

Insufficiency, correction during pendency of appeal. Hyden v. Yates, 20:6.

Insufficiency, time limit for correcting. K. Resamny Bros. v. Brunet, 20:3; Agip (Liberia) Corporation v. Sodatonow, 20:222.

Jurisdiction of appellate court for curing defects. Agip (Liberia) Corporation v. Sodatonou, 20:105.

Mailing of to judge outside jurisdiction, additional time for approval. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Metes and bounds description not required if real property pledged is sufficiently otherwise identified. Kerpai v. Kpene, 25:422.

Metes and bounds description of property pledged, lack of as grounds for dismissal. Taylor v. Psai, 25:453; Doe v. Dent-Davies, 27:306.

Notice of filing, failure to serve. Musah v. Belor, 20:237.

Nunc pro tunc bond filing order of Supreme Court to be executed without delay even though no date specified for completion. Marcars Construction Company, Inc. v. K & H Trading Company, 26:108.

Omission of "heirs, executors, administrators and assigns" as obligors not a defect. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonah, 25:360.

Ownership of pledged property not precise, bond defective. Jarboe v. Jarboe, 24:352.

Pledge of sureties to appellee required. Hodge v. H. Abraham Co., 19:81.

Procedure. Glapoh v. Bolado, 19:352.

Purpose. Kerpai v. Kpene, 25:422.

Real property, criteria when used as security. Mines Management Associates v. Freeman, 27:297.

Registration of surety's real property required. Good-Wesley v. Porte, 19:70.

Remedying defects. Bull v. Lartey, 18:208.

Requirements for adequacy. Cooper v. C.V.A.O., 20:397; Sirleaf v. Reeves, 20:433.

Requirements for sureties. Estime v. Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 19:485.

Requirements for validity. Fumbah v. Karbeh, 19:423.

Requirements in addition, filing of. Jarboe v. Jarboe, 24:352.

Requisites for. Karneh v. Republic, 18:91.

Responsibility of fixing amount. Estime v. Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 19:485.

Revenue stamp, effect when no. K. Rasamny Bros. v. Brunet, 21:271.

Revenue stamp, failure by clerk to note affixing. Payne v. Dingwall, 20:21.

Revenue stamp, no requirement for. Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp., 21:252.

Signature of multiple parties, requirement for. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

Statutory requirements to be strictly adhered to. Gabbidon v. Toe, 23:43.

Sufficiency at later stage of appeal, appellee not estopped from questioning. Thompson v. George, 26:239.

Sufficiency of, burden on appellee to negate. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:443.

Sufficiency when only one surety has sufficient property to indemnify. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:27.

Sureties, certificate of property owned by. Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Sureties, discharge for appellant's involuntary nonappearance. Ali v. Republic, 20:90.

Sureties, exceptions to, time of taking. Jarboe v. Jarboe, 24:352.

Sureties, failure of, to submit affidavit. K. Resamny Bros. v. Brunet, 20:3; Darame v. West Africa Trading Corporation, 20:74; Dennis v. Dennis-Walker, 20:75.

Sureties, failure to file affidavit by. Brown v. Grandee, 21:157; Abraham v. Cooper, 21:157.

Sureties, lack of affidavit by. Baky v. Nah, 20:38; Kamara v. Khalill Niam Bros., 21:402.

Sureties, necessity for affidavit of. Issa v. Varig Airlines, 21:86; Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Sureties, requirements of affidavit regarding real property pledged as security. Gabbidon v. Toe, 23:43; Jarboe v Jarboe, 24:352.

Sureties, who may be. Agip (Liberia) Corporation v. Sodatonow, 20:222.

Sureties, unsupported by affidavit of. K. Resamny Bros. v. Brunet, 21:271.

Sureties not qualified, dismissal of appeal when. Ghandour Brothers, Inc. v. Brockwoldt & Company, Ltd., 20:34.

Time limit within which appellant may secure approval of a valid appeal bond. Thompson v. George, 26:239.

Use of "penalty" instead of "indemnification" as ground for dismissal. Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 23:285.

Waiver of defect by failure to make timely objection. Kerpai v. Kpene, 25:422.

APPEALS, see also Actions; Appeal Bonds; Attachments; Attorneys and Counselors; Bill of Exceptions; Bills of Exceptions; Bonds; Certiorari; Clerks of Courts; Constables; Costs; Constitution; Contempt of Court; Courts; Customary Law; Divorce; Ejectment; Injunctions; Judgments; Justices of the Peace; Labor Courts; Laches; Limitations of Actions; Magistrates; Motions; New Trials; Probate Courts; Reargument; Rearguments and Rehearings; Replevin; Republic of Liberia; Restitution; Revenue Stamps; Sheriffs; Supersedeas; Supreme Court; Trials; Venue; Verdicts; Writs of Error.

Abandonment by appellants' counsel. Kent v. Republic, 6:50; Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446; Gissi v. Republic, 13:6; Jarrett v. Republic, 16:56.

Acknowledgment of service of notice of appeal sufficient proof without sheriff's return. Karneh v. Republic, 17:639.

Acknowledgment of untimely service not waiver of appellee's right to move for dismissal. Toure v. Fahs, 15:252.

Additional documents for record on appeal not recognized without motion for diminution. Bull v. Lartey, 17:367.

Affidavits in record. Brohm v. Grant, 1:509.

Affidavit necessary to support showing of fact on motion to dismiss. Haid v. Ebric, 17:215.

Affirmation of judgment, basis for. Wrogbe v. Joe, 20:206.

Affirmation of judgment of conviction, Supreme Court basis for. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Agreement of parties for remand. Mourad v. Varela, 18:271.

Announcement of at time of rendition of judgment absolute requirement and cannot be subsequently noted on record by court. Dennis v. Saadeh, 27:301.

Announcement of taking of, procedure when counsel not present. Gabbidon v. Flomo, 26:214.

Appearance and appeal bonds not both required in criminal case. Ex parte Prout, 3:39.

Appearance bond. Approval by trial court no bar to contest of sufficiency. Manheimer v. Fuller, 1:211.

Appellee's procuring premature transmittal of record not ground for continuance. Nah v. Nah, 17:357.

Application for reargument may be by motion or petition. Lartey v. Corneh, 18:177.

Attempt to cure omissions. Gaddini v. Iskander El Habr, 19:407.

Attorney, disciplinary proceedings against, as appellant procedure. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Bill of exceptions, counts not given consideration unless grounds set forth. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Bill of exceptions. Dismissal of appeal for failure to file. Yates v. McGill Brothers, 1:2; Anderson v. Dennis, 1:505; King v. King, 7:301; Kennedy v. Pearson, 8:132; Brooks v. Republic, 11:3; Smythe v. Mends-Cole, 13:81; Benson v. Togba, 13:345; Wright v. Richards, 13:451; Findley v. Republic, 13:538; Morris v. Jebbah, 15:278; Neah v. Republic, 15:280; Webster v. Freeman, 16:44, 209.

Bill of exceptions. Exceptions not included deemed waived. Torkor v. Republic, 6:88; Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Bill of exceptions, exceptions not included in waived. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Bill of exceptions, foundation of. Yates v. McGill Brothers, 1:2; Anderson v. McLain, 1:44; Anderson v. Dennis, 1:55; Johnson v. Powell, 4:221; Urey v. Republic, 5:120.

Bill of exceptions, foundation of review by Supreme Court. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

Bill of exceptions, improper approval of by trial judge. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Bill of exceptions. Limitation to exceptions stated. Torkor v. Republic, 6:88; Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Bill of exceptions. Nature of required contents. Anderson v. McLain, 1:44.

Bill of exceptions, point not included in deemed waived. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Bill of exceptions must be timely filed. Coleman v. Republic, 18:70.

Bill of exceptions need not state points relied on. Gray v. Kolloh, 10:313.

Bill of exceptions not required to be in any form. Cole v. Williams, 10:191.

Bill of particulars. Failure to supply cannot be raised for first time on. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Bond approved nunc pro tunc. Smith v. Republic, 7:205.

Bond cannot be signed by former circuit judge after elevation to Supreme Court. Roberts v. Republic, 13:413.

Bond. Clerk's failure to transmit copy not ground for dismissal. Jackson v. Duncan, 10:482.

Bond. Defect not ground for dismissal when due to act or omission of magistrate or justice of peace. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376; Carr v. Republic, 9:416.

Bond defective for absence of adequate indemnification clause. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376; Morris v. Republic, 4:369; Blebo v. Republic, 7:33; Mingle v. Richards, 11:323; Nassre v. Cooper-Kandakai, 12:26; Tee v. Chea, 12:157; Cole v. Peabody, 13:252; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:229, 343; McBourough v. Nimley, 15:366; Niumo v. Freeman, 15:517; Jalaiba v. Republic, 15:595.

Bond defective for failure to name two qualified sureties. Cavalla River Co. v. Fazzah, 7:13.

Bond defective for omission of appellant's signature. McBurrough v. Republic, 1:385.

Bond defective for omission of guarantee of compliance with judgment of appellate court. Beysolow v. Gibson, 8:79.

Bond defectiveness not ground for dismissal in habeas corpus proceeding. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Bond. Dismissal for failure to file adequate approved appeal bond in statutory time. Johnson v. Roberts, 1:8; Morris v. Gatlin, 1:252; Dennis v. Republic, 1:323; McBurrough v. Republic, 1:385; Melton v. Republic, 4:115; Morris v. Republic, 4:125; Delaney v. Republic, 4:251; Caulker v. Republic, 5:145; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Wright v. Wright, 6:229; Sandfish v. James, 6:235; King v. King, 7:301; Dennis v. Republic, 7:232; Patten v. Republic, 7:397; Van Ee v. Republic, 7:397; Fazzah v. Karbar, 8:56; Ammons v. Republic, 9:413; Liberty v. Republic, 9:437; Anderson v. Anderson, 10:108; Coleman v. Barclay, 10:108; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65; Teah v. Republic, 11:295; Mingle v. Richards, 11:323; Fraser v. Beysolow, 11:327; Tee v. Chea, 12:157; Salawo v. Republic, 12:258; Mardea v. Republic, 12:289; James v. Wright, 12:397; Smythe v. Mends-Cole, 13:81; Jallah v. Miller, 13:88; Horace v. Howard, 13:200; Morris b. Brown, 13:249; Cole v. Peabody, 13:252; Benson v. Togba, 13:345; Tarpeh v. Republic, 13:383; Findley v. Republic, 13:538; Schulman-Hatfield-Marson-Gens v. Corneh, 15:57; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:229, 243; McBourough v. Nimley, 15:366; Niumo v. Freeman, 15:517; Jalaiba v. Republic, 15:595; Sauid v. Gebara, 15:598.

Bond. Essential and nonessential elements defined. Smith v. Page, 10:361.

Bond invalid when approved by officer other than trial judge. Russ v. Republic, 5:189.

Bond. Lack of specific amount of indemnification not cured by lower court's subsequent action. McBourough v. Nimley, 15:366.

Bond need not state date of approval. Russ v. Republic, 5:189.

Bond not defective for insufficiency of indemnification when property bonded is in possession of Curator of Interstate Estates. Wright v. Richards, 11:386.

Bond not required in appeal by Republic. Republic v. Collins, 13:457.

Bond not required in capital case. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383.

Bond. Omission of indemnity clause in bond written by justice of peace not ground for dismissal. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376.

Bond. One surety sufficient where financial responsibility adequate. Dennis v. Holder, 10:301; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65.

Bond. Purpose defined. Dennis v. Holder, 10:301.

Bond requires sufficient revenue stamp. Moore v. Gross, 2:45; Greaves v. Johnstone, 2:121; Freeman v. Republic, 2:189; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Sandfish v. James, 7:235; Leigh v. Taylor, 9:329; Wright v. Richards, 11:386; Richards v. Holt, 12:292; Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Bond. Substitution of other circuit judge to sign, where trial judge unable. Roberts v. Republic, 13:413.

Bond. Trial court may insert amount of penalty. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:356.

Bond. Untimely approval a fatal jurisdictional defect although presented to trial judge within statutory time and judge mistakenly notified clerk of timely approval. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Bond. Untimely filing not ground for dismissal where appellant not at fault and appellee not prejudiced. Duncan v. Perry, 13:210.

Bond without revenue stamp not incurably defective where clerk of court below certified stamp was originally affixed. Wright v. Richards, 11:386.

Capital offense, representation of defendant inadequate. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Certification of records to court. Furkpeh v. Republic, 19:3.

Civil Procedure Law, proper procedure on appeals taken prior to new. Vito v. Formusa, 20:94.

Civil Procedure Law, requirement for compliance with new. Duaryennah v. Tuning, 20:82.

Clerical failure to timely transmit record, nondismissal of. Tubman v. Laquoi, 21:519.

Clouded issues remanded. Goba v. Dennis, 19:459.

Condition may be attached on granting appeal from ruling in chambers. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

Constitutional issues to be reserved for appellate review. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Contempt of lower court may be punished by appellate court after withdrawal of. International Trust Company of Liberia v. Weah, 15:568.

Correction of attorney's errors. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Costs. Failure to pay additional not ground for dismissal. Richards v. Coleman, 3:401.

Costs. Payment as prerequisite to. Thompson v. Bacon, 1:299; Jackson & Co. v. Summerville, 1:339; Farphiny v. McCarey, 2:50; Warner v. Sodjie, 2:424; Sims v. West & Co., 3:355; Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Sandfish v. James, 6:235.

Costs. Payment as waiver of right to. Liberia Trading Corp. v. Abi-Jaoudi, 14:43.

Costs taxed to losing party not recoverable although party successful on retrial. Henrichsen v. Moore, 7:120.

Costs when Republic is a party. Coleman v. Crawford, 19:29.

Counsel or party, deputizing other counsel to announce appeal in absence of. B.F. Goodrich, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 23:251.

Courts not of record, appeal bond on. Tubman v. Laquoi, 22:479.

Courts not of record, right of appellate court at trial de novo to consider motion to dismiss. Tubman v. Laquoi, 22:479.

Criminal, by Republic. Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Criminal, dismissed on formal abandonment by defendant's counsel. Kent v. Republic, 6:47; Gissi v. Republic, 13:6; Jarrett v. Republic, 16:56.

Criminal. Entire record reviewable on capital offense. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Criminal; failure to move for new trial no bar. Flomo v. Republic, 26:51.

Criminal. Insufficiency of proof a ground for reversal of conviction. Ali v. Republic, 13:125.

Criminal. Notice of completion not required. Republic v. Jones, 10:379; Watts v. Republic, 10:403.

Criminal. Objection to territorial jurisdiction in criminal prosecution must be made prior to appeal. George v. Republic, 14:339.

Criminal. Reversal of conviction of murder on State's stipulation of insufficiency of evidence. Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Criminal; variance between pleading and proof, when substantial or material, calls for reversal of conviction. Flomo v. Republic, 26:51.

Default in argument. Simonovitch v. Liberia Construction Corp., 18:289.

Default judgment in justice of peace court; appeal from. Bouhadir v. Day-You-Gar, 15:328.

Defense not pleaded cannot be asserted. Nah v. Nah, 18:195.

Diligence in documentation of argument. Cummings v. Hughes, 19:18.

Discharge of convicted defendant proper without further trial. Otto v. Republic, 17:186.

Dismissal, delay in transmission of record as ground for. Tarpeh v. Kru, 21:62.

Dismissal, failure of trial judge to approve appeal bond not a ground when bond filed is approved by another appropriate judge. King Peter's Heirs v. Gigger, 27:287.

Dismissal, failure to conform to requirements. Buchanan v. Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 20:622.

Dismissal, failure to timely file approved bill of exceptions, post appeal bond, or serve notice of completion of appeal as grounds for. Vamply of Liberia v. Manning, 25:188.

Dismissal, grounds for. Bedell v. Bedell, 20:92; Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp., 21:252.

Dismissal, motion for diminution of record preceding motion for. Payne v. Dingwall, 20:21.

Dismissal, nontechnical nature of new statute relating to, attributed as intention of Legislature. Kerpai v. Kpene, 25:422.

Dismissal because of defective appeal bond. Talery v. Wesley, 21:116.

Dismissal for absence of lower court's signature on bill of exceptions. Anderson v. Dennis, 1:55.

Dismissal for defects despite nonappearance of appellee. Garteh v. Paimore, 22:51.

Dismissal for failure to file approved bond. Mahr v. Sinoe, 27:320.

Dismissal for failure to timely file bill of exceptions. Johnson v. Banco DaBahia, S.A., 21:441.

Dismissal for late filing or other legal defects prohibits appellate court from passing on any issues raised on appeal. British Independent Preparatory School v. Weegee, 27:3.

Dismissal restricted to statutory grounds. George v. Republic, 14:158; Cess-Pelham v. Republic, 14:161; Urey-Holder v. Dennis, 14:168; Sillah v. Republic, 14:192; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:212; Cooper v. Brapoh, 16:297.

Dismissal when judgment not announced or perfected. Russel v. Nah, 21:515.

Dismissal where appeal bond incurably defective. Everyday v. Due, 27:291.

Dismissed for failure to complete notice of appeal within statutory time. Walsh Construction Co. v. Klat, 17:384.

Dismissed for failure to file appeal bond and serve notice. Duncan v. Wreh, 17:628.

Dismissed for not fulfilling statutory requisites. Dennis v. Republic, 17:396.

Dismissed if appeal bond defective and defect not corrected. Bull v. Lartey, 17:367.

Dismissed when appeal bond defective for lack of signature by appellant. Nagbe v. Republic, 17:656.

Dismissed when timely notice of appeal not served. Emerson v. Bro-Krah, 17:598.

Dismissed where variance between matter appealed and subject of the judgment. Bryant v. Republic, 17:643.

Divorce action. Appeal not abated by appellee's death. Buchanan v. Buchanan, 15:477.

Document, remand because of missing. Mohammed v. Matter, 20:232.

Error of clerk, attribution to appellant of. Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp., 21:252.

Error of clerk, non-prejudicial effect of. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Error of clerk, when not attributable to appellee. National Iron Ore, Ltd., v. Board of General Appeals, 25:438.

Errors in court below, as relief for correcting. Gaiguae v. Jallah, 20:163.

Errors not mentioned in bill of exceptions reviewable in criminal appeal on capital offense. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Evidence, lack of, as ground for appellate court's refusal to uphold decision of administrative agency hearing board. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Bolo, 27:358.

Exception, urging on appeal a ground not presented to lower court by objection and. Hunter v. Hunter, 22:87.

Exception regarding occurrence during trial not appearing in trial record. Collins v. Republic, 21:366.

Exception to bar on piecemeal review. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 19:197.

Exception to formality. Tay v. Teh, 18:310.

Exception to ruling of inferior court is correct preliminary step to confer appellate jurisdiction. Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234.

Exceptions must be taken at trial below for issues to be reviewed. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Exceptions properly taken, consideration by appellate court when. Tenteh v. Republic, 20:197.

Exceptions to treatment of motions for Reargument. Lartey v. Corneh, 18:365.

Excessive verdicts. Kassabli v. Cole, 19:294.

Excusable failure to complete. Logan v. Meyer, 2:200; Duncan v. Perry, 13:210; Williams v. Republic, 14:602.

Expiration of 60-day completion period before commencement of next term. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:103.

Extent of appellate court's jurisdiction. Zangbah v. Republic, 4:140.

Failure of counsel for appellee to appear for argument does not foreclose appellant's argument. Marty v. Republic, 18:3.

Failure of party to file submission at the time of circuit court's disregard of Justice's mandate of priority of trial deemed waiver of protest. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:45.

Failure to announce taking of appeal. Issa v. Varig Airlines, 21:86.

Failure to appeal from decision or judgment, appellate court without power to decide case. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Bolo, 27:358.

Failure to object to proper joinder of parties bars contention. Liberian Air Taxi, Inc. v. Meissner, 18:40.

Failure to pay filing fee in lower court not amounting to abandonment. Liberian Mining Co. v. Swannah, 18:29.

Failure to perfect in time, dismissal of. Kiawu v. Sombai, 23:27.

Failure to serve copy of motion for new trial not ground for dismissal. Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 10:38.

Failure to serve notice of completion. King v. Morris, 19:306; Connell v. Morris, 19:136.

Failure to specify grounds for overruling objection to immaterial question not reversible error. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Failure to take, effect on subsequent proceeding re execution against respondent for costs. Harris v. Harris, 9:338.

Failure to timely file bill of exceptions. Furkpeh v. Republic, 19:3.

Filing of bill of exceptions without completing other requirements, ground for dismissal of. Karpeh v. Fisher, 23:91.

Finality in lower court, requirement of. Hunter v. Hunter, 22:87.

Governor of Krootown; appeal from. Teah v. Teetee, 3:407.

Grievance and Ethics Committee, right of, to review acts of judge. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Gross negligence in supervision of. Davis v. Gibson, 19:50.

Grounds for dismissal. Dondo v. Republic, 17:332.

Grounds for dismissal enumerated in statute exclusive. Bright v. Sawmill, 17:138; Yancy v. Republic, 17:674.

Hearing ex parte where appellee fails to appear. Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Horace v. Howard, 13:200; Johnson v. Dorsla, 13:378; Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:408.

Illegal for lower court to implement ruling appealed from. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Indemnification clause in bond not required in criminal case. Ross v. Republic, 1:249; Watts v. Republic, 10:403.

Indemnification not indispensable in criminal case. Ross v. Republic, 1:249; Watts v. Republic, 10:403; Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

In injunction cases dismissible when reinstitution of injunction futile. Brackoldt & Co. (Liberia), Ltd. v. Bitter & Fadl, 14:3.

In the absence of grounds for dismissal. Simonovitch v. Liberian Construction Co., 19:299.

In substantial error. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Insubstantial irregularities in criminal proceedings. Dennis v. Republic, 19:318.

Interlocutory decisions nonappealable. Minus v. Crayton, 1:73; Cooper v. McGill & Bros., 1:93; Williams v. McGill & Bros., 1:96; Tuning v. Morel, 1:235; Robertson v. Morgan, 9:71; Ketter v. Dennis, 12:353; Bonner v. Bank of Monrovia, 22:392.

Interlocutory judgment not basis for. Kru v. Tarpeh, 19:472.

Interlocutory ruling implementing final judgment, no appeal lies. Acolatse v. Chase Manhattan Bank, 23:14; MacCarthy v. Gray, 23:142.

Interlocutory ruling not appealable to Supreme Court. Twe v. Patterson, 17:94.

Invalid attempt to correct notice of completion. Furman v. Griffiths, 19:433.

Irregularity not noticed in lower court. Varne v. Republic, 1:242.

Issues improperly raised or belatedly presented will not be adjudicated. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Issues not raised during trial as reviewable on appeal. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Issues of law before issues of fact, failure of trial judge to determine, as reversible error. Bank of Monrovia v. Massoud, 22:199.

Issues of law not raised in trial court cannot be raised on. Johns v. Republic, 13:143.

Issues of law raised for first time not passed upon. Lartey v. Hunter, 17:432.

Judge of inferior court as true defendant. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Judgment of inferior court must be filed for transmittal. Webbe v. Parhat, 5:292.

Judgment of trial court enforced when default on completed appeal. Kloose v. Sandy, 17:400.

Judgment settle by compromise cannot be appealed. Johnson v. Powell, 4:221.

Judgment which should have been rendered by lower court may be rendered on. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52; Simpson v. Caranda, 13:121; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

Judgments will not be lightly reversed. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 18:57.

Jurisdiction, lack of, court can on its own motion dismiss case. Marh v. Sinoe, 27:320.

Jurisdiction of Supreme Court to adjudicate issues on appeal divested when motion to dismiss is meritorious. Mines Management Associates v. Freeman, 27:297.

Jurisdiction of trial court, time of cessation of. Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Jurisdictional requisites for civil and criminal basically identical. Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Justice of peace court. Appeal from, must be heard de novo. Lamine v. Futeh, 2:464; Jackson v. Saturday, 13:31.

Justice of peace court. Appeal from, to circuit court. Huber v. Vines, 2:186; Watson v. Kromah, 4:147; Deady v. Republic, 8:256; Peter v. Onanuga, 16:102; Fahnbulleh v. Anthony, 16:118.

Labor courts. Appeals from, governed by same principles as justice of peace courts. Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Laches in taking, effect on application for mandamus. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:221.

Lack of jurisdiction over subject matter by lower court constitutes ground for dismissal of case by appellate court even if not raised in pleadings. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Lack of supporting affidavit on motion for new trial not ground for dismissal. Yancy v. Republic, 17:674.

Lateness in transmitting record as grounds for dismissal of. Tubman v. Laquoi, 21:519.

Letter to justice after appeal decided as. In re Bestman et al., 20:567.

Limits of credibility. Dowayee v. Konneh, 19:330.

Lower court clerical errors in record. Cummings v. Hughes, 18:250.

Lower court's clerical failure to timely transmit record. Freeman v. Cooper, 19:9.

Mailing of required documents within time allowed, presumption of timeliness. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Mandamus remedy when judge refuses to approve. Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172; Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405.

Maxim of legality. Fumbah v. Karbeh, 19:423.

Method of taking. Wodawodey v. Kartiehn, 4:102.

Modification of judgment in general. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

Motion attacking trial court's jurisdiction, priority in considering. Richards v. The Commercial Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:349.

Motion for continuance. Denial appealable. Harris v. Harris, 9:344.

Motion for diminution of record denied when papers not part of record in the case. Nah v. Nah, 17:559.

Motion for new trial required absent any issue of law on criminal appeal. Koffah v. Republic, 6:336; Brown v. Republic, 14:437.

Motion for new trial unnecessary as prerequisite to appeal in ejectment action. Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:376; Karnga v. Williams, 10:10.

Motion for relief from judgment not a substitute for appeal. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

Motion to dismiss, basis for, when appeal bond defective. Kamara v. Khalill Niam Bros., 21:402.

Motion to dismiss, second. Woniwalla v. Sengbe, 21:153.

Motion to dismiss appeal defective on face. K. Rasamny Bros. v. Brunet, 21:271.

Motion to dismiss by appellant where steps required for appeal have been taken. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:37.

Motion to dismiss denied when record insufficient to determine if well founded. Konneh v. Kamara, 17:248.

Motion to dismiss denied where defect in notice of appeal technical and notice served and returned. Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:147.

Motion to dismiss denied where venue in bill of exceptions laid in Supreme Court and not in circuit court. Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 8:296; Johns v. Cess Pelham, 8:296.

Motion to dismiss for failure to file bond may be made at any time. Liberty v. Republic, 9:437.

Motion to dismiss for nonappearance of appellant, denied as untimely. Thompson v. Republic, 9:123.

Motion to enforce judgment when appeal not perfected. Davies v. Puo, 20:84.

Motion to jurisdiction does not submit moving party to jurisdiction of court. Buchanan v. Arrivets, 9:15.

Motion to remand on ground of newly discovered evidence. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:37.

Need for certified record. Connell v. Morris, 19:136.

Neglect of clerk not sufficient to excuse failure to serve notice of completion. Cole v. Larmi, 25:450.

Negligence in conducting appeal. Koffuah v. Abouah, 19:214.

New trial, necessity for motion for. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:319.

New trial, ruling on motion for, not appealable. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:24.

No hearing for appeal based upon crime charged when convicted for another crime. Bryant v. Republic, 17:643.

Nonappearance at call of case, effect of involuntary. Ali v. Republic, 20:90.

Nonappearance of appellant ground for dismissal. Pearson v. Turner, 2:8; Johnson v. Republic, 3:19; Gross v. Republic, 4:123; Mannah v. Republic, 4:366; Morris v. Republic, 4:369; Sesay v. Republic, 12:255; Cole v. Peabody, 13:252; Nassar v. Dennis, 13:387; Wilson v. Republic, 13:397; Johns v. Republic, 13:440; Mends-Cole v. Weeks, 13:525; Picot v. Cardona, 14.328; Mends-Cole v. Deshields, 14:521; Picout v. DiGrado, 15:13; Dennis v. Brandt, Willig & Co., 15:250; Buchanan v. Ratazzi, 16:100.

Nonappearance of appellee ground of judgment for default for appellant. Pratt v. Andrews, 2:349; West & Co. v. Marbu, 3:250.

Not dismissed for failure to file bill of exceptions when timely filing proved. Weah v. Republic, 17:622.

Notice. May be directed to and issued by sheriff. Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231; Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; George v. Republic, 14:158; Cess-Pelham v. Republic, 14:161; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:212.

Notice of. Clerical error in naming judge not ground for dismissal. Cooper v. Brapoh, 16:297.

Notice of. Defective where neither issued by clerk nor directed to appellee. Bestman v. Republic, 13:360.

Notice of. Defective where term not specified. Tuan v. Republic, 13:3.

Notice of. Dismissal for failure to serve proper notice and file return in statutory time. McAuley v. Laland, 1:254; Jackson & Co. v. Summerville, 1:339; Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Lartey v. Lartey, 8:194; Buchanan v. Arrivets, 9:15; Brooks v. Republic, 11:3; Tee v. Chea, 12:157; Samuels v. Samuels, 12:193; Dennis-Walker v. Dennis, 12:279; Harris v. Nippae, 12:399; Tuan v. Republic, 13:3; Where v. Korkor, 13:8; Jallah v. Miller, 13:88; Greenfield v. Republic, 13:205; Bestman v. Republic, 13:360; Nancy v. Curry, 14:152; Whitfield v. Saab, 14:175; Caranda v. Richards, 14:294; Tucker v. O'Cornor, 14:328; Johnson v. Gibson,15:283; Roberts v. Brown, 15:415; Whea v. Bonwein, 16:51; Hannah v. Seaz, 16:84; Johnson v. Republic, 16:87.

Notice of. Failure to file certified copy not grounds for dismissal. Saleeby Bros. v. Bright, 16:250.

Notice of. Failure to serve not ground for dismissal where due to error of clerk under exceptional circumstances. Williams v. Republic, 14:602.

Notice of. Manner of service a jurisdictional question. Adai v. Jackson, 2:171.

Notice of. May be served on counsel for appellee where appellee could not be served personally. Wright v. Tay, 12:189.

Notice of. Need not expressly demand that appellee appear and defend. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:103.

Notice of. Return by constable improper. Johnson v. Gibson, 15:283.

Notice of. Service and return confer jurisdiction on appellate court. Johnson v. Roberts, 1:8; McAuley v. Laland, 1:254; Moore v. Gross, 2:45; Greaves v. Johnstone, 2:121; Morris v. Republic, 4:125; Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231; Mardea v. Republic, 12:289; Jones v. Republic, 12:297; Harris v. Nippal, 12:399; Tuan v. Republic, 13:3; Witherspoon v. Clarke, 14:194; Williams v. Republic, 14:290.

Notice of. Valid without clause commanding sheriff to summon appellee. Bokai v. Republic, 13:299.

Notice of. Variance in direction not ground for dismissal. Urey-Holder v. Dennis, 14:168.

Notice of appeal, failure to include all appellees in, as rendering appeal defective. Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 23:285.

Notice of certified record conclusive as to return. Thompson v. Republic, 14:290.

Notice of completion, dismissal for failure to serve. Taylor v. Psai, 25:453.

Notice of completion, dismissal for failure to serve and file. Marh v. Sinoe, 27:320.

Notice of completion, failure to serve. Sodatonou v. Agip (Liberia) Corporation, 20:316; Cooper v. C.V.A.O., 20:397.

Notice of completion, failure to serve ground for dismissal even though due to neglect of clerk. Cole v. Larmi, 25:450.

Notice of completion, general rule for issuance and completion of. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Notice of completion, service of by sheriff, rather than appellant sufficient. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:443.

Notice of completion, sole responsibility of clerk. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Notice of completion, timely issuance of jurisdictional. Bility v. Sirleaf, 25:319.

Notice of completion of, effect of untimely service. Bedell v. Bedell, 20:484.

Objections to an appellate judge, when made. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Omissions of clerical personnel. Connell v. Morris, 19:136.

Parties in lower court not necessary parties to. Weeks v. Ketter, 13:223.

Payment to attorney to take appeal for poor person. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Points not raised in bill of exceptions not considered. Jackson v. Trinity, 17:631.

Points of law must be expressly raised by appellant. Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Power of appellate court to examine decisions of inferior court. Attia v. Rigly, 2:9; White v. Russell, 3:198.

Powers of appellate court with respect to decisions and judgments duly appealed from. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Bolo, 27:358.

Powers of Supreme Court with respect to judgments appealed from. Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Preference on docket. Pratt v. Phillips, 7:218.

Presumption that trial court acted correctly. Hunter v. Hunter, 22:87.

Procedural issues, disposition of cases on substantive rather than. Kamara v. Khalill Niam Bros., 21:402.

Procedural omissions as grounds for dismissing. Liberian Mining Co. v. Swannah, 18:29.

Procedural violations not cured by court when basic. Sirleaf v. Reeves, 20:433.

Procedure, application of new statute regulating. K. Resamny Bros. v. Brunet, 20:3.

Procedure after publication of new Civil Procedure Law. Karney v. Dagadu, 20:79.

Procedure explained. Bucamil v. Watson, 5:268; Toomey v. Peabody, 5:271.

Procedure for obtaining approval of trial court. Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172.

Proper procedure when assigned circuit judge's jurisdiction has expired and judicial act for appeal required. Hassen & Soehne, Ltd. v. Tuning, 17:298.

Protection of interests in. Gaddini v. Iskander El Habr, 19:407.

Raising same issues as information for contempt. Dweh v. Morris, 17:410.

Reargument, basis for in Supreme Court. Dabba v. Dabo, 23:207.

Record, actual verdict and not statement thereof in another paper, is essential document. Bolado v. Cooper, 27:25.

Record. Appellee's duty to aid transmittal. Bey-Solow v. Gordon, 2:95.

Record. Basis of appellate review where bill of exceptions insufficient. Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Record. Certified copy required. Hulsmann v. Johnson, 2:20; Dennis v. Republic, 6:56; Richards v. McGill, 6:56.

Record, certified, contents absolute as to matters contained therein. Donzoe v. Thorpe, 27:166.

Record. Clerical error in transcription not ground for dismissal. Page v. Jackson, 2:47.

Record, cognizance by appellate court of matters in. Gaiguae v. Jallah, 20:163.

Record, cognizance by appellate court only of. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413.

Record, cognizance by court only of matter in. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Record, cognizance by Supreme Court only of matters certified in. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Record conclusive as to return of notice. Thompson v. Republic, 14:290.

Record, consideration by court of facts not appearing in. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Record. Correction of. Richard v. Coleman, 5:56.

Record, court may during hearing of case take steps to have record completed. Bolado v. Cooper, 27:25.

Record. Diminution of. Vietor & Huber v. Vines, 2:146; Cooper v. Brapoh, 16:297.

Record. Dismissal of appeal for failure to transmit complete record within statutory time. Johnson v. Roberts, 1:8; Marrschalk v. Republic, 1:27; Ross v. Minus, 1:208; Woerman v. Brumskin, 1:300; East African Co. v. Brumskin, 1:302; Jackson & Co. v. Summerville, 1:339; Baker v. Morris, 10:187; Karnga v. Williams, 11:299; Tabar v. Sea-Never-Dry, 12:295; Francis v. Anderson, 12:315.

Record. Dismissal of appeal for noncertification of record by clerk. Ross v. Republic, 1:249.

Record. Duty of appellant to superintend preparation. Ammons v. Republic, 9:413; Woniwalla v. Sengbe, 21:153; National Iron Ore, Ltd. v. Board of General Appeals, 25:438; Cole v. Larmi, 25:450.

Record. Duty of clerk of lower court to transmit. Jackson v. Duncan, 10:428; Williams v. Republic, 14:602.

Record. Effect of documents not found in. Henrichsen v. Moore, 5:60.

Record. Entire, should be forwarded to appellate court. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Record, failure of clerk to forward on time not attributable to diligent appellant. Kpene v. Kerpai, 25:322.

Record. Failure to file or pay for preparation, tantamount to abandonment of appeal. Dayrell v. Thomas, 11:98.

Record. Falsification by clerk and sheriff. Whea v. Bonwein.

Record, falsification of. Wolo v. Samobollah, 21:22.

Record. Fee for preparation not chargeable as costs. Dayrell v. Thomas, 11:98.

Record. Judgement appealed from must be included. Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172.

Record. Material errors and omissions ground for dismissal. Moore v. Gross, 2:45.

Record. Matters properly of record cognizable only be reference to face of record. Hulsmann v. Johnson, 2:20; Elliott v. Dent, 3:111; Davidson v. Worrell, 3:362; Karnga v. Williams, 11:299; Franco Liberian Transport Co. v. Bettie, 13:318; Freeman v. Webster, 14:493.

Record, motion for diminution, time when made. Bolado v. Cooper, 27:25.

Record must include all rulings requested to be reduced to writing. Webbe v. Parhat, 5:292.

Record must include evidence heard at trial. Johnson v. Roberts, 1:8; Faber v. Republic, 3:69; Williams v. Karnga, 3:234.

Record must support exceptions. Richards v. Coleman, 5:56.

Record on appeal must be complete for case to be heard. Bolado v. Cooper, 27:25.

Record on appeal must be regular and in order for case to be heard. Bolado v. Cooper, 25:414.

Record. Procedure for questioning correctness. Cooper v. Brapoh, 16:297.

Record, proper motion to question correctness of. Wolo v. Samobollah, 21:22.

Record, remand of case when motion for diminution cannot cure incompleteness of record. Bolado v. Cooper, 27:25.

Record. Responsibility for errors. Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76.

Record should include written statement of acts appealed from. Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172.

Record. Transcription and transmittal to appellate court. Thomas v. Dayrell-Mason, 11:429.

Release of appellant from custody after filing. Ex parte Prout, 3:39.

Relief from judgment, filing of motion for, does not toll time for announcing appeal. Stubblefield by Nasseh, 25:24.

Remand by stipulation of parties. Nasr Bros. v. Mobil Oil Liberia, Inc., 19:477.

Remand for cause upon joint request. Neufville v. Seton, 19:54.

Remand for new trial, when trial court fails to decide issues of law before trying issues of fact. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Remand of case when record is in confusion. McGill v. Mobil Oil Company, Inc., 26:135.

Remand of chambers justice's ruling ordered when original mandate disobeyed by lower court judge. Freeman v. Caine, 25:352.

Remand of ejectment action for impartial survey. Aidoo v. Jackson, 24:306.

Remand though prosecution's proof failed. Bing v. Republic, 18:377.

Remand where facts uncertain. Duncan v. Richards, 21:28; Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 21:176.

Remanded when record discloses material omissions of lower court. King v. Moore, 18:231.

Remedial writ, refusal of Justice in chambers to order issue of alternative writ on presentation of petition for. Browne v. Republic, 22:121.

Remedy to enforce change of venue in summary ejectment proceeding is appeal, not prohibition. Johns v. Howard, 12:208.

Repleading ordered on remand. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Rogers, 24:314.

Requisites, duty of appellant to superintend completion of. Studer v. Tubman, 24:151.

Responsibility of appellant. Sodatonou v. Agip (Liberia) Corporation, 20:316.

Responsibility of appellant for completion. Johnson v. Roberts, 1:8; Ross v. Minus, 1:208; Morris v. Republic, 4:125; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Sandfish v. James, 6:235; Jackson v. Jackson, 9:47; Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264; Jones v. Republic, 12:297; Where v. Korkor, 13:8; Caranda v. Richards, 13:75; Jallah v. Miller, 13:88; Duncan v. Perry, 13:210; Witherspoon v. Clarke, 14:194; Yengbe v. Porte, 15:537; Collins v. Breckwoldt and Co., 24:432.

Responsibility of appellant for performance by clerk of court. Delaney v. Republic, 4:251; Caulker v. Republic, 5:145; Russ v. Republic, 5:145; Yancy v. Republic, 5:145; Perry v. Knight, 5:276; Jackson v. Jackson, 9:47; Firestone Plantation Co. v. Greaves, 9:147; Sauid v. Gebara, 15:598; Cole v. Cole, 15:608.

Restricting argument to certified record. Cummings v. Hughes, 19:18.

Returns missing in contempt proceedings. In re Davis, 10:6.

Revenue stamp, no requirement on certain papers. Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp., 21:252.

Revenue stamps, lack of on supporting documents disregarded on motion to dismiss when jurisdictional defects were apparent from record on appeal. Mahr v. Sinoe, 27:320.

Reversal distinguished from remand for further proceedings. Wright v. Wright, 5:288.

Right of litigant to. Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405; Bracewell v. Massaquoi, 7:390; Amierable v. Cole, 13:17; Morris v. Saad, 13:135; Weeks v. Ketter, 13:223; George v. Republic, 14:158; Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313.

Right to appeal from adverse ruling. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Right when plea of guilty. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

Ruling enforcing previous ruling of predecessor, effect of. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Ruling of Justice in Chambers, procedure on appeal from. Cooper, Sr. v. Agricultural Mechanic Co. (Agrimeco), 22:210.

Ruling on double jeopardy not appealable by Republic. Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469.

Scope of appeal from ruling of Justice in chambers. Coleman v. Crawford, 19:29.

Security for appeal, bank manager's check or bank cashier's check is valid. Liberia Mining Company v. Bomi Workers Union, 25:198.

Semantic contentions, unnecessary to pass upon. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:425.

Service of notice of appeal completes appeal; appeal not dismissible for sheriff's failure to make return. Karneh v. Republic, 17:639.

Special Traffic  Court, conviction, right of. White v. Thorpe (Chambers), 20:644.

Statutory basis for dismissal. Cooper v. Republic, 19:269.

Statutory requirements of bonds on appeals from circuit and justice of peace courts not interchangeable. Deady v. Republic, 8:256.

Staying order for support of child. Moussallem v. Puah (Chambers), 20:684.

Steps in taking are jurisdictional. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:221; Liberty v. Republic, 9:437; Bility v. Sirleaf, 25:319.

Stricken from docket, effect on lower court's judgment. Union National Bank, Inc. v. Hodge (Chambers), 20:635.

Strict compliance with rules required. Melton v. Republic, 4:115; Bucamil v. Watson, 5:268; Toomey v. Peabody, 5:271; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:221.

Subsequent motion to dismiss upon withdrawal of first to be denominated "amended motion." Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394.

Substitution of representative of deceased party. Harmon v. Republic, 13:589.

Sufficiency of verdict as basis for. Simonovitch v. Liberian Construction Co., 19:299.

Supersedeas, appeal from judgment as. Lloyd v. Rolland (Chambers), 23:421.

Supersedeas imposed by. Ex parte Prout, 3:39; Bracewell v. Massaquoi, 7:390; In re Smallwood, 8:3; Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241; Schilling and Co. v. Tirait, 16:164; In re Gibson, 16:202.

Supersedeas imposed upon announcement of. Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:512.

Supersedeas not imposed by appeal from judgment in summary ejectment action. Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

Supreme Court, finality of determination. Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Supreme Court can penalize violators of injunctions issued by lower court before completion of. Karpeh-Buchanan v. Buchanan-Ratazzi, 15:510.

Tardy motion to set aside verdict not basis for. Simonovitch v. Liberian Construction Co., 19:418.

Taxation of records, necessity for purposes of processing appeal. Bolado v. Cooper, 25:414.

Technical errors. Simonovitch v. Liberian Construction Co., 19:299.

Technical issues not affecting merits, Supreme Court attitude towards. Sirleaf v. Reeves, 20:433; LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd., 20:471; Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 23:201.

Technicalities as grounds for dismissal. Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 23:285.

Term of court for hearing of appeal, appealing party may not fix. Vamply of Liberia v. Manning, 25:188.

Term of court to which appeal taken, failure to specify. Vito v. Formusa, 20:366.

Termination of jurisdiction of trial court. Ex parte Prout, 3:39; White v. Russell, 3:198; Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Time for completion. McAuley v. Laland, 1:254; Melton v. Republic, 4:115; Morris v. Republic, 4:125; Caulker v. Republic, 5:145; Russ v. Republic, 5:145; Yancy v. Republic, 5:145; Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405; Dayrell v. Thomas, 11:98; Fraser v. Beysolow, 11:327; Thomas v. Dayrell-Mason, 11:429; Samuels v. Samuels, 12:193; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Time for completion. Computation when statutory period ends on Sunday or holiday. Dennis v. Republic, 7:232; Lartey v. Lartey, 8:194; Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Time for perfecting when date of ruling by lower court not recorded. Bundoo v. Ndembu, 20:204.

Timeliness in filing papers, necessity for. Dennis-Brown v. Dennis, 20:96.

Timeliness of motion for new trial. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Trial court will be ordered to resume jurisdiction and enforce judgment in absence of timely notice of appeal. Salloum v. Republic, 17:507.

Trial court's error, later corrected, not ground for reversal. Johns v. Arraskalar, 17:372.

Trivial issues. Tarawallay v. Kawah, 19:403.

Unconstitutionality issue raised for first time on argument before Supreme Court, refusal of Court to pass on. Morris v. Reeves, 27:334.

Vagueness of record. Liberia Trading Co. v. Cole, 18:150.

Verdict and judgment necessary for. Davidson v. Firestone Plantations Co., 3:398.

When bill of exceptions constitutes a nullity. Toweh v. Ghousainy, 18:282.

When completed. Gaddini v. Iskander El Habr, 19:407.

When motion for diminution of record will be granted. Bing v. Republic, 17:651.

When reargument granted. Togba v. Republic, 18:68.

When remand not required. Tay v. Teh, 18:310.

Withdrawal, estoppel from raising contentions after. Cooper v. Dunbar, 21:295.

Withdrawal as acceptance of judgment by appellant. Nyepon v. Reeves, 21:406.

Withdrawal as waiver of right. New York v. Seabreeze, 2:26; Hill v. Republic, 13:381; Tarpeh v. Republic, 13:383.

Withdrawal by stipulation of parties. International Trust Co. of Liberia v. Weah, 15:568.

Withdrawal confirms adjudication. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Abi-Jaoudi, 14:43.

Withdrawal of, not allowed where irregularities of dishonest dealings will be left uncorrected. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Withdrawal of, notification of opposing counsel required. Baky v. George, 24:387.

Withdrawal of, subject to approval of Court. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Withdrawal of appeal. Hunter Real Estate, Ltd. v. Dunbar, 19:217.

Withdrawal of appeal, effect on further review of judgment. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

Withdrawal of not a matter of right. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

APPEARANCE

Appeal bond may answer purpose of appearance bond. Amierable v. Cole, 13:17.

Approval of bond by trial court no bar to contest of sufficiency on appeal. Manheiner v. Fuller, 1:211.

By attorney, requisites. Franck v. Sherman, 1:388; Montgomery v. Zeiser, 1:437.

Default judgment for lack of defendant's appearance. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Defective requirement of in summons. Jantzen v. Burney, 4:119.

Foreclosure of appearance bond. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Matters of substance and not only form, court's determination of general appearance from. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Motion at beginning of trial as. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Motion to dismiss, nonappearance by movent on. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:30.

Nonappearance of appellant ground for dismissal of appeal. Gross v. Republic, 4:123; Mannah v. Republic, 4:366; Morris v. Republic, 4:369; Sesay v. Republic, 12:255; Cole v. Peabody, 13:252; Nassar v. Dennis, 13:387; Wilson v. Republic, 13:397; Johns v. Republic, 13:440; Mends-Cole v. Weeks, 13:525; Picot v. Cardona, 14:328; Mends-Cole v. Deshields, 14:521; Picout v. DiGrado, 15:13; Dennis v. Brandt, Willig, & Co., 15:250.

Nonappearance of appellee ground for judgment by default for appellant. West & Co. v. Marbu, 3:250.

Notice of assignment, service on counsel required for each appearance. Dollar v. Cole, 25:67.

Service of papers on party when default. Elie J. Haj Brothers v. Dennis, 20:294.

Time for, as to joint defendants. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

APPEARANCES

Answer, necessity for appearance by party who fails to. Hunter v. Hunter, 22:87.

As cure for judgment entered without jurisdiction of defendant. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Confer in personam jurisdiction. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Dismissal of appeal for defects despite appellee's nonappearance. Garteh v. Paimore, 22:51.

Failure to appear formally at preliminary hearing for injunction no bar from applying for writ of certiorari. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

For absent party previously represented without further authorization. Abi-Rached v. Gemayel, 17:14.

Managing agent of corporation, by. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Time for. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

ARBITRATION, see also Writ of Error.

Award, requirement of timely objection to. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 20:100.

Award of arbitrators appointed by court upheld as constitutional. Massaquoi v. Tolbert, 17:219.

Copy of award must be served on parties. Morris v. Phillips, 14:588.

Evidence, proceeding without, as irregularity. Taylor v. Worrell, 3:14.

Hearing, denial by court, when error. Union National Bank, SAC v. M.C.C., Inc., 20:525.

Irregularities as grounds for setting aside award. Taylor v. Worrell, 3:14.

Jurisdiction of court not ousted by agreement. Grant v. Foreign Mission Board of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv., 10:209.

Must be properly invoked. Shoemaker-Deline v. Shoemaker-Porte, 19:221.

Non-party to agreement cannot obtain court order for. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Notice of award. Timely service necessary to validate judgment. Tisdall v. Howard, 2:246.

Notice to parties of time and place of proceedings is mandatory. Liberian Development Co. v. Brown, 12:49.

Objection to award must be heard. Wright v. Wright, 5:208.

Power of court to modify awards. Wright v. Wright, 5:208.

Proceedings do not violate constitutional rights. Karpeh-Wreh v. Baker-Azango, 18:293.

Reading of award in open court a formality, not a substantive right. Morris v. Phillips, 14:588.

Statutory requirements, conduct according to. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 21:176.

Trial court may set aside award sua sponte. Taylor v. Worrell, 3:14.

ARREST

Civil, order of commitment, when obtainable. Sessay v. Kandakai (Chambers), 21:552.

Habeas corpus against sheriff, to obtain release from illegal. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Of alleged father of illegitimate child on complaint of mother. Wright v. Bedell, 17:163.

Service of process on person arrested without warrant as soon as possible. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Sheriff's duty to hold arrestee in custody. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Without warrant, procedure on. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

ARREST CIVIL

Discharge by bond. Massaquoi v. Munah, 9:53.

Error for judge to evoke order granting. Good v. Schmidt, 1:197.

Judge may be compelled to enforce order granting. Good v. Schmidt, 1:197.

Jurisdiction lacking where service of writ not effected. Johnson v. Givens, 1:28.

Sheriff's duty to hold arrestee in custody. Johnson v. Givens, 1:28.

Strict construction of statutes authorizing. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

When permitted. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

ARREST OF JUDGMENT, see Civil Procedures; Criminal Procedure; Trials.

ARSON, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Trials; Witnesses.

Burning of defendant's own dwelling. Matthews v. Republic, 2:338.

Death penalty. Sampson v. Republic, 11:135.

Defined. Moulton v. Republic, 2:47; Matthews v. Republic, 2:338.

Illegal for accused, with acquiescence of victim, to attempt to compromise. Zogai v. Republic, 8:160.

Neurasthenia no defense. Zogai v. Republic, 8:160.

ASSAULT.

Aider and abetter liable as principal. Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

Battery defined. Peres v. Monrovia, 2:393.

Conviction supported by evidence. Larmouth v. Republic, 13:493.

Evidence of affray not basis for conviction. Smith v. Republic, 7:205.

In retaliation for earlier discounted assault not justified. Banks v. Republic, 7:279.

Intent to commit essential. Smith v. Republic, 7:205; Gould v. Republic, 7:351.

Intent to kill, proof of beyond reasonable doubt required. Davis v. Republic, 24:319.

Jurisdiction of magistrate. Larmouth v. Republic, 13:493.

Justification in civil action for damages. Jogenson v. Knowland, 1:266.

Malice implied. Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

Mitigation. Logan v. Republic, 5:398.

Record of criminal proceeding inadmissible in civil action for same trespass. Gould v. Gould, 1:389.

Relation to homicide. Banks v. Republic, 7:279.

Security officer, when use of gun by, justified. Freeman v. Republic, 22:188.

Self-defense. Banks v. Republic, 7:279; Gould v. Republic, 7:351; Killix v. Republic, 8:173; Knowlden v. Republic, 9:381.

Varieties distinguished. Smallwood v. Republic, 1:398.

Verbal acts. Gould v. Republic, 7:351.

With intent to do grievous bodily harm. Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

ASSAULT AND BATTERY

Conviction for lesser crime than charged in indictment. Bryant v. Republic, 17:643.

Ejectment of invitee and trespasser. Soko v. Republic, 18:143.

Instrumental agencies. Soko v. Republic, 18:143.

Self-defense must be reasonable to justify. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 18:57.

ATTACHMENT, see also Arrest; Bonds; Civil Procedures; Judgments; Jurisdiction.

Affidavit foundation for jurisdiction. Halaby v. Farhart, 7:129.

Bond as prerequisite. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

By Republic requires no bond. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Estoppel to challenge of jurisdiction. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Form and record of writ. Veldkamp v. Coffee, 1:232.

Increase in amount of. Massaquoi v. Munah, 9:53.

Investigation of legality of warrant. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Issuance out of term. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Order issuing writ should appear in record. Veldkamp v. Coffee, 1:232.

Possession of seized property, plaintiff not entitled to until and unless money judgment not satisfied. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Procedural requisites for dissolution. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Property in another county, levy procedure. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Requirements, a main suit, with object of seizure of property, security for money judgment. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Sufficiency of bond not reviewable by certiorari when not contested below. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

ATTACHMENTS

Bond, requirement as to amount of. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Certiorari to review sufficiency of amount of bond tended by plaintiff. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Discharge of seized property on defendant's application, procedure. Silib International Ltd. v. Kennedy, 27:30.

Dissolution of, precludes subsequent action on bond. Saab v. Bharwaneys Inc., 24:289.

Foreign national who is domiciliary, issued against. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Issuable by court out of term in emergency. Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Motion to modify or vacate order raising objections to sufficiency of surety on bond by. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Release of seized chattel to defendant cannot be ordered by plaintiff's attorney without client's consent. Silib International Ltd. v. Kennedy, 27:30.

Strict construction of statutory requirements. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

ATTEMPTS, see Crimes and Offenses; Indictments.

ATTORNEY, POWER OF, see Agents.

ATTORNEY GENERAL, see also Attorneys and Counselors; Constitution; Contempt of Court; Official Misconduct; Public Officers and Employees; Republic of Liberia.

Advice not binding on court of equity. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350.

Contempt of Supreme Court by. Proceedings, 1:190; In re Cassell, 10:17; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Duties defined. Proceedings, 1:190; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Not entitled to preferential treatment in appearance as counsel. Sesay v. Republic, 12:306.

Presence at grand jury sessions. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Unprofessional conduct by. In re Cassell, 14:391.

ATTORNEYS, see also Courts.

Change of counsel. Findley v. Weeks, 18:245.

Change when litigant is his counsel. Findley v. Weeks, 18:245.

Chief of Cabinet not disqualified in criminal defense. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Failure to service notice of change. Hunter v. Horton, 19:142.

Inappropriate notice of change. Hunter v. Horton, 19:142.

Notice of change of counsel needed. Hunter v. Horton, 19:142.

Power of attorney to Liberian national. Massaquoi v. Wilkins, 19:166.

Service upon. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 18:267.

Service upon clerk. Benson v. Findley, 18:285.

Son of President not disqualified in criminal defense. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS, see also Champerty; Civil Procedures; Contempt of Court; Continuances; Costs; Counsel, Right to; Law; Supreme Court; Trials.

Abandonment of criminal appeal by, ground for dismissal. Kent v. Republic, 6:50; Gissi v. Republic, 13:6; Jarrett v. Republic, 16:56.

Absence of attorneys from hearing and rendition of judgment as ground for denial of motion for relief from judgment. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Braithwaite, 26:338.

Absence of counsel from hearing of which he was notified abandonment of cause. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:472.

Absence of counsel from trial as dilatory tactic not basis for reversal. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:45.

Act by member of law firm as binding on firm. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Addition to number, right of party to make. Jackson v. Eastman-Mason, 21:216.

Admonished against attempts to mislead Supreme Court. Davies-Johnson v. Alpha, 13:573.

Advice to client to disobey court order as contempt. Anandani v. Massaquoi, 26:286.

Agreement to postpone trial without knowledge of court deprecated. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Answer interposed by one acting as attorney but not licensed will not be recognized. Johnson v. Smith, 26:331.

Appearances. Franck v. Sherman, 1:388; Montgomery v. Zeiser, 1:437.

Appearance for absent party, previously represented, without further authorization. Abi-Rached v. Gemayel, 17:14.

Assignment to defendant in criminal case in forma pauperis. Bryant v. Republic, 2:33; Quai v. Republic, 12:402.

Associate counsel may continue examination of witness when counsel unable to continue. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Attorney General not entitled to preferential treatment in appearance as counsel. Sesay v Republic, 12:306.

Authority to act for client, presumption of. Saleeby Brothers, Inc., v. Barclay's Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:520.

Authority to institute suit on behalf of nondomiciliary. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay's Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:520.

Bill of exceptions may be signed by, for client. East African Co. v. McCalla, 1:292.

Bill of particulars for services rendered client. Beysolow v. Dukuly, 5:325.

Briefs not supported by record condemned. Smart v. Daniels, 5:369.

Capital offense, representation of defendant inadequate. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Certificate of counsel as subject to stamp tax. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413.

Change of attorneys to be effected in manner prescribed by statute. Johnson v. Smith, 26:331.

Change of counsel. Abi-Rached v. Lewis, 20:494.

Citation of syllabi criticized. Young v. Embree, 5:242.

Clients, features to consider in establishing relationship of. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Collusion as ground for contempt proceedings. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Compensation as affected by interest in subject matter. Acolatse v. Dennis, 22:147.

Conduct in relation to clients. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23; Snyder v. Republic, 5:88; Secretary of State v. Gilson, 6:3; Gauhoe v. Republic, 10:204; Brooks v. Republic, 11:3.

Conflicts of interest warranting suspension from practice, accepting money for own use from adversary of client; purporting to render service to him. In re… Pelham, 27:112.

Constitutional right to, when charged with crime. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Contempt, counselors who wrote false information to President held in. In re George, 26:435.

Contempt, court's inherent power to punish. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Contempt committed by, in advising disobedience of Supreme Court mandate. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Contempt committed by, in initiating defiance of Supreme Court judgment. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Contempt of court. Advice of attorney not a defense to charge against client but may be considered in mitigation of penalty. In re Dennis, 9:389.

Contempt of court. Attempted deception a ground for proceedings. In re Richards, 10:153.

Contempt of court, bringing of unfounded legal proceedings to obstruct court mandate. Karneh v. Baysah, 25:300.

Contempt of court by approbative imputations. In re Caranda, 8:249; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178.

Contempt of court, by suggesting directives to lower court judge contrary to Supreme Court mandate. Massaquoi-Fahnbulleh v. Urey, 25:432.

Contempt of court. Disobedience of order by Justice to file returns. In re Gibson, 16:202.

Contempt of court. Extenuation or purge. In re Caranda, 8:249.

Contempt of court. Oral expression of intent to appeal not contempt of lower court. Cooper v. Morris, 13:164.

Contempt through lack of courtesy in court. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Company, 20:108.

Contracts by courts with attorneys to defend poor persons binding on Republic. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Cooperation with bench. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Correction of mistakes of, on appeal. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Counsel fees not payable by husband for defense of wife in criminal Actions. Morris v. Flomo, 26:314.

County attorney's duties as prosecuting officers. Conger-Thompson v. Republic, 15:41.

Court-appointed counsel for appellant in murder case may stipulate as to client's guilt. Gouykro v. Republic, 11:102; Gissi v. Republic, 13:6.

Courts, duty of obedience to. Nyepon v. Reeves, 21:406.

Criminal appeal dismissed on formal abandonment by defendant's counsel. Kent v. Republic, 6:50; Gissi v. Republic, 13:6; Jarrett v. Republic, 16:56.

Devotion to ideals, duty of. Wolo v. Samobollah, 21:22.

Dilatory or diversionary tactics disapproved. Smith v. Page, 11:146.

Disapproval of conduct where counsel signed name of illiterate petitioner on petition and affidavit. Vonjama v. Massaley, 9:96.

Disbarment, unfounded charge of corruption against Justices of Supreme Court in letter by attorney to President is ground for his. In re Acolatse, 26:456.

Disbarment for conversion of client's funds. Ross v. Routh, 7:308.

Disbarment for conviction of felony. In re Johnson, 1:507; Gray v. Ware, 6:61.

Disciplinary measures, procedure followed to impose. In re Acolatse, 26:456.

Disciplinary proceedings, role of Supreme Court. In re Weah, 20:535; In re Gibson, 20:577.

Disciplinary proceedings against, authority of Supreme Court in. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Disciplinary proceedings on motion of members of bar. In re Johnson, 1:507; In re Payne, 1:530.

Disciplined for attempting to mislead court. Dweh v. Morris, 17:410.

Disciplined for attitude in unmeritorious appeal. Weeks v. Johns, 13:498.

Disciplined for tampering with court records. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:268.

Disciplined for using remedial and extraordinary processes to delay justice. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180; In re Smallwood, 13:191; Franco Liberian Transport Company v. Republic, 13:541.

Discredit on profession, conduct of case casting. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Dismissal of attorney, right of client to do so at any stage in proceeding. Silib International Ltd. v. Kennedy, 27:30.

Dismissal of, how effected. Baky v. George, 24:387.

Disqualification of judge who represented party before elevation. Howard v. Dennis, 5:375; Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Gittens v. Yanfor, 10:176; Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:408.

Distinction between maintained. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 4:235.

Due respect toward court and adversary practitioners, obligation of. Sherman v. Reeves, 23:227.

Duties in correction of errors. Cooper v. Cooper-Scott, 11:7.

Duty of lawyer in representing client. Thompson v. Hassan, 25:168.

Effect of abandonment of appeal. Kent v. Republic, 6:50.

Failure to take exceptions. In re Benson, 5:343.

Fees, allowance of counsel, in action based on loss of market value of goods. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Fees not included in computation of damages. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554; Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

Fees of successful party taxed against losing litigant. Jantzen v. Stubblefield, 4:110.

Grievance and Ethics Committee of National Bar Association, investigation of character or conduct by. In re Acolatse, 26:456.

Habitual intoxication and use of profane and obscene language insufficient to support suspension. In re Payne, 1:530.

Illness as ground for continuance. Burney v. Jantzen, 4:322; Prout v. Cooper, 5:379; Dennis v. Reffell, 7:332; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:155; Davies v. Yancy, 10:89; Phillips v. Nelson, 10:134.

Improper conduct of counsel referred to local grievance committee. Dennis v. Republic, 17:396.

Improper for prosecuting attorney to introduce accusatory matter not of record. Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Incompetency of indigent defendant's Defense Counsel, procedure to appoint a better qualified attorney. Republic v. Walser, 27:274.

Inferior courts lack supervisory power over. Williams v. Matthews, 2:56; Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Institution of disciplinary proceedings by local bar committees. Gray v. Ware, 6:61; Ross v. Routh, 7:308.

Judgment by default, rendition of, when illness prevents attendance by counsel. Baky v. George, 22:80.

Judgment by default after counsel has indicated abandonment. Cole v. Industrial Building Contractors, 17:476.

Lack of diligence a ground for reversal of judgment of conviction. Gauhoe v. Republic, 10:204; Gouykro v. Republic, 11:102.

Legislative duties of, as ground for continuance. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Letter of foreign corporation sufficient authority for Liberian attorney to collect claim in action of debt. Fazzah v. Rogers Bros. Shoes, Inc., 12:300.

Letter to counsel by court notice of assignment for trial. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

License, expiration of requires renewal for continued practice. Kanna v. Smith, 24:359.

License, motion by attorney without. Buchanan v. Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 20:330.

License, recognition by court if no. Talery v. Wesley, 20:314.

License, required of attorney assisting County Attorney. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

License, validity of papers prepared by attorney without. M.I.M. Timber Company v. Bayeh, 20:357.

License fee unpaid, practicing when. Habre v. Jallah, 20:309.

License fees of partnership members of law firms, assessment of compared with fees assessed against individual practitioners. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Licensing of. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139; In re Payne, 1:530; Williams v. Matthews, 2:56.

Motion for continuance, entertaining of, as court's recognition of counsel. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Neglect and mishandling of cases, subject to severe disciplinary action. Taylor v. Pasi, 25:453.

No limit on number of counsel litigant may retain. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Not entitled to practice where license not renewed by payment of annual fee. In re Payne, 1:530.

Notice of assignment for trial, duty of lawyer to appear on date set in. Thompson v. Hassan, 25:168.

Notice of cessation of representation not notice of abandonment of cause itself. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Notice to retained and announced counsel who is not principal attorney for client, effect of. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

Party not bound where counsel appears without authorization. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328.

Payment to defend poor person. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Penalty for attempting to mislead court. Dean v. Republic, 17:204.

Personal recognizance on appeal bond a material defect. Cole v. Peabody, 13:252.

Practice of law as revocable privilege for breach of admission oath. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Professional conduct standards. In re Weah, 20:535.

Professional ethics, observance of. Taylor v. Pasi, 25:453.

Public policy against members of legislature representing party adverse to government. Witherspoon v. Brown, 11:177.

Reinstatement after disbarment. In re Ross, 10:431.

Reinstatement of attorney disbarred on conviction of embezzlement. In re Ware, 12:261.

Reinstatement of disbarred attorney at discretion of court. In re Ross, 10:431.

Remedial and extraordinary writs, use of for purposes of delay as contempt of court. Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Remission of suspension. In re Coleman, 11:432.

Representation of Republic. Republic v. Muller & Co., 1:201.

Respect due to and from court. Richards v. Republic, 10:12.

Responsibility for conduct of assistant. In re Harmon, 5:334.

Right to retain funds of client. Beysolow v. Dukuly, 5:325.

Self-incriminatory statement of counsel pro se in criminal trial admissible as confession. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Senator disallowed from appearing as counselor. Corssen v. Republic, 3:73.

Signing of appeal bond by, disapproved. Leigh v. Bank of Monrovia, 22:360.

Signing of appeal bond by appellant's counsel not ground for dismissal. Walsh Construction Co. v. Klat, 17:384.

Statutory and common-law basis. Disciplinary proceedings. In re Johnson, 1:506; In re Payne, 1:530; Ricks v. Worrell, 3:21; Caranda v. Worrell, 3:279; Massaquoi v. Worrell, 3:331; Gray v. Ware, 6:61; Ross v. Routh, 7:308.

Sub judice defined. Liberian Bar. Assn. v. Gittens, 7:253.

Submission by defendant's attorney of no defense. Yallah v. Republic, 20:243.

Suit to recover sum due for services. Beysolow v. Dukuly, 5:325.

Supreme Court practice restricted to counselors. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 4:235.

Supreme Court's request to serve as amicus curiae mandatory. In re Simpson, 14:429.

Suspension for clandestinely securing employment and impugning other attorneys. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Suspension for failure to perform duty to client. Secretary of State v. Gibson, 6:3.

Suspension for impeding execution of mandate of Supreme Court. In re Coleman, 11:350.

Suspension from membership in bar committee. Caranda v. Worrell, 3:279.

To hold in contempt not committed in presence of court, must be cited or served with process. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:606.

Trial in absence of counsel. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

Unprofessional conduct charged in divorce action. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Unprofessional conduct. Intentionally misleading client into obstructing administration of justice. Bank of Monrovia v. Knowlden, 12:327.

Unprofessional conduct. Meeting client of opposing counsel. Collins v. Collins, 10:61.

Unprofessional conduct to address threatening letter to clerk of court. In re Witherspoon, 14:263.

Unprofessional conduct to discuss matter sub judice with Justice of Supreme Court. Liberian Bar Assn. v. Gittens, 7:235.

Unprofessional conduct to fail to appear at hearing on assignment of court. Howard v. Dunbar, 14:515; Davies v. Liberian-America-Swedish Minerals Co., 14:535.

Unprofessional conduct to influence jury by entertainment. Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278.

Unprofessional conduct to purchase property in litigation at judicial sale. In re Smallwood, 8:3.

Unprofessional conduct to request Chief Justice to intervene in appeal from Chambers to full bench of Supreme Court. In re Smallwood, 13:191.

Voluntary absence not ground for continuance. Harmon and Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie v. Bryant-Jones, 10:296.

Warned against promoting unmeritorious litigation. Bryant v. Morris, 12:198.

Whether litigation expenses recoverable as damages for jury to determine. Tweh v. Massaquoi, 11:152.

Witness for client, propriety of acting as at trial. King v. King, 24:414.

ATTORNEYS IN FACT, see Agents.

AUTOMOBILES.

Contributory negligence of decedent no defense in prosecution for vehicular homicide. Padmore v. Republic, 9:195.

Damages for accidental injuries to. Vianini Co. v. Cole, 16:95.

Damages for personal injuries sustained in accident. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52.

Hit-and-run-driver guilty of murder on presumption of malice from willful violation of traffic law. Jones v. Republic, 13:623.

Liability of owner who operates on public highway with defective equipment. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Motorist's duty toward pedestrians. Wreh v. Boehme, 22:213.

Negligence in operation. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52.

Operation without driver's license unlawful. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52.

Question on skid marks may be asked of expert. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Repairs by owner as bar to suit against bailee. Elias v. Porte, 3:50.

AUTOPSY.

Murder, conviction for, not supported when no autopsy and no qualified explanation of cause of death. Banjoe v. Republic, 26:255.


B

BAIL, see also Bonds; Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure.

Amount fixed by statute. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Amount in cases of attachment. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

Amount in criminal cases, criteria. Addo-Mills v. Thorpe, 24:27.

Bond cannot be foreclosed except for nonappearance of defendant. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Capital crime nonbailable. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383 Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Commissioners of, approval of appeal bond by. Russ v. Republic, 5:189.

Constitutional prohibition against, in capital offenses, applies to appeal bonds. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383.

Constitutional rights of accused in prosecution for noncapital crime. Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:247; Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Defined. Vietor & Huber v. Gross, 2:61; Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Excessive, in civil arrest. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

Excessive bail standard. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Excessive legislative requirement in worthless check cases as unconstitutional. Addo-Mills v. Thorpe, 24:27.

Forfeiture penalty not included in fixing amount. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Mandamus to compel magistrate to grant. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Number of sureties required in civil cases. Massaquoi v. Munah, 9:53.

Object of in criminal cases. Addo-Mills v. Thorpe, 24:27.

Omissions in deemed waived. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Qualifications of surety. Manheiner v. Fuller, 1:211; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Right of defendant to, where allegations in sedition indictment show no acts by defendants that, if guilty, would render them liable to capital punishment or life imprisonment. Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Surety bond, tender of precludes demand for cash bond. Hassen v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:651.

Timely filing as prerequisite for appeal. King v. King, 24:234.

BAILMENTS, see also Common Carriers; Contracts; Personal Property.

Bank as bailee of special depositor. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Determination of. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45.

Larceny of subject of. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45.

Liability of bailee for damages to borrowed vehicle. Elias v. Porte, 3:50.

Of animals under oral agreement. Wear v. Kpah-Leandh-Jaiyawa, 8:361.

Recaption, right of owner of goods to enter premises of another for. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

To common carriers. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

BANKRUPTCY AND INSOLVENCY.

Insolvency defined. Nathan v. West & Co., 4:192.

Petition denied where assets exceed liabilities. Nathan v. West & Co., 4:192.

Voluntary petition. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Withdrawal of petition. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

BANKS AND BANKING.

Care to be taken by bankers. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Effect of entry of deposit in passbook. Bank of Monrovia v. Kobbah, 10:281.

Misuse of deposits. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

Responsibility of person accepting deposits. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

BASTARD, see also Infants; Real Property; Wills.

Children of marriage under customary law illegitimate where dowry not paid. Manney v. Money, 2:618.

Defined. Prout v. Cooper, 5:412.

Due process required in filtration proceedings. Harge v. Republic, 14:217.

Jurisdiction of justices of peace in filtration proceedings. Lee v. Republic, 1:115.

Legitimation by marriage of parents after birth. Prout v. Cooper, 5:412.

No common-law rights of inheritance by illegitimates. Cyrus v. Fuller, 1:181.

Property of an illegitimate descends to own issue only. Fuller v. Johnson, 1:56.

BILL OF EXCEPTION, see also Appeals; Civil Procedures; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Trials; Witnesses.

Attorney may sign for client. East African Co. v. McCalla, 1:292.

Cannot be attached to applications for prohibition. Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226.

Certified copy required on appeal. Sandfish v. James, 6:235.

Clerk's error as to date of effect. Delaney v. Republic, 4:251.

Conformity to trial record, necessity of Elliott v. Dent, 3:111.

Defined. Yates v. McGill Brother, 1:2; Richards v. Coleman, 6:285; Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 8:296; Johns v. Cess Pelham, 8:296; Benwein v. Whea, 14:445; Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Duty of court to approve. Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Erasures by judge of inferior court. Yancy v. Republic, 4:3.

Exception to verdict a prerequisite. Urey v. Republic, 5:120.

Exceptions defined. Urey v. Republic, 5:120.

Exceptions not included in, deemed waived. In re Benson, 5:343; Torkor v. Republic, 6:88; Coleman v. Richards, 6:285.

Failure to state legal points relied on not ground for dismissal of appeal. Gray v. Kolloh, 10:313; Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Function of exceptions. Richard v. Coleman, 5:56; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93.

Indispensable prerequisite for completion of appeal. Yates v. McGill Brother, 1:2; Anderson v. Dennis, 1:505; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:03; King v. King, 7:301; Kennedy v. Pearson, 8:123; Brooks v. Republic, 11:3; Smythe v. Mends-Cole, 13:81; Benson v. Togba, 13:345; Wrights v. Richards, 13:451; Findley v. Republic, 13:538; Morris v. Jebbah, 15:278; Neah v. Republic, 15:280; Webster v. Freeman, 16:44, 209; Passawe v. Larsannah, 16:276.

Judge's refusal to approve minor count not ground for dismissal where bill approved as whole. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Mandamus remedy for refusal of trial court to endorse. Rottger v. Williams, 5:348.

Motion for new trial requisite to maintain appeal where no issue of law raised in. Brown v. Republic, 14:437.

Must show with particularity alleged errors of lower court. Quai v. Republic, 12:402.

Must specify objections to admission of evidence. Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

No requirements as to form. Cole v. Williams, 10:191.

Not deemed a pleading. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:307.

Omissions not deemed waivers in criminal appeal on capital offense. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Questions not raised cannot be heard on appeal. Anderson v. McLain, 1:44.; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93; Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Record must support exceptions. Richard v. Coleman, 5:56.

Responsibility for filing. Webster v. Freeman, 16:44, 209.

Responsibility for stating grounds. Sampson v. Republic, 11:135.

Should include only errors attributable to trial judge. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Signature of trial court essential. Anderson v. Dennis, 1:55.

Statutes providing for, liberally construed. Bank of British West Africa, Ltd. v. Davies-Johnson, 3:223; Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 8:296; Johns v. Cess Pelham, 8:296.

Tender for approval. Effect of Sunday on computation. Lartey v. Lartey, 8:194.

Tender within ten days required. Caulker v. Republic, 5:145; Russ v. Republic, 5:145; Yancy v. Republic, 5:145; Rottger v. Williams, 5:348; Samuels v. Samuels, 12:193; Webster v. Freeman, 16:44, 209.

Validity, when acquired. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Venue laid in Supreme Court and not in circuit court, motion to dismiss appeal denied. Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 8:296; Johns v. Cess Pelham, 8:296.

BILL OF EXCEPTIONS, see Appeals.

Exceptions not included in, waived. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

BILL OF INFORMATION.

Mandate of Supreme Court, remedy when judicial officer attempts to execute improperly. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

BILL OF LADING, see also Common Carriers; Contracts.

Definition and functions. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

Holder or endorsee entitled to possession of goods. Appleby v. Freeman & Son, 2:271.

BILL OF PARTICULARS.

Affidavit defective for omission in jurat. Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

Bill of sale annexed to complaint deemed. Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

In criminal prosecution. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Need not be furnished when not demanded. Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Of services of attorney to client. Beysolow v. Dukuly, 5:325.

Right to demand waived by participation in trial. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Verification of. Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

BILL OF SALE, see Sales.

BILLS OF EXCEPTION.

Errors in lower court, particularization of. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Mandamus, time for applying for, to compel trial judge to act on bill of exceptions. Sheriff v. Sesay, 22:25.

BILLS OF EXCEPTIONS, see also Appeals.

Disability of trial judge prevents signing, procedure when. Nurse v. Republic, 20:159.

Errors attributable to trial judge, limitation of contents to. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Exceptions not included in deemed waived. Francis v. Mesurado Fishing Company, Ltd., 20:542.

Extent when approved without express reservations. Cooper v. Alamendine, 20:416.

Filing of, not complied with when left with judge though approved. Johnson v. Banco DaBahia, S.A., 21:441.

Filing of unapproved copy, effect. Russell v. Nah, 21:515.

Foundation of appeal when approved. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Ground for each count must be set forth. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Improper approval of by trial judge. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Mandamus proper remedy for judge's refusal to approve after timely tender of. Collins v. Krakue (Chambers), 21:560.

Matters not appearing, cognizance of. Stereo Hotel v. S. & A. Construction and trading Co., 21:415.

Motion for new trial as prerequisite for considering. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

Must be filed within statutory time. Nagbe v. Republic, 17:656.

Objections made at trial, prerequisite for review by appellate court that bill of exceptions contain. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Only issues raised by exceptions made on trial record to be included. Blamo v. Republic, 17:232.

Points not raised not considered on appeal. Jackson v. Trinity, 17:631.

Procedure when not filed. Muyah v. Republic, 20:240.

Proof of timely filing by postal receipt for registered letter. Weah v. Republic, 17:622.

Tender of to trial judge at place of residence irregular. Johnson v. Banco DaBahia, S.A., 21:441.

Time limit on tendering to trial judge and filing. Quintana v. Robello, 21:150.

Timely filing as prerequisite for appeal. Vito v. Formusa, 20:366.

Unapproved a legal nullity. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Waiver of errors not included. Wolo v. Samobollah, 21:22.

Waiver of exceptions not incorporated. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

BILLS OF EXCHANGE.

Qualified or conditional, when. Saleeby Bros., Inc. v. Barclay's Export Finance Co., Ltd., 22:204.

BILLS OF INFORMATION.

Facts constituting offense, allegation of all material. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

BILLS OF LADING, see also Carriers.

Definition. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

BILLS OF PARTICULARS.

Complaint lacking definiteness, motion when. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt & Company, Ltd., 21:165.

BOARD OF GENERAL APPEALS.

Review of determination of hearing officer, no requirement to hear additional evidence on. Liberia Mining Company v. Bomi Workers Union, 26:410.

BONDS, see also Actions; Appeal Bonds; Appeals; Attachment; Bail; Certiorari; Civil Procedures; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Executors and Administrators; Injunctions; Revenue Stamps; Signatures.

Action against public officer for breach of conditions. Minus v. Crayton, 1:73; Moore v. Republic, 2:143.

Administrator's. Action controlled by statute. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Amount not fixable by Chambers Justice in injunction suit. Vito v. Formusa, 20:480.

Appeal. Absence of adequate indemnification clause a material defect. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376; Morris v. Republic, 4:369; Blebo v. Republic, 7:33; Mingle v. Richards, 11:323; Nassre v. Cooper-Kandakai, 12:26; Tee v. Chea, 12:157; Cole v. Peabody, 13:252; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:229, 343; McBourough v. Nimley, 15:366; Niumo v. Freeman, 15:517; Jalaiba v. Republic, 15:595.

Appeal. Approval by court nunc pro tunc. Smith v. Republic, 7:205.

Appeal. Cannot be signed by former circuit judge after elevation to Supreme Court. Roberts v. Republic, 13:413.

Appeal. Date of approval need not be stated. Russ v. Republic, 5:189.

Appeal. Defective for omission of guarantee of compliance with judgment of appellate court. Beysolow v. Gibson, 8:79.

Appeal. Defective if terms do not indemnify appellee. Bull v. Lartey, 17:367.

Appeal. Defective if unsigned. McBurrough v. Republic, 1:385.

Appeal. Defective without revenue stamp. Bull v. Lartey, 17:367.

Appeal. Failure to file ground for dismissal. Duncan v. Wreh, 17:628.

Appeal. Failure to file sufficient bond ground for dismissal of appeal. Ziaze v. Clinton, 17:304; Dondo v. Republic, 17:332.

Appeal. Habeas corpus not dismissible for defective bond. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Appeal. Indemnification not indispensable in criminal case. Ross v. Republic, 1:249; Watts v. Republic, 10:403; Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Appeal. Invalid when approved by officer other than trial judge. Russ v. Republic, 5:189.

Appeal. Motion to dismiss appeal for failure to post may be made at any time. Liberty v. Republic, 9:437.

Appeal. Motion to dismiss appeal for insufficiency filed before motion to correct, granted. Barmoe v. Smart, 17:101.

Appeal. Multiple appellants should jointly or severally execute. Bull v. Lartey, 17:367.

Appeal. Must be approved when duly presented to trial court. Amierable v. Cole, 13:17; Weeks v. Ketter, 13:223.

Appeal. Necessary qualifications for sureties on criminal case. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Appeal. Not defective for insufficiency of indemnification when property bonded is in possession of Curator of Interstate Estates. Wright v. Richards, 11:386.

Appeal. Not required of Republic. Republic v. Collins, 13:457.

Appeal. Not required on appeals from labor courts. Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Appeal. Not required on appeals in capital cases. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383.

Appeal. Objects defined. Dennis v. Holder, 10:301.

Appeal. Omission of amount of indemnification ground for dismissal of the appeal. Juah v. Wreh, 17:193.

Appeal. Omission of indemnification clause in bond written by magistrate or justice of peace not a fatal defect. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376; Carr v. Republic, 9:416.

Appeal. Procedure for obtaining approval of trial court. Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172.

Appeal. Procedure when insufficient. Bright v. Sawmill, 17:138.

Appeal. Prohibited on capital offenses. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383.

Appeal. Proper procedure for relief from defectiveness of. Hassen & Soehne, Ltd. v. Tuning, 17:298.

Appeal. Republic not exempt from requirement of filing in criminal case. Republic v. Jones, 10:379.

Appeal. Signing by appellant's counsel not ground for dismissal. Walsh Construction Co. v. Klat, 17:384.

Appeal. Statutory requirements on appeals form circuit and justice of peace courts not interchangeable. Deady v. Republic, 8:256.

Appeal. Time limit for submission. Samuels v. Samuels, 12:193.

Appeal. Untimely filing not ground for dismissal where appellant not at fault and appellee not prejudiced. Duncan v. Perry, 13:210.

Appeal. Variance between sum specified in body and penal clause. Saleeby Bros. v. Bright, 16:250.

Appeal. Void where sureties for indemnification by recognizance are not freeholders. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Appearance. Appeal bond may answer purpose of appearance bond. Amierable v. Cole, 13:17.

Appearance. Foreclosure. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Appearance. Not required in criminal case. Ex parte Prout, 3:39.

Approval by lower court no bar to contest of sufficiency before appellate court. Manheimer v. Fuller, 1:211.

Attachment, amount required in obtaining order of. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Attachment, dissolution of precludes action on. Saab v. Bharwaneys Inc., 24:289.

Bail. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411; Russ v. Republic, 5:189; Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Massaquoi v. Munah, 9:53; Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Basic requisites for legality. Williams v. Johnson, 1:247.

Breach of a fulfilled condition not established by addition of a new obligation. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Certificate may serve for revenue stamp. Wright v. Richards, 11:386; Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Counsel's personal recognizance a material defect. Cole v. Peabody, 13:252.

Defective where sureties not statutorily qualified. Sauid v. Gebara, 15:598.

Discharge by acceptance of postdated check. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Essential and nonessential contents distinguished. Smith v. Page, 10:361.

Financially irresponsible plaintiff, posting by. Emidon Limited v. Liberia Cold Stores, Inc., 20:487.

Forfeiture of bond by a Cabinet Minister, being a judicial function, constitutionally forbidden. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Government's failure to seek recovery on bond posted to secure performance of duties of revenue agent no bar to prosecution for embezzlement. Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372.

Injunction. Amount of indemnification discretionary with court. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Irregularities not cured by execution by attorney. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:229.

Judgment of trial court enforced after forfeiture of appeal and ne exeat bonds. Kloose v. Sandy, 17:400.

Jurisdictional requisite of injunction action. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Lack of revenue stamp on bond directed by court as ground for dismissing application for writ of error. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Liability of chattel mortgagee on indemnity bond when proceedings sham. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Mandamus remedy when judge refuses to approve. Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172; Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405.

No indemnifying bond may be required of defendant pending appeal of order dissolving injunction. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:573.

No such action as "action for damages in injunction bond and for wrongful injunction." Urey-Holder v. Dennis, 15:264.

Not required in attachment by Republic. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Omission of amount of indemnification not cured by lower court's subsequent action. McBourough v. Nimley, 15:366.

Omission of descriptive capacities of parties not a material defect. Smith v. Page, 10:361.

Omission of signature a material defect. McBurrough v. Republic, 1:385.

One surety sufficient where financial responsibility adequate for indemnification. Dennis v. Holder, 10:301; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65.

Payment by sureties after judgment in action of debt terminates trial court's jurisdiction. Faulkner v. Morris & Co., 1:478.

Qualification of sureties. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Remedy of successful defendant in injunction action is by motion, not separate action on. Urey-Holder v. Dennis, 15:264.

Replevin. Action for breach for damages for diminution in value of property. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

Replevin. Amount recoverable by successful defendant. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

Requirement on application for writ of error in discretion of Justice. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Requirements of due process for enforcement. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Revenue stamp need not be affixed in criminal appeal. Bokai v. Republic, 13:299.

Revenue stamp. Omission not an incurable defect where clerk of court below certified stamp was originally affixed. Wright v. Richards, 11:386.

Revenue stamp. Omission of inadequacy a material defect. Greaves v. Johnstone, 2:121; Freeman v. Republic, 2:189; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Leigh v. Taylor, 9:329; Wright v. Richards, 11:386; Richards v. Holt, 12:292; Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Statute permitting forfeiture, constitutionally, must be extant at time of filing bond. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Substitution of other circuit judge to sign where trial judge unable. Roberts v. Republic, 13:413.

Sufficiency in attachment proceedings not reviewable by certiorari when not contested below. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

Sureties to, real property venue qualifications of. Sancea v. Mallobe (Chambers), 21:563.

Surety against whom judgment rendered not relieved by production of principal. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

Trial court may insert amount of penalty. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:356.

Vacation of injunction bond for insufficiency requires dissolution of injunction. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Writ of error, as prerequisite to issuance of. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Writ of error, requiring posting of discretionary with Justice granting writ. Teewia v. Urey, 27:91.

BRIBERY, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Official Misconduct; Public Officers and Employees; Trials; Witnesses.

Defined. Andrews v. Gardner, 10:389.

Gift to jurors from winning party after verdict. Andrews v. Gardner, 10:389.

BROKERS, see Agents.

BURDEN OF PROOF, see also Evidence.

Reasonable doubt, responsibility of defendant for death of decedent must be proved beyond. Banjoe v. Republic, 26:255.


C

CALENDAR, see also Trials.

Reassignment of case to special trial docket unnecessary after issues of law disposed of. Nah v. Nah, 17:89.

Waiver of right to priority of trial on Justice's mandate. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:45.

CANCELLATION.

Profert of instrument necessary on petition for cancellation. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

CAPITAL OFFENSES.

Bill of exceptions, errors on trial not included in. Wolo v. Samobollah, 21:22.

Bill of exceptions unapproved when appeal taken. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Representation of defendant inadequate. Otto v. Republic, 21:390.

Sentence not specifying date of execution. Dandy v. Republic, 21:3.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

Safeguard of rights of persons subject to. Yarssah v. Republic, 20:14.

CARRIERS.

Damages for loss of profits in action to recover for loss of goods. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Delivery of goods, obligation of, with regard to. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Liability for loss of or damages to goods shipped. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Limitation in contract of responsibility of carrier for goods shipped, effect of. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Limitation of liability for goods shipped, application of Liberian law to. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

CAVEATS, see also Decedents' Estates; Deeds; Equity; Executors and Administrators; Probate Courts; Wills.

Defined. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176; Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Entry not ground for suspension of proceedings. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

CEMETERIES.

License by land owner of burial revocable. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

CERTIORARI

, see also Decedents' Estates; Deeds; Equity; Executors and Administrators; Probate Courts; Wills.

Abuse of trial court's discretionary powers. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 19:197.

Amount of bond tendered by plaintiff in attachment proceedings, issuance to review sufficiency of Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Appeal abandoned, availability when. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Application for amendable. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Application may be disposed of during recess of Supreme Court by Justice presiding in Chambers. Nahyahda v. Carter, 15:297.

Application when no action pending. Sherman v. Reeves, 23:227.

Bond, filing of in discretion of Chamber's justice. Sancea v. Mallobe (Chambers), 21:563.

Certification of petition by member of bar, qualifications. Sancea v. Mallobe (Chambers), 21:563.

Certification of petition by members of bar, contents, Amechi v. Smallwood, 23:3.

Considering records in application. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 19:197.

Costs. Enforcement of payment pending appeal. Morris v. Saad, 13:135.

Costs, payment of as prerequisite to issuance of writ. Dixon v. Kandakai, 25:362.

Counsel for a party, improper to join as respondent. Amechi v. Smallwood, 23:3.

Default of judgment, not granted for review of. Union National Bank, Inc. v. Hodge (Chambers), 20:635.

Divorce action. Dean v. Dean, 7:47.

Double jeopardy, remedy proper on denial of motion for discharge from prosecution. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Double jeopardy can only be determined by Supreme Court if first raised in court below. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Efficacy of writ terminated by adjudication of case. Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Ejectment. Coffah v. Pyne, 8:380.

Error in court below, as relief for correcting. Gaiguae v. Jallah, 20:163.

Expiration of trial court's term. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 19:197.

Final judgment of court, as remedy to review. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Function and scope defined. Baily v. Kandakai (Chambers), 21:556; Liberian Insurance Agency, Inc. v. Monsour N. Ghosen & Bros., 24:411; Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Functions and scope. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:433; Emidon Limited v. Liberia Cold Stores, Inc., 20:487.

Functions and scope defined. Attia v. Rigby, 2:9; Williams v. Clarke, 2:130; Pratt v. Republic, 2:289; Markwei v. Amine, 4:155, 159; Gage v. Pratt, 6:246; Vandervoorde v. Morris, 12:323; Morris v. Saad, 13:135.

Granted as remedy for abuse of process for harassment. Service v. Tolbert-Baker, 15:362.

Granted as remedy for denial of appeal on bill of exceptions. Morris v. Saad, 13:135.

Granted as remedy for prejudicial ruling. Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

Granted for improper ruling that jury trial necessary in equity suit. Wilson v. Wilson, 27:182.

Habeas corpus. Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480.

Injunction by court staying execution of judgment. Johnson v. Johnson, 1:24.

Issuance discretionary. Dennis v. Hamidi, 13:34.

Laches as bar to granting. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Maintainable only during pendency of action before lower court. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Matter conclusively adjudicated, allowability when. Cooper v. Dunbar, 21:295.

Mortgage foreclosure. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:310.

Not granted after enforcement of judgment. Ajavan v. Bull, 14:178.

Not granted on denial of motion for continuance. Wilkins v. Lewis, 14:23.

Not granted to correct defective legislation. Harris v. Harris, 9:344.

Not granted to correct illegal procedure in empanelling jury. Wilkins v. Republic, 14:23.

Not granted to perform function of habeas corpus. Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Not granted to perform functions of other remedial remedies. Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Not granted to perform functions of writ of error. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

Not granted to relitigate issues adjudicated on application for mandamus. Goodridge v. Fiske, 14:65.

Not granted to review judgment of justice of peace court. Peter v. Onanuga, 16:102.

Not granted to review sufficiency of bond tendered in attachment proceedings and not contested below. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

Not granted to review writ of attachment, there being no hearing involved, Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Not granted when relief for alleged errors in empanelling a jury obtainable by appeal. Amechi v. Smallwood, 23:3.

Not granted when relief obtainable by appeal. Bailey v. Kandakai (Chambers), 21:556.

Not granted where case did not proceed to hearing. Johns v. Morris, 13:101.

Not granted where illegality not shown. Union National Bank, Sac. V. Koroma (Chambers), 21:582.

Not granted where regular appeal abandoned. Harris v. Harris, 9:344.

Not granted where relief obtainable by appeal. Raymond Concrete Pile Co. v. Perry, 13:522.

Not granted where ruling of inferior court not manifestly prejudicial to rights of a party. Morris v. Flomo, 26:314.

Not granted where ruling of inferior court not prejudicial to rights of petitioner. Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Not ordinarily granted before termination of proceedings in lower court. Dennis v. Hamidi, 13:34; Raymond Concrete Pile Co. v. Perry, 13:522.

Pending proceedings, remedy applies only in. Union National Bank, Inc. v. Hodge (Chambers), 20:635.

Petition must be verified. Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:38.

Petition. Proper time to move for dismissal. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:132.

Peremptory, discretionary nature of. Liberian Insurance Agency, Inc. v. Monsour N. Ghosen & Bros., 24:411

Propriety of proceedings by, not considered when issue not raised by respondent. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:310.

Raising of affirmative defense which was raised but not recognized in original action allowed in certiorari. Johnson v. Smith, 26:331.

Record below must be produced. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Refusal by Justice in chambers to issue writ no disqualification from his hearing appeal. Yancy v. Republic, 26:374.

Replevin. Determination as to ownership of property by nonparty not reviewable. Nahyahda v. Carter, 15:297.

Requirements of appeals as to costs and notice inapplicable. West v. Republic, 1:386.

Summary ejectment action. Williams v. Horton, 13:444; Weeks v. Johns, 13:498.

Supersedeas to further proceedings in court below. West v. Republic, 1:386.

When petition alleges trial irregularities. Bestman v. Findley, 19:57.

CHAMPERTY.

Agreement with attorney for compensation out of recovery as. Acolatse v. Dennis, 22:147.

CHANCERY, see Equity.

CHATTEL MORTGAGES, see also Contracts; Mortgages; Personal Property; Sales.

Acceptance of terms by mortgagee inferred from publication, recording and filing. Elias Bros. v. Gibson, 11:218.

Chattel Mortgage Act of 1936 unconstitutional. Fazzah Bros. v. Collins, 10:261.

Defined. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Equity of redemption. Rasamny Bros. v. Butler-Jackson, 15:245.

Extinguishment by sale of mortgaged chattel. Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Foreclosure proceedings to be summarily disposed of. Katri v. Commercial Bank, 17:413.

Mortgagor must retain title or right to possession of chattel. Elias Bros. v. Gibson, 11:218.

Operational expenses not to be awarded in foreclosure proceedings. Katri v. Commercial Bank, 17:413.

Optional statutory foreclosure procedure. Rasamny Bros. v. Butler-Jackson, 15:245.

Prior law superseded by Chattel Mortgage Act. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Repossession and sale by chattel mortgagee prior to judgment held void. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Repossession and sale of property by chattel mortgagee void when mortgagor not afforded notice. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Transfer of property to delay or defeat creditors or purchasers void as fraudulent. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

CHECKS.

Bank manager's or bank cashier's is valid security for appeal. Liberia Mining Company v. Bomi Workers Union, 25:198.

Notice of dishonor to drawer, requirement as to. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Worthless, payment by drawer to avert prosecution for drawing. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

CHIEF JUSTICE.

May order extension of term of assigned circuit court judge. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

CHIEFSAlienation of tribal lands not allowed. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:403.

CHILDREN, see also Illegitimacy; Infants; Parents.

Custody, writ of habeas corpus effect on. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Custody of, general rule for determination of disputes regarding. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Custody of, welfare of child paramount. Johnson v. Fadel, 25:174; Cox v. Flama, 25:459.

Custody of when parents living apart. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Habeas corpus proceeding, right of father of illegitimate child to institute. Johnson v. Fade, 25:174.

Habeas corpus proceeding for custody, prima facie right to be shown in. Johnson v. Fadel, 25:174.

Illegitimate, mother's right to custody of. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Legitimation proceedings, exclusive jurisdiction of Probate Court. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Legitimization, effect on custody of cancellation of decree of. Johnson v. Fadel, 25:174.

Welfare of, concern of court in writ of habeas corpus proceeding. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

CIRCUIT COURTS, see Courts.

Interpretation of rules of court not disturbed by Supreme Court unless clear abuse of discretion. Cole v. Industrial Building Contractors, 17:476.

Jurisdiction in ejectment. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Jurisdiction of judge after expiration of assignment. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 22:32.

Jurisdiction over proceedings to foreclose mortgage. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Jurisdiction to punish for contempt. Raynes v. Republic, 17:255.

Obtaining money under false pretense, jurisdiction to try. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Proper procedure when assigned judge's jurisdiction has expired and judicial act for appeal required. Hassen & Soehne, Ltd. v. Tuning, 17:298.

Term of assigned judge ordered extended to conclude trial. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

CITATIONS, see Attorneys and Counselors; Contempt of Court; Probate Courts.

CITIZENS, see Aliens, Constitution; Republic of Liberia.

CIVIL PROCEDURE, see also Actions; Appeals; Attorney General; Attorneys and Counselors; Bill of Exceptions; Bills of Exceptions; Bonds; Certiorari; Civil Procedure Law; Clerks of Courts; Constitution; Contempt of Court; Continuances; Costs; Courts; Equity; Error; Evidence; Guardians; Habeas Corpus; Injunctions; Judges and Justices; Judgments; Juries and Jurors; Jurisdiction; Laches; Mandamus; Motions; Parties; Pleadings; Probate Courts; Procedure; Prohibition; Republic of Liberia; Revenue Stamps; Service; Sheriffs; Stipulations; Supreme Court; Trials; Venue; Verdicts; Waiver; Writs of Error.

Abuse of process for harassment remediable by certiorari. Service v. Tolbert-Baker, 15:362.

Actions may not be dismissed on pleadings alone after commencement of trial on issues of fact. Togai v. Johnson, 12:176.

Admiralty proceedings not dismissible on technicalities. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Advisory opinions not granted in Liberia. Adjavos v. Frey & Zusli, 4:226.

Appearance by attorney. Franck v. Sherman, 1:388.

Applications to court, requirement same be in writing. Yah River Logging Corporation v. United Logging Corporation, 24:57.

Assignment for hearing. Necessity for service of notice. Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293; Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20; Nimba Logging Corporation v. Mallobe (Chambers), 20:640..

Assignment giving notice of disposition of issues of law, necessity for. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Attachment, writ of action requirements. Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia Inc., 20:512.

Change of attorney, manner of effectuating. Silib International Ltd. v. Kennedy, 27:30.

Code pleading not accepted in Liberia. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220.

Computation of quarterly session during which jury may be empanelled. Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

Corporations, capacity to sue or be sued. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Counsel, change of. Abi-Rached v. Lewis, 20:494.

Court cannot assert rights unclaimed by party. Bank of Monrovia, Inc. v. Hall, 21:448.

Court may dissolve injunction without motion by defendant. Wahab v. Adorkor, 12:152.

Courts cannot pass on issues not raised in pleadings. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Criminal cases, applicability of Civil Procedure Law to. Kamara v. Republic, 20:10.

Death of party, substitution of legal representative. Judge of Debt Court v. Horton, 24:392.

Decree in equity must be predicated on record. United Liberia Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Dissolution of attachment. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:544.

Error attributable solely to party cannot be laid in bill of exceptions. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Errors and omissions of court officers, non-prejudicial effect of. Yah River Logging Corporation v. United Logging Corporation, 24:57; Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Estoppel against one not attributable to all. Johnson v. Yarkpawolo, 20:503.

Incompatible causes of action pleaded as one, motion to dismiss proper. Mayson v. Bowen, 24:365.

Inconsistent rulings in same matter by Circuit Court not error. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Indigent persons, representation of, procedure. Everyday v. Due, 27:291.

Inquiry into issuance of warrant of attachment. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Intervenor, though denied relief, by filing answer becomes a party to action. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Intervention, another adequate remedy no bar to request. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Intervention, basis for. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Intervention by third parties. Johnson v. Yarkpawolo, 20:503.

Intervention of an action, requires application of parties interested, not court on own motion. Gibson v. Church of Christ Mission in Liberia, Inc., 24:263.

Invention by third parties. Childs v. States, 4:138; Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:152.

Issues of fact as to set-off or counterclaim must be referred to jury. Saleeby Bros. v. Haikal, 14:298.

Issues of fact trial follows after decision on issues of law. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Issues of law, before issues of fact, determination by trial judge of. Bank of Monrovia v. Massoud, 22:199.

Issues of law, before issues of fact, disposal of. Korla v. Korla, 22:54.

Issues of law, must be ruled upon by court before trial of facts. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97; Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Rogers, 24:314; Scott v. Sawyerr, 24:500.

Issues of law, trial judge to first pass on. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 25:116.

Issues of law must be tried before issues of fact. Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462; Reeves v. Knowlden, 11:199; Johns v. Johns, 11:312; Togai v. Johnson, 12:176; Wright v. Richards, 12:423; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304; Abi-Rached v. Lewis, 20:494.

Issues of law to be decided by trial court before dealing with facts. Thompson v. Faraj, 25:34.

Joinder of issue. Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237.

Joinder of persons as parties where judgment will affect them inequitably. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Judgment must be predicated on pleadings. Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237.

Judgment on merits bars subsequent action. Liberia Trading Corp. v. Abi-Jaoudi, 14:43.

Judgment void as to party who was not served. Gbae v. Geeby, 14:147.

Jurisdiction, irreversibility of admitting to. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Jury term, cases begun within, may continue until conclusion. Addo v. Texaco Africa, Ltd., 25:229.

Long-established custom not to be overturned. Ross v. Arrivets, 6:364.

Lost record of judgment. Larmouth v. Republic, 13:23.

Mailing, additional time to respond. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 24:203.

Ministerial court officers, function of. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies v. Hevdakor, 20:471.

Motion, practice, procedure when facts not in record. Fagans v. Harris-Fagans, 23:190.

Motion for new trial. Right to file. Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313.

Motion in arrest of judgment cannot be made in civil case. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Motions in bar of actions. Bank of British West Africa, Ltd. v. Davies-Johnson, 3:223.

Motion not touching merits of case denied. Bank of British West Africa, Ltd. v. Davies-Johnson, 3:223.

Motion to dismiss claims in pleadings, when made. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Motions differentiated from pleadings. Bedell v. Bedell, 20:484.

Multiple claims or defenses, how pleaded. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Notice and opportunity to defend, as requirements for valid in personam judgments. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Notice of assignment of case, upon whom served. Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293.

Notices, principle of. Nimba Logging Corporation v. Mallobe (Chambers), 20:640.

Official of Ministry of Justice, right of, to participate in civil matter. Nyepon v. Reeves, 21:406.

Opportunity to be heard lacking. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt & Company, Ltd., 21:165.

Parties in trial court not necessary parties to appeal. Weeks v. Ketter, 13:223.

Parties may be added or dropped by court. Franco Liberian Transport Company v. Republic, 13:541.

Practice of law, well settled rule of, setting aside. Browne v. Republic, 22:121.

Procedure for joinder of issue in courts of record. Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237.

Procedure if copy of motion for new trial not served. Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 10:38.

Relief from judgment on ground of newly discovered evidence. Hood-Adams v. Jackson, 15:431.

Remedial writs, when use approved. Marshall v. Blaine, 6:70.

Replevin, statutory period for retention by sheriff of property replevied. Carter v. Massaquoi, 24:511.

Returns presumed correct. Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Ruling by court set aside for irregularities on hearing. Geeby v. Gbae, 15:26.

Service of papers, on employee of counsel. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt and Company Ltd., 20:509.

Service of process, proof of. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt and Company Ltd., 20:509.

Service of process. Constructive service may not be effected on persons out of country on business. Johns v. Pelham, 2:613.

Service of process. Defective service of summons is ground for dismissal of complaint at any time. Liles v. Batam, 1:70.

Service of process. Imprisonment no bar. Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Service of process. Jurisdiction not affected by service of summons on day after stated in writ if made in statutory time. Sodjie v. Tartimeh, 2:362.

Service of process. Resummons in ejectment action. Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Service of process. Returns presumed correct. Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Service of process. Timely service of summons a jurisdictional requisite. Yangah v. Melton, 12:128.

Service of process by publication. Statute strictly construed. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Service of process by ministerial court officers. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Hevdakor, 20:471.

Service of process on foreign non-resident corporations. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Stare decisis defined. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Sub judice. Liberian Bar Assn. v. Gittens, 7:253. Substitution of representative of deceased party. Harmon v. Republic, 13:589.

Summary proceedings dispense with formal procedure. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Supplemental pleadings not permitted. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220.

Technicalities not favored. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323; Moore v. Gross, 2:45; Page v. Jackson, 2:47; Kruger v. Johns, 2:89; Jantzen v. Freeman, 2:167; Ernest v. McFoy, 2:295; Liberty v. Horridge, 2:422; Pratt v. Hazely, 3:127; Adorkor v. Adorkor, 5:172; Russ v. Republic, 5:189; Dennis v. Gooding, 10:123; Cole v. Williams, 10:191; Dennis v. Holder, 10:301; Watts v. Republic, 10:403; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Gbae v. Geeby, 14:147; Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502; Mitchell v. Fawaz, 15:541.

Technicality, case not dismissed for. West African Trading Corporation v. Alrine (Liberia) Ltd., 25:3.

Term time, computation of. Biggers v. Wesley, 24:92.

Termination of proceeding by execution of mandate of appellate court. Crusoe-Marsh v. Morgan-Bedell, 20:334.

Time for filing action for ensuing term of court. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Hawkins v. C.F.A.O., 6:344; Brown v. Tarpeh, 6:344.

Timeliness. Computation when statutory period ends on Sunday or holiday. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Timeliness. Grant of additional time to answer complaint discretionary. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:217.

Timeliness of motion for new trial. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Trial de novo; right of appellate court to consider motion to dismiss appeal. Tubman v. Laquoi, 22:479.

Untimely filing of complaint voids service of summons. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:217.

Venue of civil actions. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Waiver of technicalities by participating in argument of motion. Wilson v. Kandakai, 21:452.

Withdrawal and refilling of action. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73; Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Withdrawal of action before trial. Johns v. Hirsch, 1:387.

Witness may be subpoenaed during trial. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Writ of error will be granted where defendant was not presented with bill of costs. Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20.

Writ of ne exeat. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69.

CIVIL PROCEDURES

, see appropriate heading, e.g., Courts, Trials, etc.

CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW.

Publication of, effect of. Karneh v. Dagadu, 20:79.

CIVIL RIGHTS.

Confinement in military camps of civilians awaiting trial unlawful. Nasser v. Smith, 26:115.

CLAIMS, see Actions; Civil Procedures; Corporations; Decedents' Estates; Estoppel; Evidence; Executors and Administrators; Intervention; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Pleadings.

CLEMENCY.

Power to exercise after conviction is vested in President. Dennis v. Republic, 17:396.

CLERKS OF COURT.

Duty to transmit records to appellate court scrupulously. Bolado v. Cooper, 25:414.

Records on appeal, taxation of. Bolado v. Cooper, 25:414.

CLERKS OF COURTS, see also Appeals; Civil Procedures; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Supreme Court.

Communication to, by attorney, constitutes appearance. Montgomery v. Zeiser, 1:437.

Duty to transmit records to appellate court. Jackson v. Duncan, 10:428.

Erroneous certificate as ground for contempt proceedings. In re Richards, 10:153.

Error by, in issuance of alternative writ of error. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Error by, in naming judge in notice of appeal. Cooper v. Brapoh, 16:297.

Error by, in transcription of record of appeal. Page v. Jackson, 2:47.

Failure to complete appeal by reason of negligence or recalcitrance of. Sauid v. Gebara, 15:598; Cole v. Cole, 15:608.

Failure to complete appeal may be remedied by order of appellate court when due to mistake or omission by clerk. Fazzah v. Rogers Shoe Co., 12:214.

Failure to perform duty no excuse for untimely completion of appeal. McBourrough v. Nimley, 14:14; Nancy v. Curry, 14:152.

Failure to serve notice not ground for dismissal of appeal where due to error of clerk under exceptional circumstances. Williams v. Republic, 14:602.

Falsification of records by. Whea v. Bonwein, 16:51.

Fee for preparation of record on appeal not chargeable as costs. Dennis v. Republic, 2:534; Dayrell v. Thomas, 11:98.

Jury should not deliver verdict through. Brown v. Grant, 1:87.

May refuse to issue notice of completion of appeal nunc pro tunc. Duncan v. Perry, 13:210.

Negligent loss of record of judgment. Larmouth v. Republic, 13:23.

Not members of courts. Hutchins v. Republic, 5:63.

Penalized for gross negligence or fraud. Mingle v. Richards, 11:323.

Procedure for polling jury in criminal trials. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Punished for tampering with court records. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:268.

Responsibility for performance of functions in completion of appeals. Delaney v. Republic, 4:251; Caulker v. Republic, 5:145; Russ v. Republic, 5:145; Yancy v. Republic, 5:145; Perry v Knight, 5:276; Jackson v. Jackson, 9:47; Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:147; Sauid v. Gebara, 15:598; Cole v. Cole, 15:608.

Supreme Court's authority over clerks and marshals. Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Technical, immaterial errors by, not chargeable against litigants. Jantzen v. Freeman, 2:167.

Threatening letter to clerk by counselor improper. In re Witherspoon, 14:263.

Written directions to. Attia v. Summerville, 1:215; Jantzen v. Burney, 4:119; Hawkins v. C.F.A.O., 6:344; Ross v. Arrivets, 6:364; Mitchell v. Fawaz, 15:541.

COMITY.

Doctrine defined. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

COMMISSIONER OF PROBATE, see Probate Courts.

COMMON, TENANCY IN, see Cotenancies.

COMMON CARRIERS, see also Bailments; Bill of Lading; Contracts; Damages.

Bailees of goods carried. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

Contract to convey passenger on steamship. Liles v. Harmon, 2:37.

Duty of delivery to sonsignee discharged by delivery to bonded warehouse at port of entry. Frey & Zusli v. Yunis Bros., 7:23.

In postal service answerable for breach of trust. Freeman v. Republic, 1:306.

Liability for unavoidable accidents to passengers. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52.

Responsibility for transportation and delivery of goods. Appleby v. Freeman & Son, 2:271; Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

COMMON LAW, see Statutes.

Controls when statutes silent. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Not applied when in conflict with statutes and rules of court. Daniels v. Daniels, 17:53.

Wrongful death, right to bring action at. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

COMPLAINTS, see Pleadings.

Bill of particulars for lack of definiteness. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt & Company, Ltd., 21:165.

Dismissal of answer, effect of, on requirement that plaintiff prove allegations in complaint. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Dismissal for lack of proper summons. Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp. (Letco), 22:103.

Motion to dismiss cannot be granted on appellee's withdrawal. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

Real property, filing of document of title with complaint claiming. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Reversible error to dismiss before filing of reply. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

CONCESSIONS.

Rights granted by agreements protected under sections 10th and 13th of Article I of Constitution. Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Liberian Logging and Wood Processing Corporation, 27:11.

CONDEMNATION, see Eminent Domain.

CONDONATION, see Admiralty.

CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT, see Judgments.

CONFESSIONS, see also Evidence.

Admissibility of as evidence. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Conviction cannot be based on involuntary. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Involuntary defined. Blamo v. Republic, 17:232.

Involuntary inadmissible. Blamo v. Republic, 17:232; Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Privilege against self-incrimination applies to extra-judicial. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

CONFLICT OF LAWS.

Comity defined. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Contract, law applicable to. Cavalla River Co. v. Fredericks, 2:375; Foreign Mission Board of Nat'l. Baptist Conv., Inc. v. Horton, 3:133.

Estoppel applied to jurisdictional challenge against foreign judgment. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Foreign judgments, jurisdiction of impeachable. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Maximum legal rate of interest governed by law of situs of loan. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610.

CONSPIRACY, see Crimes and Offenses.

Acts or declarations of one conspirator as admissible against co-conspirator. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Alibi of individual conspirator, circumstances when plea not a defense. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Defined. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

President's life, against, as capital offense. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

CONSTABLES, see Sheriffs.

CONSTITUTION, see also Aliens; Appeals; Bail; Civil Procedures; Courts; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Double Jeopardy; Habeas Corpus; Juries and Jurors; Jurisdiction; Public Officers and Employees; President; Statutes; Treason; Trials.

Administrative remedies to be exhausted before raising constitutionality of statute. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Agreement to oust courts of jurisdiction by arbitration unconstitutional. Grant v. Foreign Mission Board of Nat'l. Baptist Conv., 10:209.

Alien residents protected equally with citizens. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

Aliens protected by Bill of Rights. Fazzah Bros. v. Collins, 10:261.

Aliens' rights as to real property. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; West v. Dunbar, 1:313; Couwenhoven v. Green, 2:301; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Appeal, right to, under new Civil Procedure Law. Karneh v. Dagadu, 20:79.

Application for change of venue not a waiver of right to jury trial. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Attorneys and counselors not barred from service in executive branch. Republic v. Muller & Co., 1:201.

Award of arbitrators appointed by court held constitutional. Massaquoi v. Tolbert, 17:219.

Bail, unconstitutional enactment because excessive. Addo-Mills v. Thorpe, 24:27.

Bail prohibited in prosecution for capital crime. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383; Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Bond statute permitting forfeiture of bond must be extant as time of filing bond. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Cabinet Ministers and their agencies forbidden to perform judicial functions. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Chattel Mortgage Act of 1936 unconstitutional. Fazzah Bros. v. Collins, 10:261.

Collateral considerations of constitutional questions barred. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175.

Compulsory process, right of accused to. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Concurrent powers of Republic and City of Monrovia. Decision, 1:15.

Conservation of constitutional rights a cardinal principle in administration of justice. In re David, 10:6; Richards v. Republic, 10:13.

Constitutional issue to be reserved for appellate review. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Contracts, impairing obligations of forbidden. Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Liberian Logging and Wood Processing Corporation, 27:11.

Contracts. Impairment unconstitutional. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

Contractual obligations, respect for, as preventing State from granting land previously transferred. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Coverture by alien no bar to wife's holding title to real property. Williams v. Young, 1:293.

Criminal Prosecutions. Right of defendant to confront witnesses. Tobah v. Republic, 2:53; Brown v. Republic, 2:548.

Criminal prosecutions. Right to trial by jury. Harmon v. Republic, 2:480; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Mirza v. Republic, 13:41; Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Criminal sanctions cannot be imposed by Executive branch. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Defamation. Provision as to criminal prosecutions. Benson v. Roberts, 1:32.

Denial of day in court. Habre v. Jallah, 20:309.

Detention of civilians by military unconstitutional. Sio v. Gibson, 2:287.

Due process defined. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423; Howard v. Republic, 8:135.

Due process requires notice and opportunity to defend for valid in personam judgments. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Equal court rights to be accorded all persons including foreigners. Hassen v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:653.

Ex post facto law defined. Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Excessive bail, fines or punishments prohibited. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334; Scotland v. Republic, 3:252; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Excessive bail standard. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Excessive punishment, defined under. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Failure to object to disbandment of jury not a waiver of right as to double jeopardy. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Fair, speedy and impartial trial guaranteed. Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529; Page v. Republic, 4:348; Watts v. Republic, 11:77; Quai v. Republic, 12:402.

Freedom of assembly and right to petition. Sie v. Republic, 12:59.

Freedom of speech and press. Dennis v. Bowser, 1:5; Sie v. Republic, 12:59; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Freedom of speech and press, right to not absolute. In re Porte, 24:3.

Freeholders. Qualifications. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Guarantee against discrimination in citizen's acquisition of real property. Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Guarantee of remedy for every injury, limitation on. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Homestead Act not a constitutional provision. Maier v. Horace, 6:256.

Immunity of Republic from suits except as provided by Legislature. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Impeachment of public officer. Opinion, 1:509; Matter of King, 3:337.

Incriminating or violative of other rights, compelling accused to answer if. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Infamous crimes enumerated. Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Issues involving, decided by Court en banc. Fazzah v. National Economy Committee, 8:85.

Judicial Law sections 12.5 and 12.6, unconstitutional and void ab initio with relation to Supreme Court. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Judiciary; functions of. Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337.

Judiciary. Powers of. In re Constitutionality of Act of Legislature, 2:157; Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317; Manney v. Money, 2:618; Brown v. Simpson, 11:245.

Jurisdiction of Supreme Court. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117; Proceedings, 1:190; Bryant v. Harmon, 12:405; Cooper v. Cooper, 12:412; Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237.

Jury trial mandatory in prosecution for infamous crimes. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Mirza v. Republic, 13:41; Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Law of the land defined. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

Legislature, power of, to enact legislation infringing upon. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Liberian and American compared. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

No bar to trial of public official for embezzlement of public funds abroad. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court can only be altered by constitutional amendment. Liberian Air Taxi, Inc. v. Meissner, 18:40.

Powers of government divided into three distinct departments. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

President. Political and discretionary powers not subject to process of courts. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

Price controls, proper concern of Executive and Legislative branches. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Privilege against self-incrimination. Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Prohibition against taking private property for public use without just compensation. Johnson v. Republic, 1:103.

Prohibition against taking private property for public use without just compensation applies to concession agreements. Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Liberian Logging and Wood Processing Corporation, 27:11.

Prohibition of bail in capital offenses applies to appeal bonds. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383.

Question relating to, not put in issue where pleading vague. Fazzah v. National Economy Committee, 8:85.

Remedy for injury by due course of law, meaning of guarantee of. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Restrictions on judicial construction of statutes. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Retrospective application of decision overruling prior decision of Supreme Court in criminal matter not deemed ex post facto. Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Right of accused in criminal prosecution to be reasonably furnished with copy of charge. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Right of accused in criminal prosecution to investigation to determine eligibility for bail. Coleman v. Republic, 8:59.

Right of accused to bail in criminal prosecution for noncapital crime. Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241; Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Right of appeal, guaranteed by, even in Special Traffic Court convictions. White v. Thorpe (Chambers), 20:644.

Right of appeal. In re Gibson, 16:202.

Right of assembly and petition. Sie v. Republic, 12:59; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Right of defendant in criminal prosecutions. Flowers v. Republic, 1:344; Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383; Wood v. Republic, 1:445; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529; Smith v. Republic, 3:58; Scotland v. Republic, 3:252; Gartagar v. Republic, 4:70; Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Page v. Republic, 4:348; Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Henricksen v. Horace, 6:266; Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; John v. Republic, 7:261; Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Howard v. Republic, 8:135; Greenwood v. Republic, 8:263; Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241; Watts v. Republic, 11:77; Togba v. Republic, 12:218; Quai v. Republic, 12:402; Mirza v. Republic, 13:41; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57; Tompo v. Republic, 13:207; Harge v. Republic, 14:217; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 14:452; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Glay v. Republic, 15:181; Togba v. Republic, 15:206; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382; Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Right of defendant in criminal trial to compulsory process to obtain witnesses. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Stubblefield v. Republic, 10:104.

Right of married women as to property. Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Williams v. Young, 1:293; Birch v. Quinn, 1:309; Brown v. Allen, 2:115; Williams v. Wynn, 2:148; Pritchard v. Parker, 2:426; Curtis v. Brown, 3:320; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26.

Right of persons charged with crime, guarding. Garlo v. Republic, 20:234.

Right to acquire and possess property. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Right to counsel in criminal prosecution. Quai v. Republic, 12:402.

Right to counsel when charged with crime. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Right to fair and impartial trial in civil proceeding. Gittens v. Yanfor, 10:176.

Right to fair and impartial trial in criminal prosecution. Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529.

Right to impartial trial requires change of venue for local prejudice in criminal case. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Rights of tribal peoples. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Search and seizure by customs officers without warrant not unconstitutional. G.F. Overbeck Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

Secretary of State, as President's agent, not subject to ordinary process of court in matter involving political discretionary power of President only. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365; Porte v. Dennis, 9:213.

Secretary of State. Imposition of duties by legislature renders Secretary subject to process of courts. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365; Porte v. Dennis, 9:213.

Section 52, Judiciary Law, 1956 Code (Vol. V) tit. 18, held unconstitutional. Liberian Air Taxi, Inc. v. Meissner, 18:40.

Seizure of smuggled goods without warrant. Overbeck v. Davis, 3:210.

Self-incriminatory statement of counsel pro se in criminal trial admissible as confession. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Separation of powers. In re Constitutionality of Act, 2:157; Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Harmon v. Republic, 2:480; Manney v. Money, 2:618; Posum v. Pardee, 4:299; Bell v. Republic, 5:283; Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423; Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234; In re Cassell, 14:391; Ghoussalny v. Nelson, 20:591.

Statute granting President power to remove judges unconstitutional. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347.

Supremacy of Constitution in conflicts. Liberian Air Taxi, Inc. v. Meissner, 18:40.

Supremacy over legislative enactments. Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243.

Supreme Court, preservation of balance of government by. Crusoe-Marsh v. Morgan-Bedell, 20:334.

Supreme Court. Power to determine constitutionality of statutes. Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317; Harmon v. Republic, 2:480; Manney v. Money, 2:618; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Fazzah v. National Economy Committee, 8:85; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Supreme Court. Power to remit suspension of attorneys. In re Coleman, 11:432.

Supreme Court sitting en banc to decide constitutional issues rather than chambers Justice. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Supreme Court's jurisdiction of contempt proceeding for violation of injunction issued by lower court. Karpeh-Buchanan v. Buchanan-Ratazzi, 15:510.

Sureties on bail bond qualifications. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Trial by jury, right of person charged with crime to impartial and speedy. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Trial by sassywood and similar aboriginal ordeals unconstitutional as violative by privilege against self-incrimination. Posum v. Pardee, 4:299; Koffah v. Republic, 6:336; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63.

Unconstitutional enactments, ab initio invalidity. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Waiver of right not to be twice put in jeopardy by motion to quash indictment or set aside verdict in criminal prosecution. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

Defendant in criminal case, right of, to present testimony of material witness. Jappa v. Republic, 21:339.

"Jury of vicinity," meaning of. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

"Public and impartial trial," meaning of. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Separation of powers, participation by Ministry of Justice official in civil matter as violation of. Nyepon v. Reeves, 21:406.

CONSTRUCTION, see Statutes, Wills.

CONTEMPT, see also Res Judicata; Supreme Court.

Acts constituting contempt of Supreme Court. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Advice of attorney to client to disobey court order as contempt. Anandani v. Massaquoi, 26:286.

Advice of counsel is no defense to charge; may serve in mitigation. Kanneh v. Kromah, 25:367.

Attorney may not be punished for contempt not committed in presence of court unless served. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:606.

Attorneys, court's inherent power to punish. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Attorneys, requirement of courtesy toward court. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Company, 20:108.

Attorneys suggesting directives to lower court judge contrary to Supreme Court mandate as grounds. Massaquoi-Fahnbulleh v. Urey, 25:432.

Counselors held in contempt for writing false information to President. In re George, 26:435.

Defined. In re Bestman et al., 20:567; In re Doe, 23:38; In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Disobedience of Supreme Court mandate by inferior court judge. Wolo v. Simpson, 20:24.

Disposal of article involved in litigation before final disposition on appeal as. Kanneh v. Kromah, 25:367.

Essentiality of to court's authority. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved, May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Government officials as subject to. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Hearing, denial of fair. Phillips v. Smith, 20:27.

Impeding execution of mandate of Supreme Court as. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Inferior court's disregard of Supreme Court's mandate as contumacious. National Industrial Forest Corporation v. Baysah, 25:74.

Inherent power of court to punish for. In re Bestman et al., 20:567.

Limits on penalty imposed by circuit court. Raynes v. Republic, 17:255.

Lower court judge, by, after mandate of Supreme Court. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Mandate of court, commending suit to frustrate. Dennis v. Dennis, 20:290.

Parties who carried out order of trial court after divested of jurisdiction, not in. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:606.

Persons seeking to have Executive or Legislative branch intervene in pending court case, guilty of. In re Dennis-Webb and Dennis, 27:355.

Preventing enforcement of court's mandate by importuning executive branch as. Republic v. Harmon, 25:348.

Reentry of landlord on leased premises in defiance of court order as contempt. Anandani v. Massaquoi, 26:286.

Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, unconstitutional with relation to Supreme Court. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved, May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Sui generis nature of. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved, May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Supreme Court, constitutionally established power of and independent of legislative action. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved, May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Unfounded legal proceedings brought by counsel to obstruct court mandate. Karneh v. Baysah, 25:300.

When appeal raises same issues. Dweh v. Morris, 17:410.

CONTEMPT OF COURT, see also Attorney General; Attorneys and Counselors; Courts; Justices of the Peace; Probate Courts; Trials.

Advice of counsel no defense but may be considered in mitigation of punishment. In re Dennis, 9:389.

Application in Chambers for prohibition to full Court constitutes. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:582.

Assistant's liability for action taken under direction of employing attorney. In re Benson, 5:343.

Attempt to mislead court as ground. In re Richards, 10:153.

By Attorney General. Proceedings, 1:190; In re Cassell, 10:17; In re Cassell, 14:391.

By attorneys in using remedial and extraordinary processes to delay justice. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

Citation not directed to Marshal invalid. Review, 1:209.

Civil proceedings instituted by private individuals. Kpunel v. Gbassie, 15:50.

Collusion of attorneys as ground for contempt proceedings. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Conduct necessary to purge. In re Harmon, 5:334.

Constructive defined. Liberian Bar Assn. v. Gittens, 7:253; Gibson v. Wilson, 8:165; In re Dennis, 9:389; In re Cassell, 14:391; Kpunel v. Gbassie, 15:50; Johnson v. Republic, 15:551.

Counsel, in advising disobedience of Supreme Court mandate, commits. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Counsel, in initiating defiance of Supreme Court judgment, commits. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Criminal distinguished from civil. Howard v. Republic, 8:135; Gibson v. Wilson, 8:165; Kpunel v. Gbassie, 15:50.

Criminal, requirements of due process. Howard v. Republic, 8:135; Gibson v. Wilson, 8:165.

Defined. King v. Moore, 2:35; White v. Russell, 3:198; In re Johnson, 6:47; Gibson v. Wilson, 8:165; In re Cassell, 10:17; In re Coleman, 11:350; Watts-Johnson v. Richards, 12:8; In re Cassell, 14:391; Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337.

Delaying administrations of justice by misuse of alternative or peremptory writ. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

Disobedience of valid order of court. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

Excessive fine or punishment for, unconstitutional. Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Expression of intent to appeal not contempt. Cooper v. Morris, 13:164.

Fraud in affidavit. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Habeas corpus proceedings. Proceedings, 1:190.

Hiring-out of property levied upon by sheriff not. Kissa v. Stubblefield, 1:342.

Improper conduct of judge. Rottger v. Williams, 5:348; In re Smallwood, 8:3; Amierable v. Cole, 13:17; Richardson v. Perry, 14:7.

Improper conduct of probate commissioner. In re Caranda, 9:240.

Inherent power of court to punish for. In re Moore, 2:97.

Inherent right of Supreme Court. Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337.

Intent. Effect on penalty. Gibson v. Wilson, 8:165. In re Caranda, 8:249.

Magistrate may punish. Moore v. Bull, 13:106.

Order holding party litigant in contempt will be dismissed on appeal when based on error of law. Karpeh v. Fischer, 12:167.

Party's refusal to obey order constitutes contempt regardless of soundness of order. International Trust Co. of Liberia v. Weah, 15:568.

Penalty for committing in subordinate court. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Probate court has power to punish. Watts-Johnson v. Richards, 12:8; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57; In re Caranda, 14:320.

Proceedings instituted for the purpose of delaying and impeding administration of justice. Richards v. Republic, 12:161.

Purpose of criminal proceedings to vindicate dignity of court. Kpunel v. Gbassie, 15:50.

Refusal of counselor to serve as amicus curiae. In re Simpson, 14:429.

Returns missing on appeal. In re Davis, 10:6.

Service of process, hindering of, by deception. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

Summary trials of attorneys for. Williams v. Matthews, 2:56; Ricks v. Worrell, 3:21.

Supersedeas. Attempted interference with appeal contemptuous. In re Smallwood, 8:3.

Supreme Court, inherent right of. Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337.

Supreme Court may penalize appellant for contempt of lower court. International Trust Company of Liberia v. Weah, 15:658.

Supreme Court may penalize violator of injunction issued by lower court before appeal. Karpeh-Buchanan v. Buchanan-Ratazzi, 15:510.

Unsupported verbal representations insufficient basis. Richards v. Republic, 10:13.

Violation of injunction. Bryant v. Moore, 2:33; Young v. Embree, 5:242; Porte v. Dennis, 9:213; In re Dennis, 9:389; In re Cassell, 10:17; Brown v. Simpson, 11:245; Kolleh v. Gray, 12:123; Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie v. Mensah, 13:11.

Violation of order of Supreme Court. Alpha v. Tucker, 15:561; In re Gibson, 16:202.

Violation of prohibition. Harris v. Kaidbey, 8:444.

CONTINUANCE.

Counsel, entertaining of motion for continuance as court's recognition of. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Failure to file motion for or appear for trial, effect of. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

Several defendants where no motion of severance, motion for continuance refused to one of. Yancy v. Republic, 26:374.

CONTINUANCES, see also Attorneys and Counselors, Civil Procedure; Courts; Judges and Justices; Trials; Witnesses.

Absence of material witness. Denied when court exhausted means to procure attendance. Larmouth v. Republic, 13:493.

Absence of material witness as ground for. Appleby v. Freeman, 2:271; Snetter v. Snetter, 2:372; Ross v. Roberts, 3:266; Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Hutchins v. Republic, 5:63; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93; Wright v. Tay, 11:164; Sie v. Republic, 12:59; Samuels v. Samuels, 13:27; Larmouth v. Republic, 13:493; George v. Republic, 14:339; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Republic v. Wright, 20:77.

Actual illness of counsel is proper ground. Teewia v. Urey, 27:91.

Appellee's procuring premature transmittal of record not ground for. Nah v. Nah, 17:357.

Application for must be supported by proof. Teewia v. Urey, 27:91.

Circumstances of each case determined granting of. Sherman v. Reeves-Chenoweth, 24:196.

Denial ground for new trial. Greene v. Republic, 14:163.

Denial held not abuse of discretion. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:511.

Denial reviewable by appeal, not be certiorari. Harris v. Williams, 9:344; Wilkins v. Republic, 14:23.

Denied where moving party failed to exercise diligence to procure attendance of material witness. Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372.

Discretion of judge, within. Edris v. Republic, 20:153; Wilson v. Kandakai, 21:452.

Discretion of trial court, abuse of, in acting on motion. Republic v. Wright, 20:77.

Discretion of trial court. Wright v. Bacon, 1:477; Dyson v. Republic, 1:481; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Discretion of trial court in refusing, no abuse of. Serjleh v. Republic, 20:371.

For diminution of records. Attia v. Rigby, 1:534.

Illness of counsel as ground. Ashumana v. Lewis, 21:104.

Illness of counsel as grounds for. Burney v. Jantzen, 4:322; Prout v. Cooper, 5:379; Dennis v. Reffell, 7:332; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:155; Davies v. Yancy, 10:89; Phillips v. Nelson, 10:134; Paterson, Zochonis and Company v. Flomo, 20:404.

Inherent power of court to initiate. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Company, 20:108.

Legislative duties of party or counsel as ground for. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Motion denied when party simultaneously caused subpoena to issue for material witness. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 17:180.

Motion for, on account of absence of counsel, declared moot where counsel's leave expired on date of decision of motion. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:155.

Motion for should be granted unless effect would be to baffle justice. Woodson v. Heuston, 12:133.

Motions for addressed to court's discretion and not reviewable absent abuse. Nah v. Nah, 17:357; Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:511.

Moving papers must allege continuance not sought for mere purpose of delay. Tugba v. Republic, 12:218.

Objection to denial waived by failure to seek remedial process. Hill v. Hill, 13:257.

Physical inability to attend of party who is material witness. Samuels v. Samuels, 13:27.

Should not be granted where purpose is delay. Woodson v. Heuston, 12:133; Cole v. Payne, 12:183.

Should ordinarily be granted. Woodson v. Heuston, 12:133.

Voluntary absence of counsel not ground. Coffah v. Pyne, 8:380; Harmon v. Bryant-Jones, 10:296.

Waiver of objection to denial. Garlo v. Republic, 20:234.

When denial an abuse of discretion, new trial granted. Nagbe v. Nyema, 17:601.

When motion for granted on basis of unavailability of witness. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

Writ of certiorari will lie to review granting of. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

CONTRACTS, see also Accounts and Accounting; Actions; Agents; Bailments; Bill of Lading; Bonds; Debt; Deeds; Election of Remedies; Equity; Estoppel; Evidence; Leases; Partnership; Releases; Sales; Seals; Signatures; Specific Performance.

Acceptances inferred from course of previous usage and surrounding circumstances. Naoura Bros. v. Curti, 15:628.

Action for breach not proper form where contract fully executed. Witherspoon v. Grigsby, 7:6.

Ambiguities in written instrument construed against party who prepared it. Rached v. Knowlden, 13:68.

Bills of lading as. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

Breach not a ground for action of ejectment. Rached v. Knowlden, 13:68.

Carriage of goods, limitation of liability in contract for. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Conduct of parties as affecting. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Consideration may be benefited to promisor or detriment to promise. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480.

Construction of agreement to reconvey real property as sale or mortgage dependent on intention of parties. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Consul in official capacity; liability. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Counterclaim or setoff in action of debt must be for liquidated sum. Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:310.

Defined. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145; Kamara v. Logan, 12:28.

Employment contracts, power of National Labor Affairs Agency to award damages for breach of. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Enforceable in part where severable. Couwenhoven v. Green, 2:301.

Equitable relief for breach denied where adequate remedy at law. Tarabay v. Awar, 17:36.

Equity jurisdiction in relation to. Nassre and Salevy v. Elias Bros., 5:108; Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Essential elements. Karmo v. Yemgbie, 13:84.

Estoppel of party to, illegal. West v. Dunbar, 1:313.

Executory and executed distinguished. Harris v. Kaidbey, 8:444.

Guaranty and suretyship distinguished. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Husband and wife. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453.

Impairment by executive agency unconstitutional. Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Liberian Logging and Wood Processing Corporation, 27:11.

Impairment by Legislature unconstitutional. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

Interference with performance. Van Heusden v. Walker, 2:431.

Jurisdiction of court not ousted by agreement. Grant v. Foreign Mission Board of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv., 10:209.

Law governing where conflict of laws. Cavalla River Co. v. Fredericks, 2:375; Foreign Mission Brd. of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv. V. Horton, 3:133.

Married woman in own name. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73.

Necessary allegations inaction in debt arising from. Dinklage v. Liles, 1:382.

New, when agreement expires and parties continue to perform, formation of. Francis v. Liberian French Timber Corp., 22:168.

Of affreightment. Liles v. Harmon, 2:37; Frey & Zusli v. Yunis Bros. & Co., 7:23; Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

Of agency. Jantzen v. Coleman, 2:208; Bent v. Coleman, 2:210.

Of bailment. Wear v. Kpah-Leandh-Jaiyawa, 8:361.

Of deposit. Bank of Monrovia v. Kabbah, 10:281.

Of employment. King v. Wiechmann, 2:231; Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436; Jantzen v. Williams, 4:280; Foreign Mission Brd. of Natl. Bapt. Conv. v. Grant, 11:22.

Of insurance. Flood v. Conneh, 3:257.

Of sale, rights of third persons. Harris v. Kaidbey, 8:444.

Of surety distinguished for guaranty. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Option unenforceable for uncertainty. Mirza v. Crusoe, 14:95.

Parol evidence rule. Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263; Ware v. Watson, 8:335; Butchers' Assn. of Monrovia v. Turay, 13:365; Thompson v. Republic, 14:290; Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Payment of attorney employed to defend poor person. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Payment of installments on delivery of goods. Naoura Bros. v. Curti, 15:628.

Receipt may be specifically enforced as contract for sale of real property. Kamara v. Logan, 12:28.

Republic bound by contracts of courts with attorneys to defend poor persons. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Requisites for validity of. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Rescission of contract by party who affirms, barring of. Francis v. Liberian French Timber Corp., 22:168.

Rescission plus damages. Nassre v. Elias Bros., 5:108.

Revocation. Theume v. Ross, 3:386.

Silence as assent. King v. Wiechmann, 2:231; Bent v. Coleman, 2:210.

Specific performance. Collins v. Elias Bros., 11:258; Kamara v. Logan, 12:28; Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480; Reeves-Gibson v. Johnson, 15:612; King-Gibson v. Carter, 20:618.

Specific performance. Ancillary injunction. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:504.

Tender. Effect. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

Unenforceability for uncertainty. Reeves-Gibson v. Johnson, 15:612.

Usuriousness. Maximum legal interest rate determined by law of place where principal advanced. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610.

Usuriousness. Substance prevails over form. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610.

Voidability for fraud in inducement. Duff v. Harmon, 11:344.

Voidability for illegality. Couwenhoven v. Green, 2:301; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159.

Voidable agreement valid until voided. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Wagering and gaming contracts illegal. Posum v. Pardee, 4:299.

CONVERSION.

Damages for. Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Defined. Sangee v. Republic, 9:288.

Of goods covered by bill of lading. Appleby v. Freeman & Son, 2:271.

Of mortgaged chattel by lienor. Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Of property or proceeds thereof an element of embezzlement. Johns v. Republic, 13:143.

Tortious, distinguished from criminal. Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Sangee v. Republic, 9:288.

CONVEYANCES, see Deeds.

CONVICTIONS.

As accessory before and after the fact may be based on corroborated testimony of accomplice. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Cannot be based on involuntary confession. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Cannot be based solely on uncorroborated testimony of accomplice. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

COPARCENY, see Cotenancies.

CORONER'S JURY, see Juries and Jurors.

CORPORATIONS, see also Partnership.

Amendment of articles of domestic corporation created prior to new act subjecting it to new Associations Law, validity of for purposes of operating thereunder. Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Company v. Crystal  Steamship Corporation, S.A., 27:198.

Appearance by managing agent. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Capacity to sue or be sued. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Consolidation, merger and change of name. Mamodou v. Woermann & Brussells Co., Ltd., 12:53.

De fact, attempt to incorporate as essential requirement. Gibson v. Church of Christ  Mission in Liberia, Inc., 24:263.

De facto corporation may acquire and hold title to real property. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Designation by proper name mandatory in title of action. Mamodou v. Woermann & Brussels Co., Ltd., 12:53.

Dissolution trustees, appointment by trustees of agent to accomplish details of work, validity of. Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Company v. Crystal Steamship Corporation, S.A., 27:198.

Dissolution under chapter 11 of new Associations Law, availability of to solvent and insolvent corporations. Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Company v. Crystal Steamship Corporation, S.A., 27:198.

Dividends payable only out of profits. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Existence of de facto corporation can be questioned only by the state. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Foreign, cannot be freeholders. Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Foreign, may institute action of debt through attorney in fact. Fazzah v. Rogers Bros. Shoes, Inc., 12:300.

Foreign non-resident company, service of process on agent. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Land granted to unincorporated church deemed to have been made to de facto corporation. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Letter of foreign corporation sufficient authority for Liberian attorney to collect claim. Fazzah v. Rogers Bros. Shoes Inc., 12:300.

Liability of chairman to execution running against corporation. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Members not party to action when corporation is party. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Membership disputes, resolution of. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:443.

Not formally organized or chartered may exist de facto. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Officer not party to suit against. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Service of process on clerk. Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293.

Status of shareholder. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Suit in corporate name. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

CORPUS DELICTI, see Crimes and Offenses.

COSTS, see also Appeals; Civil Procedures; Damages; Pleadings.

Accepting payment of by successful party, effect of on judgment and action. Donzoe v. Thorpe, 27:166.

Amended pleadings, payment of costs incurred upon withdrawal of prior pleadings. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394; King Peter's Heirs v. Gigger, 27:287.

Amendment of judgment where computation erroneous permitted. Pet. of Adm'rs. of Massaquoi, 9:81.

Assessable against defendant who fails to file answer. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

Assessed against probate commissioner. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Bill of costs, money judgment not specifying sum certain does not authorize clerk to prepare. National Iron Ore Co. v. Gibson, 26:365.

Cannot be awarded in subsequent term by correction of judgment. Pet. of Adm'rs. of Massaquoi.

Certiorari, payment of as prerequisite to issuance of writ. Dixon v. Kandakai, 25:362.

Certiorari will lie as to enforcement of bill pending prosecution of appeal. Morris v. Saad, 13:135.

Collection procedure prescribed. Order, 1:535.

Effect of signing agreed bill. In re Harmon, 4:314.

Evidence of payment. East African Co. v. McCalla, 1:292; Richards v. Coleman, 3:401.

Execution granted against respondent for. Harris v. Williams, 9:338.

Expenses of litigation. Tweh v. Massaquoi.

Expenses recoverable by successful defendant in replevin action. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

Failure to pay additional. Richards v. Coleman, 3:401.

Fee to clerk of court for preparation of records. Dennis v. Republic, 2:534; Dayrell v. Thomas, 11:98.

Fees of clerks distinguished from. Dennis v. Republic, 2:534.

Government fee taxable to losing litigant. Jantzen v. Stubblefield, 4:110.

Judgment not deemed fully satisfied where bill of costs for payment of tax fee unpaid. Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20.

Justice of peace and magistrates' courts. Spiller v. Roberts, 2:235.

Liability of substituted appellant. Cole v. Williams, 11:95.

Losing party must be given opportunity to tax. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:310.

Losing party to pay. Union National Bank, Inc. v. Hodge (Chambers), 20:635.

Motion, renewal of after withdrawal, payment of first motion costs as prerequisite. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:330, 394.

Motion to dismiss appeal for failure to pay denied where disallowed by trial court. Halaby v. Farhart, 7:124.

Motions, renewal or amendment of after withdrawal, payment of first motion costs as prerequisite. King Peter's Heirs v. Gigger, 12:287.

Nonpayment insufficient to justify writ of error. Joh v. Hill, 17:122.

Not assessed in criminal cases. Dennis v. Republic, 2:534; Deady v. Republic, 8:256; Sangee v. Republic, 9:288; Neah v. Republic, 15:280.

Not included in computation of damages for injury to personal property. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Not paid by judge. Snyder v. Clarke, 9:226.

Payment as waiver of right to appeal. Liberia Trading Corp. v. Abi-Jaoudi, 14:43.

Payment of, prerequisite to amendment, new pleadings, or re-entry after withdrawal of case. Ernest v. McFoy, 2:295; Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

Payment of accrued costs as prerequisite for issuance of writ of error. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

Payment of as prerequisite to appeal. Thompson v. Bacon, 1:299; Jackson & Co. v. Summerville, 1:339; Farphiny v. McCarey, 2:50; Warner v. Sodjie, 2:424; Sims v. West & Co., 3:355; Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231; Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Sandfish v. James, 6:235.

Payment on amendment, withdrawal and re-entry of case. Ernest v. McFoy, 2:295; Davies v. Yancy, 10:89.

Refunded to curator of intestate estates. Leigh v. Taylor, 9:431.

Republic neither pays nor receives. Dennis v. Republic, 2:534.

Ruling on taxation appealable only on final judgment, absent statutory exceptions. Harris v. Williams, 9:338.

Summary proceedings, permitted in against person instituting. Kanna v. Smith, 24:359.

Taxable to losing party. Jantzen v. Stubblefield, 4:110.

Taxed to losing party on appeal not recoverable although party successful at retrial. Henrichsen v. Moore, 7:120.

COUNSEL, RIGHT TO.

Deputizing other counsel, in absence of counsel or the party, to announce appeal. B.F. Goodrich, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 23:251.

COUNTENANCIES, see also Curtesy; Customary Law; Deeds; Ejectment; Homesteads; Immigrant Allotments; Probate Courts; Real Property; Wills.

Coparcenary estates, how created. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Coparcenary estates under Homestead and Household Exemption Act of 1889. Wiles v. Wiles, 1:423.

Determination of coparceners' interests prior to accounting action. Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Division of property incompatible with joint tenancy. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Existence of joint tenancy determined by application of common law. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Homestead not an estate in coparcenary. Maier & Jurgensmeyer v. Horace, 6:256.

Joint tenancy cannot be created by descent through intestacy. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Joint tenancy cannot be created solely by testamentary disposition. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Joint tenancy cannot be partitioned by testamentary disposition of a tenant. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Nature of joint tenancy. Williams v. Young, 1:293; Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107; Worjroh v. Harris, 11:388; Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Nature of tenancy in common. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107; Worjroh v. Harris, 11:388.

Partition. Worrell v. McGill, 1:63; Clark v. Barbour, 2:15.

Presumption in favor of joint tenancy, when destroyed. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Right of survivorship in joint tenancy. Adm'rs. of Estate of Washington v. Lloyd, 1:104; Williams v. Young, 1:293.

Unities essential to creation of joint tenancy. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

COUNTERCLAIMS, see Contracts; Debts; Pleadings.

COUNTY ATTORNEYS, see Attorneys and Counselors.

COURTS, see also Amicus Curiae; Attorneys and Counselors; Bonds; Certiorari; Circuit Courts; Civil Procedures; Constitution; Contempt; Contempt of Court; Continuances; Costs; Error; Evidence; Habeas Corpus; Injunctions; Judges and Justices; Judgments; Juries and Jurors; Jurisdiction; Justices and Judges; Justices of the Peace; Magistrates; Magistrates' Courts; Mandamus; Parties; Prisons; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Records; Religious Societies; Stipendiary Magistrates; Supersedeas; Supreme Court; Trials; Venue; Witnesses; and particular courts.

Acts of court defined, distinguished. Morris v. Republic, 4:125.

Appellate court, power of, to examine decisions of inferior. White v. Russell, 3:198.

Appellate court on appeal from court not of record, right on trial de novo to consider motion to dismiss. Tubman v. Laquoi, 22:479.

Application for survey for partitioning property of decedent to be made to circuit court. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

As waiver of objection to jurisdiction of the person. Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226; Sesay v. Republic, 12:306.

Assigned circuit judge lacks jurisdiction unless assignment renewed. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445; Union National Bank, SAC v. M.C.C., Inc., 20:525..

Assignment of judge expired, effect of on jurisdiction. Union National Bank v. Monrovia Construction Company, 23:197.

Authority over interstate estates. Tee v. Chea, 12:205.

Authority to license attorneys and counselors. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Bailiff as ministerial officer. Fagains v. Harris-Fagans, 20:368.

Binding effect of earlier decision on Supreme Court. Alpha v. Tucker, 20:120.

Cannot interfere with judgments of other courts of concurrent jurisdiction. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Capital crimes, safeguard of persons charged with. Yarssah v. Republic, 20:14.

Certified record conclusive as to contents of missions. Thompson v. Republic, 14:290.

Chambers Justice's unappealed ruling, finality of. Saab v. Bharwaneys Inc., 24:289.

Circuit court cannot conduct summary investigation of magistrate for denial of demurrer. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Circuit court rules have force of statutory law. Howard v. Dunbar, 14:515.

Competency to render judgment defined. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Complaints must be addressed to proper division of. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Conflict between statute and rule of. Harris v. Caranda, 19:25.

Constitutional functions assigned to judiciary. Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337.

Constitutionality of statutes, right to determine. Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Contempt, inherent power of over lawyers, Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Contempt power as essential to authority of. In re the Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved, May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Continuances, inherent power to initiate. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Company, 20:108.

Continuing responsibility where issues referred to referees. United Liberia Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Contracts with attorneys to defend poor persons binding on Republic. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Correction of record or judgment. Bonah v. Kandakai (Chambers), 20:677.

Courts of law and equity having concurrent jurisdiction, power of court in equity to administer full relief in case of. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Date of ruling, requirement for recording. Bundoo v. Ndembu, 20:204.

"Day in court" defined. Paterson, Zochonis and Company v. Flomo, 20:404.

Debt court, jurisdiction of. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Debt court jurisdiction. Cooper v. Alamendine, 20:416.

Default judgment reviewable by same court if obtained by fraud. Jantzen v. Modern Housing Construction Co., 14:508.

Defects and errors not affecting substantial rights to be disregarded. National Iron Ore, Ltd. v. Board of General Appeals, 25:438.

Definition of contempt of. Brown v. Sesay, 19:86.

Disqualification of judge who represented party before elevation. Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:408.

Distorting rights. Outland v. Pritchard, 19:362.

Duties as to instructions to juries. Greenwood v. Republic, 7:150; Padmore v. Republic, 9:195; Porte v. Porte, 9:279; Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Duties in criminal cases. Yancy v. Republic, 4:268.

Duties of judges defined and classified as mandatory and discretionary. Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Duty of to adhere to and enforce decisions and judgments. Alpha v. Tucker, 21:458.

Duty to approve bill of exceptions. Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Duty to be responsible as to pleadings and issues. Greene v. Clarke, 11:171.

Duty to conduct adequate hearing in divorce action. Potter v. Potter, 15:269.

Duty to inform litigants as to procedural matters. Tweh v. Massaquoi, 11:152.

Duty to inform parties of assignment of case. Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20.

Duty to investigate misconduct of officers. Tubman v. Tubman, 3:243.

Earlier statute on same subject, effect of interpretation of. Bestman v. Republic, 20:216.

Enforcement of a void judgment. Kennedy v. Republic, 19:376.

Error not attributable to trial judge cannot be laid in bill of exceptions. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Evincing contempt. Trinity v. Hoff, 19:358.

Execution of ruling by circuit court cannot be set aside by probate commissioner. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Executive officers may not perform functions of. Posum v. Pardee, 4:299.

Expired assigned term, extension of. Union National Bank, SAC v. M.C.C. Inc., 20:525.

Failure of defense to contempt of. Brown v. Sesay, 19:86.

Failure to specify grounds for overruling objection to immaterial question not reversible error. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Finality of plea in bar. Richards v. Monrovia Brewery, 19:241.

Former circuit judge cannot sign appeal bond after elevation to Supreme Court. Roberts v. Republic, 13:413.

Function of court in reviewing legislation. Ammons v. Barclay, 18:212.

Functions as to evidence. Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Phillips v. Republic, 4:11.

Guardians of own records and masters of own practice. Harmon v. Republic, 4:195.

Habeas corpus, power to issue writ of. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

Haste, disapproval by Supreme Court of dispatch of cases in lower courts with unseemly. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Inferior, opinions of Supreme Court to guide. Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Manning v. Karpeh, 6:172.

Inferior courts, time when jurisdiction ceases after appeal has been taken. Jarboe v. Jarboe, 24:352.

Inferior court's disregard of Supreme Court's mandate as contumacious. National Industrial Forest Corporation v. Baysah, 25:74.

Initiation of proceedings by lawyer in defiance of. Brown v. Sesay, 19:86.

Inquiry into issuance of warrant of attachment. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Interference by court with judgment of another court of concurrent jurisdiction. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Investigation of excuse of illness of jurors in criminal case. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Irregular for judge to preside over case in which his relative is party. Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Issuance of certificates by ministerial officers in addition to returns. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Issues of law take priority. Kesselly v. Folomah, 19:181; Outland v. Pritchard, 19:362.

Issues to be decided only when raised in pleadings. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 25:116.

Judge's reliance on personal knowledge of local prejudice in application for change of venue. Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Judges of courts of concurrent jurisdiction. Kaizolu v. Corneh, 18:369; Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

Judges of courts of concurrent jurisdiction, review of judgments of. King v. King, 24:414; Kaba v. Karneh, 24:436; Dennis v. Dennis, 24:490.

Judges warned against practices which may appear improper. Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Judicial note of own record. Gbassage v. Holt, 24:293.

Judicial notice. Phelps v. Williams, 3:54; Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Judicial proceedings, right to publication of. In re Porte, 24:3.

Jurisdiction, original, when government agency given original jurisdiction. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Jurisdiction, unaffected by private agreement of parties. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Justice of peace, not of record. Peter v. Onanuga, 16:102.

Justice of the Peace Court's jurisdiction to hold preliminary examination in criminal matters upheld. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

Law, declaration of what is, as judicial power. Browne v. Republic, 22:121.

Legislation, canons for judicial interpretation. Shannon v. Liberia Trading Corporation, 23:66.

Legitimation proceedings, exclusive jurisdiction of Probate Court. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Limit on exercise of powers. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt & Company, Ltd., 21:165.

Litigants act for themselves, requirement that. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Mandates of Supreme Court to be duly executed. Thomas v. Dayrell, 17:284.

May add or drop parties to action. Franco-Liberian Transport Co. v. Republic, 13:541; Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

May order correction of clerical errors in proceedings during term at which made. Washington v. Lloyd, 1:83.

Mayor cannot interfere in matter pending in court. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Ministerial offices may be compelled to correct errors in returns of process. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Mistake of court officer, effect on appeal. Perry v. Knight, 5:276.

Municipal courts, power to order amendments of pleadings. Anderson v. Powell, 4:134.

Need to rule on all material issues. Zakaria Bros. v. Pierson, 19:171.

No jurisdiction as to election returns and qualifications of members of Legislature. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Not agents of government. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Not empowered to construe statutes beyond Legislature's intent. George v. Republic, 14:158.

Obedience, persons owing. Nyepon v. Reeves, 21:406.

Of first instance not to pass on constitutional issue. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Officers of, duties in connection with execution on property. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176.

Officers of, presumption of properly performing duty. Rasamny Brothers, Inc. v. Gardiner, 24:530.

Officers' pay at item of costs. Jantzen v. Stubblefield, 4:110.

Overruled decision lacks any authority. Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Penalty imposed on counselor who attempts to mislead. Dean v. Republic, 17:204.

Pendency of same matter in court of concurrent jurisdiction. Bonah v. Kandakai (Chambers), 20:677.

Political questions not justiciable by. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Power and duty to compel decorum. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Power to interfere with judgment of court of concurrent jurisdiction. Cole-Larson v. Thompson, 20:339; Wesley v. Tyler, 20:477; Francis v. Mesurado Fishing Company, Ltd., 20:542; Soko v. Mallobe (Chambers), 20:669.

Powers in relation to marriage and divorce. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

Power of Supreme Court when subordinate court disobeys mandate. Thomas v. Dayrell, 17:284.

Prior finding of traffic court, irregular on face, admissibility of. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Proceedings in lower court, procedure necessary for Supreme Court Justice to issue order affecting. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Prohibition is proper remedy to restrain inferior court from passing judgment in case already adjudged. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Prohibition lies against judge's oral instructions to sheriff when contrary to formal ruling on same matter. Dweh v. Findley, 15:638.

Prohibition remedy where proceedings of lower court are contrary to proper practice. Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Purposes of rules of courts. Harris v. Caranda, 19:25.

Questions of law, duty to dispose of without application of party. Gibson v. Jones, 3:78.

Questions of law, exclusive province of. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Review in appellate court of decisions upon matters clearly within discretion of lower court. Sherman v. Reeves, 23:227.

Review of action of one circuit by another. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176; Gage v. Pratt, 6:246.

Revision of Supreme Court's Rule IV, Part 4. Harris v. Caranda, 19:25.

Rights of litigants, care for. Nimley v. Republic, 21:348.

Rules of, as having effect of law. Acolatse v. Dennis, 22:147.

Rules of, definition and scope. Steinberg v. Greywood, 2:237.

Rules of, have force of statutory law. Harmon v. Republic, 4:195; Howard v. Dunbar, 14:515.

Rules of, judicial not legislative province. In re Constitutionality of Act of Legislature, 2:157; Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Rules of, observance. Cooper v. C.V.A.O., 20:397.

Rules of, to be administered to secure justice. Pratt v. Phillips, 10:147.

Ruling set aside for irregularities on hearing. Geeby v. Gbae, 15:26.

Rulings limited to issues raised. Kesselly v. Folomah, 19:181.

Rulings must be reduced to writing. Brown v. Grant, 1:87.

Signature on bill of exceptions essential. Anderson v. Dennis, 1:55.

Stare decisis defined. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Statute authorizing court of law to vacate own judgment no bar to coordinate relief by court of equity. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Sub judice defined. Liberian Bar Assn. v. Gittens, 7:253.

Summary investigation of magistrates and justices of peace defined. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Supreme Court has right to establish procedure of inferior courts. Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231.

Supreme Court's order to lower court cannot be restrained by prohibition. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:582.

Technicalities to be avoided when not in conflict with mandatory requirements or precedent. Holmen v. Montgomery, 23:19.

Term, extension of, by judge. Washington v. Dennis, 20:285.

Term of, timely service and filing of process prior to first day of. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Terms of. Amendment of statues and rules. Dennis v. Dimmerson, 3:62.

Terms of. Cases held after expiration. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92; Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

Terms of. Computation of periods of quarterly sessions. Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

Terms of, computation of periods of quarterly sessions excludes only legal holidays and Sundays, Biggers v. Wesley, 24:92.

Terms of. Time for filing action for ensuing term. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Hawkins v. C.F.A.O., 6:344; Brown v. Tarpeh, 6:344.

Terms of. Time for filing within. Dennis v. Reffell, 7:332.

Terms of. When grand juries may be empanelled. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Trial court, termination of jurisdiction of, on notice of appeal. White v. Russell, 3:198.

Trial court, when jurisdiction ceases. Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Trial court may insert amount of penalty in appeal bonds. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:356.

Trial court will be ordered to resume jurisdiction and enforce judgment in absence of timely notice of appeal. Salloum v. Republic, 17:507.

Trials for petty larceny. Kennedy v. Republic, 19:376.

Tribal chief cannot exercise functions of justice of peace in same case. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Will not do for parties what they should do for themselves. Dollar v. Cole, 25:67; Vamply of Liberia v. Manning, 25:188.

Will not do what parties should do for themselves. Blacklidge v. Blacklidge, 1:371; Padmore v. Republic, 9:195; Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226; Hill v. Hill, 13:257; Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Francis v. Pynches, 15:224; Wesley v. Tyler, 20:477.

Will not perform acts required of parties. Neal v. Kandakai, 17:590.

Witnesses, right to question. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

When rule established by line of decisions need not be followed. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

Written opinion need not specify all grounds for decision. Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348.

COVERTURE, see Husband and Wife.

CRIMES.

Courts only, not executive branch, have jurisdiction to impose punishment for criminal offense. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

Failure to prove necessary element ground for reversal of conviction. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

CRIMES AND OFFENSES, see also Appeals; Assault; Bail; Conspiracy; Constitution; Contempt of Court; Conversion; Criminal Conversation; Criminal Procedure; Customary Law; Defrauding and Cheating; Embezzlement; Evidence; Extortion; False Pretense and Representation; Forgery; Fraud; Grand Juries; Habeas Corpus; Homicide; Indictments; Insanity; Issuing Worthless Checks; Judgments; Juries and Jurors; Jurisdiction; Justices of the Peace; Larceny; Lewdness; Magistrates; Malicious Mischief; Malicious Prosecution; Manslaughter; Mayhem; Murder; Pardons; Pleadings; Rape; Robbery; Sedition; Sentences; Statutes; Supreme Court; Theft; Treason; Trespass; Trials; Venue; Witnesses.

Accessories before and after the fact. Coleman v. Republic, 2:1; Capps v. Republic, 2:313; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Accomplices. Coleman v. Republic, 2:1; Capps v. Republic, 2:313; Sawyerr v. Republic, 8:311; Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Acquittal of felony no bar to prosecution for misdemeanor merged therein. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Acts or omissions not named as crimes by the criminal code or subsequent statutes not indictable thereunder. Wade v. Republic, 12:284.

Aiding and abetting. Laurence v. Republic, 2:65; Clarke v. Republic, 2:498; Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

Assault and battery with intent to kill, quality of proof required. Davis v. Republic, 24:319.

Attempted defined. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Bail. Constitutional right of accused in prosecution for noncapital. Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Wanney v. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241; Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Capital, nonbailable. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383; Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Civil and criminal conversion distinguished. Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Sangree v. Republic, 9:288.

Civil liability for. Johnson v. Mattar, 20:425.

Civil Procedure Law, applicability to criminal cases. Kamara v. Republic, 20:10.

Common law applicable where statutes silent. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334.

Common law offense abolished by statute. Adorkor v. Republic, 2:544.

Compounding of felony. Zogai v. Republic, 8:160.

Compromise of criminal offense illegal. Zogai v. Republic, 8:160.

Conspiracy to commit murder. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Corpus delicti. Berrian v. Republic, 2:258; Kolli v. Republic, 3:238; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524.

Counsel must be assigned to defend accused in forma pauperis, particularly in capital case. Quai v. Republic, 12:402.

Crime defined. Hill v. Republic, 3:130.

Criminal code supplemented by common law. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334.

Defendant has no right to poll jury himself. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Disbandment of jury in criminal case by reason of manifest necessity. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Distinguished from torts. Ware v. Republic, 5:381.

Double jeopardy. Wood v. Republic, 1:445; Spiller v. Roberts, 2:193; Republic v. Zaa, 2:558; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:569; Bowier v. Republic, 2:616; Dennis v. Republic, 3:105; Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Greenwood v. Republic, 8:263; Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469; Williams v. Republic, 14:452; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Duties of prosecutors defined. Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Essential elements distinguished from surplus allegations in indictment. Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Evidence of violent crime not basis for conviction of secretive crime. In re Harmon, 5:334; In re Benson, 5:343.

Ex post facto law defined. Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Executive branch cannot impose criminal sanctions. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Executive clemency recommended by Supreme Court. Bell v. Republic, 5:283; Nyenee v. Republic, 9:189.

Felonies, right to waive constitutional trial by jury in. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Fine or imprisonment improper in statutory suit for criminal conversation. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Fine and penalties defined interchangeably. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Flight of defendant as evidence of guilt. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Habitual criminality not a crime per se. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Incompetence of witness by reason of conviction of infamous crime. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Infamous enumerated. Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Intent, proof of felonious, by inference from circumstances. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Intoxication. Effect of on criminal intent. Kollie v. Republic, 3:238.

Jury trial, constitutional right. Harmon v. Republic, 2:480; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Mirza v. Republic, 13:41; Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Lack of diligence by counsel as ground for reversal of judgment of conviction. Gauhoe v. Republic, 10:204; Gouykro v. Republic, 11:102.

Mala in se and mala prohibita distinguished. Harmon v. Republic, 6:308.

Malfeasance, definition of. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Malice, definition of. Collins v. Republic, 21:366.

Malice, implication of, from circumstances. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Malicious mischief for killing domestic animal, malice, directed at owner not animal, to be shown. Gone-Kpah v. Republic, 23:101.

Merger of misdemeanor in felony. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Murder, a crime by itself with no degrees. Gray v. Republic, 23:49.

Petit offenses, prosecution of. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

President. Liability during term of office. Matter of King, 3:337.

Presumption of sanity of accused. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Principals in first and second degree defined. Clarke v. Republic, 2:498.

Prisoner's notice of appeal as supersedeas. Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241.

Privilege against self-incrimination. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; Massaquoi, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Proper language on part of prosecutor. Cummings v. Republic, 4:284.

Provocation, circumstances leading to. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Responsibility for acts of group. Koh-Giddue v. Republic, 8:141.

Restitution deemed part of penalty for larceny. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Reversal of conviction on State's stipulation of insufficiency of evidence. Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Review on appeal may support modification of judgment of conviction. Ammons v. Republic, 12:360.

Rights of persons charged, guarding. Garlo v. Republic, 20:234.

Sentences. Alteration on appeal. Crawford v. Republic, 4:378; Mannah v. Republic, 4:366; Banks v. Republic, 7:279; Gardiner v. Republic, 8:406; Padmore v. Republic, 9:195; In re Caranda, 9:240.

Sentences. Scope of judicial discretion. Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Statutory and common law distinguished. Coleman v. Republic, 2:139; Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Summary investigation against magistrate criminal in nature. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Transfer of vindicatory clause or penalty. Harmon v. Republic, 6:308.

Verdict cannot be for greater offense than charged. Brooks v. Republic, 1:284.

Verdict supported by prima facie proof where no evidence in rebuttal. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

CRIMINAL CONVERSATION, see also Lewdness; Rape; Seduction.

Fine of imprisonment improper in statutory suit. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Statutory suit in civil action. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, see also Appeals; Arrest; Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Embezzlement; Evidence; Homicide; Indictments; Insanity; Juries and Jurors; Justices of the Peace; Magistrates; Motion; Pleadings; Sentences; Trials; Witnesses.

Abandonment of appeal by defendant's counsel. Kent v. Republic, 6:50; Gissi v. Republic, 13:6; Jarrett v. Republic, 16:56.

Abandonment of appeal by prosecution. Johnson v. Republic, 1:91.

Abandonment of case by prosecution, propriety of. Oruma v. Republic, 21:14.

Accomplice's testimony, admissible but with caution. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Accomplice's uncorroborated testimony, sufficiency of, to sustain conviction. Jappa v. Republic, 21:339.

Accused, right of, to compulsory process. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Accused cannot be committed to custody on unspecified charge. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Alibi, shifting of burden of proof when prosecuting affirmatively establishes defendant at scene of crime. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Amendment by trial judge of criminal verdict ground for new trial if defendant substantially prejudiced. Appleton v. Republic, 11:284.

Appeal from judgment of conviction for murder dismissed for untimeliness of filing. Brooks v. Republic, 11:3.

Appeals by Republic statutorily restricted. Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Attorneys' duties to clients accused of crimes. Brooks v. Republic, 11:3.

Burden of proving beyond reasonable doubt essential elements of offense charged. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Change of venue. Gibson v. Republic, 18:353.

Civil Procedure Law, applicability to criminal cases. Kamara v. Republic, 20:10.

Comment by prosecutor as undue influence on jury. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Compelling accused to answer if incriminating or violative of other rights. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Compulsory process for defendant to obtain witness. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Stubblefield v. Republic, 10:104; George v. Republic, 14:339.

Confession admissible in prosecution for murder. Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Confessions, admissibility of as evidence. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Confessions. Criteria of voluntariness. Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Confessions, trial judge instructions to jury that some were voluntary as prejudicial error. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67

Confessions, when illegally obtained, inadmissible as evidence. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Confinement in military camps of civilians awaiting trial unlawful. Nasser v. Smith, 26:115.

Constitutional rights of defendants. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334; Ledlow v. Republic, 1:383; Wood v. Republic, 1:445; Scotland v. Republic, 3:252; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Page v. Republic, 4:348; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; John v. Republic, 7:261; Coleman v. Republic, 8:59; Howard v. Republic, 8:135; Greenwood v. Republic, 8:263; Watts v. Republic, 11:77; Tugba v. Republic, 12:218; Quai v. Republic, 12:402; Mirza v. Republic, 13:41; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57; Tompo v. Republic, 13:207; Harge v. Republic, 14:217; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 14:452; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Glay v. Republic, 15:181; Togba v. Republic, 15:206; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382; Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Continuance, defendant's right to. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211; Greene v. Republic, 14:163.

Contradiction among witnesses for prosecution as crating doubt in favor of accused. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12.

Conviction, indicia of juridical. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Corroboration of accomplice's testimony, furnishing of by entire circumstances attending commission of crime. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Costs cannot be assessed. Neah v. Republic, 15:280.

Counsel, assignment of for indigent defendant. Quezon v. Republic, 23:33.

Counsel, inadequacy of. Quezon v. Republic, 23:33.

Court may summarize evidence in charge to jury. George v. Republic, 14:339.

Defamation. Constitutional provision as to prosecution. Benson v. Roberts, 1:32.

Defects in institution of proceedings, motion to dismiss as only method of raising objection to. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Defendant as own witness, treatment of. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Defendant has no right to poll jury himself. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Defendant not entitled to list of all prosecution witnesses prior to trial. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Defendant not required to pay fees for process or necessary expenses for witnesses. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 18:57.

Defense, affirmance when no. Yallah v. Republic, 20:243.

Defense or objection capable of determination without trial, motion to dismiss as raising. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Disbandment of jury by reason of manifest necessity. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Discharge of defendant after new trial ordered. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Dismissal of appeal restricted to statutory grounds. George v. Republic, 14:158; Cess-Pelham v. Republic, 14:161; Sillah v. Republic, 14:192; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:212.

Documents sufficiently identified in indictment. Yancy v. Republic, 19:63.

Double jeopardy. Wood v. Republic, 1:445; Spiller v. Roberts, 2:193; Republic v. Zaa, 2:558; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:569; Bowier v. Republic, 2:616; Dennis v. Republic, 3:105; Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Greenwood v. Republic, 8:263; Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469; Williams v. Republic, 14:452; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Duality of an indictment. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Entire record reviewable in appeal on capital offense. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Evidence, quantum of, required for conviction. Nimley v. Republic, 21:348.

Examination of witnesses, authority of trial judge over. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Excessive bail, fines or punishments unconstitutional. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334; Scotland v. Republic, 3:252; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57.

Failure to inform defendant of rights. Teddaway v. Republic, 5:126.

Failure to object to disbandment of jury not waiver of constitutional right as to double jeopardy. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Fair and impartial trial, non-receipt as ground for new trial. Republic v. Walser, 27:274.

Function of jury defined. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418.

Granting of new trial on court's own motion as double jeopardy. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Impeachment of public officers. Opinion, 1:509; Matter of King, 3:337.

Imprisonment of State's witness. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256.

Improper to cross-examine defendant as to another offense. Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Incompetence of witness by reason of conviction of infamous crime. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Incompetency of indigent defendant's Defense Counsel, procedure to appoint a better qualified attorney. Republic v. Walser, 27:274.

Incriminating or violative of other rights, compelling accused to answer if. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Indemnification clause not required in appeal bond. Ross v. Republic, 1:249.

Indictment, proof of charge not contained in, effect. Lone v. Republic, 27:148.

Indigent defendant, assignment of counsel for. Quezon v. Republic, 23:33.

Investigation of illness of jurors. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Jail delivery proceedings. Kaifa v. Republic, 14:17.

Joint defendants, severance of trial. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Judgment arrested for defectiveness of indictment. Gibson v. Republic, 11:379; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Judgment of conviction: requisites. Lewis v. Republic, 5:358.

Jurisdictional aspects of appeal bonds subordinated to functional considerations in criminal cases. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Justice of the Peace Court's jurisdiction to hold preliminary examinations in criminal matters upheld. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

Malicious mischief conviction, must be established beyond a reasonable doubt. Gone-Kpah v. Republic, 23:101.

Motion for arrest of judgment after conviction. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Motion for arrest of judgment indictment. Popo v. Republic, 1:305.

Motion for arrest of judgment. Time for filing. Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Motion for continuance must allege not brought for purpose of delay. Tugba v. Republic, 12:218.

Motion for directed verdict. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Motion for judgment of acquittal may be made when evidence wholly insufficient to establish accused's guilt. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

Motion for new trial. Kennedy v. Republic, 19:376.

Motion for new trial after verdict. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Motion for new trial requisite to appeal absent any issue of law. Brown v. Republic, 14:437.

Motion to quash indictment. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Motions in arrest of judgment. Toe v. Republic, 18:168.

Motions not timely made. Toe v. Republic, 18:168.

New trial after disbandment of jury. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

New trial on account of after-discovered evidence. Ammons v. Republic, 12:360.

Objections to indictment must be heard before defendant compelled to plead. Potter v. Republic, 1:67.

Objection to territorial jurisdiction of trial court must be made prior to appeal. George v. Republic, 14:339.

Peremptory challenges by State, exceeding statutory number per se reversible error. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Peremptory challenges, number of in case of joint defendants charged with capital offense. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Practice of law, well settled rule of, setting aside. Browne v. Republic, 22:121.

Preliminary hearing before magistrates. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Presumption of innocence. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Presumption of innocence in favor of accused. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12.

Private debt, effect of initiating by private prosecutor to collect. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Privilege against self-incrimination. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Probate court lacks jurisdiction to try charges of infamous crimes. Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Proof beyond reasonable doubt of guilt of accused to overcome presumption of innocence. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133

Prosecution for breach of duty by post office official. McGill v. Republic, 1:169; Roberts v. Republic, 1:226; Freeman v. Republic, 1:306.

Prosecution for embezzlement not barred by government's failure to seek recovery on bond posted to secure performance of duties of revenue agent. Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372.

Prosecution for misfeasance in office not barred by suspension of dismissal. Conger-Thompson v. Republic, 15:41.

Prosecution for smuggling triable in circuit, not admiralty court. Mirza v. Republic, 13:41.

Prosecution of government official for embezzlement abroad. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Prosecution of petit offenses. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Prosecution's duties defined. Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Prosecution's failure to supply bill of particulars cannot be raised for first time on appeal. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Reindictment and retrial after quashing of indictment. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Republic not required to file appeal bond. Republic v. Collins, 13:457.

Requirements of indictment. Yancy v. Republic, 19:63.

Restitution part of penalty for larceny. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Reversal of conviction on State's stipulation of insufficiency of evidence. Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Right of appeal to Supreme Court. Johns v. Republic, 1:240; George v. Republic, 14:158.

Right to bill of particulars must be asserted before trial. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Right to poll jury on verdict in prosecution for murder waived by absence of counsel. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Role of private prosecutor. Coleman v. Crawford, 19:29.

Ruling on double jeopardy not appealable by Republic. Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469.

Ruling on motion to quash indictment an interlocutory order. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Search warrants. Conditions of issuance. Dailey v. Doe, 1:21.

Self-incrimination, defendant testifying in own behalf can assert privilege. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Self-incrimination, right of person charged with crime against. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Sentences. Scope of judicial discretion. Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Separate trials of defendants for same crime. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Horace v. Republic, 16:341.

Stare decisis defined. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Stipulation as to testimony of witness. Smith v. Republic, 7:205.

Subpoena duces tecum, service on defendant. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

Summary investigation against magistrate criminal in nature. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Trial by jury, right of person charged with crime to impartial and speedy. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Uncorroborated testimony of accused, insufficiency of. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Variance between indictment and proof defined. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Variance of proof. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Venue. Change in justice's court. Pratt v. Republic, 4:386.

Venue. Defendant's right to change. Capehart v. Republic, 3:143; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Sawyerr v. Republic, 8:311; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Venue, change of, when motion for made. Toe v. Republic, 24:462.

Withdrawal of plea after void judgment, effect. Nurse v. Republic, 21:474.

Witnesses. Constitutional right of confrontation. Tobah v. Republic, 2:53; Brown v. Republic, 2:548.

CROSS-EXAMINATION, see also Evidence; Self-incrimination; Trials; Witnesses.

Allowed as to matters constituting subject of general denial though not specified in answer. Vianini (Liberia) Ltd. v. McBourrough, 17:439.

As to signature which witness has testified was genuine. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Can be relevant only to issues and credibility in criminal case. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 18:57.

Character of defendant in criminal prosecution. Dennis v. Republic, 18:220.

Latitude of questioner on. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Method on documents. Goba v. Dennis, 19:459.

Question properly asked of expert on automobile accidents. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Right to, under plea of not guilty. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Tending to discredit testimony. Dennis v. Republic, 18:220.

Testimony as to credibility must be relevant to that issue. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Under general denial. Mobil Oil, Inc. v. Sano, 19:15.

When proper. Yancy v. Republic, 19:63.

When testifying in his own behalf, a defendant in a criminal case may be cross-examined thereon. Scott v. Republic, 18:13.

CURATORS.

Appointment to conserve estate when delay in granting letters of administration. Lloyd v. Rolland (Chambers), 23:421.

When curator performs duties of administrator. Lloyd v. Rolland (Chambers), 23:421.

CURRENCY.

Paper, gold, silver and bills of exchange as legal tender. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

CURTESY.

Tenancy by. Brown v. Payne, 1:9.

CUSTODY, see Divorce; Habeas Corpus; Husband and Wife; Infants.

CUSTOMARY LAW, see also Dowry.

Clan chief's immunity does not extend to unlawful acts. Doe v. Tarplah, 15:410.

Habeas corpus cannot be used to recover dower paid by husband for alienated wife. Peakeh v. Nimrod, 2:102; Saab v. Samson, 5:296.

Habeas corpus issued to deliver to husband wife taken without payment of dower. Mitchell v. Johns, 2:400.

Habeas corpus not discharged by Sheriff's delivery of prisoners to tribal chief. Gray v. Beverly, 1:500.

Illegal judgment of tribal chief restrained by prohibition. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Illegitimacy and custody of children. Manney v. Money, 2:618.

Marriage. Gofah v. Wreh, 1:458; Mitchell v. Johns, 2:400; Manney v. Money, 2:618; Teah v. Teetee, 3:407; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Jartu v. Estate of Konneh, 10:318; Harmon v. Tompo, 15:272; Brown v. Bormor, 16:227.

Of tribe interested in dispute applied. Gofah v. Wreh, 1:458; Mitchell v. Johns, 2:400; Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162; Jartu v. Estate of Konneh, 10:318.

Part of the unwritten law of Liberia. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Pleadings and proof of. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Policy to enforce. Gofah v. Wreh, 1:458; Mitchell v. Johns, 2:400; Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162; Watson v. Ware, 10:158.

Secretary of Interior. Responsibility as to tribal affairs. Gray v. Beverly, 1:500; Boyah v. Horace, 2:265; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317; Manney v. Money, 2:618.

Treaties of tribal peoples with the Republic. Davis v. Republic, 1:17.

Trial by sassywood and similar ordeals illegal. Boyah v. Horace, 2:265; Posum v. Pardee, 4:299; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Koffah v. Republic, 6:336; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63.

Tribal chief who is justice of peace cannot exercise functions of both offices in same case. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Tribal peoples subject to Liberian law by reason of treaties. Davis v. Republic, 1:17; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317.

Void when contrary to statute. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Widow cannot administer deceased husband's estate. Brown v. Bormor, 16:227.

CUSTOMS COLLECTIONS, see also Revenue Laws; Revenue Stamps.

Collection not libellant in admiralty action by Republic. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Statute authorizing search and seizure by collection without warrant not unconstitutional. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.


D

DAMAGES, see also Act of God; Actions; Contracts; Defamation; Juries and Jurors; Trials.

Assessment by appellate court. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52.

Award void where no summons served. George v. George, 9:33.

Certainty required for recovery of. Brant, Willig &; Company v. Captan, 23:98.

Charitable nature of tort feasor's act no excuse in recovery for. Raymond Concrete Pile Co. v. Awar, 21:493.

Consequential, synonymous with special. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Counsel fees and costs of litigation not included in computation. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554; Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23; Vianini Co. v. Cole, 16:95.

Criminal prosecution does not preclude civil liability. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:425.

Destruction of property and for resulting loss of income, claiming for. Francis v. Liberian French Timber Corp., 22:168.

Diminution, failure in. Saleh v. Montgomery, 21:125.

Ejectment, in. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 20:100.

Ejectment action. East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; Pratt v. Phillips, 7:218.

Establishing fair market value. Vianini Ltd. v. McBourough, 19:39.

Establishing measure of damages. Liberia Mining Co. v. Zwannah, 19:73.

Excessive, when appellate court will set aside verdict as. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Excessive where above amount alleged in complaint. Wright v. Tay, 12:223.

Excessive where grossly above amount alleged in complaint. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Exemplary and compensatory distinguished. King v. Williams, 2:219.

Exemplary and special distinguished. Lackman v . Johns, 1:455.

Exemplary, in action for damages for personal injuries, limited to statutorily enumerated causes. King v. Williams, 2:219.

Exemplary in defamation action. Itoka v. Noelke, 6:329.

Expenses of litigation. Tweh v. Massaquoi, 11:152.

Factual issues as to quantum must be determined by jury. Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313.

Filing of caveat alone. Kaizolu v. Corneh, 18:369.

For alienation of wife's affections, seduction or dower not collectable by habeas corpus. Peakeh v. Nimrod, 2:102; Saab v. Samson, 5:296.

For trover. Appleby v. Freeman & Son, 2:271.

For unlawful seizure of money. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

For wrongful dismissal of servant. Foreign Mission Board of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv. Inc. v. Grant, 11:22.

General defined. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Goods. Spoilage and loss in transport. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Kamara, 16:23.

Injury compensable by, not deemed irreparable. Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Reeves, 13:356.

Judgment reduced by amount included for special damages when proof insufficient. Joseph Hanson & Soehne (Liberia) Ltd. v. Tuning, 17:617.

Liability of person executing writ of execution. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176.

Loss must have accrued before action. Kaizolu v. Corneh, 18:369.

Loss of goods by carrier for. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

Magistrates not responsible for, when arising from writs within scope of authority. Brown v. Brown, 1:1.

Misconduct of defendant, as related to. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 20:100.

Modification of verdict. Potter v. Stevenson, 1:53.

Must be proved to be result of act of person against whom action brought. Brown v. Brown, 1:14.

Not in equity action. Nassre v. Elias Bros., 5:108; Patterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Reeves, 13:356.

Omission in judgment corrigible on appeal. Cassell v. King, 10:409.

Penalties for criminal conduct not included in compensatory damages in civil action. Doe v. Tarplah, 15:410.

Personal injuries. Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52; Chenoweth v. Liberia Trading Corp., 16:3.

Personal injury action, substantial recovery evidence of approved. Bolado Sawmill v. Diggs, 24:231.

Personal property. Conversion. Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Personal property. Measure for injury or destruction. Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:250; Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Personal property. Statutory action for injury. Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

Proof at trial by plaintiff. Rouhana v. Hall, 21:247.

Proof in automobile accident. Vianini Co. v. Cole, 16:95.

Proof must conform with pleadings. Attia v. Sherman, 1:222.

Proof of special. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Proof of special damages. Kassabli v. Cole, 19:294.

Punitive, in malicious mischief. Witherspoon v. Witherspoon, 3:284.

Repairs by owner of damaged vehicle as bar to suit against bailee. Elias v. Porte, 3:50.

Slander, special damages to be pleaded in action of, where words alleged to have been uttered by defendant not actionable per se. Brown Boveri & Cie, AG. v. Morris, 26:397.

Slander action. Pleadings. Dennis v. Bowser, 1:5; McCarthy v. Weeks, 2:39; Kennedy v. Morris, 2:134.

Slander action. Special. Kennedy v. Morris, 2:134; Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204.

Special, must be pleaded and proved as such. Dennis v. Bowser, 1:5; Lackman v, Johns, 1:455; Appleby v. Freeman, 2:271; Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:250; Townsend v. Dyer Memorial Hospital, 11:288; Knowlden v. Reeves, 12:103; Franco-Liberian Transport Co. v. Bettie, 13:318; United States Trading Co. v. King, 14:579; Saba Bros. v. Fredericks, 15:18; Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554; Vianini Co. v. Cole, 16:95; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Special. Documents to be annexed to pleading. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Special. Must be pleaded with particularity and affirmatively proved. Joseph Hanson & Soehne (Liberia) Ltd. v. Tuning, 17:617.

Special, pleading and proving. Saleh v. Montgomery, 21:125; Brant, Willig & Company v. Captan, 23:98.

Special, statement of, in verdict. Saleh v. Montgomery, 21:125.

Special, synonymous with consequential. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Special and general, specification in verdict of amount awarded for. B.F. Goodrich of Liberia, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 20:228.

Special pleading of loss of profits in suit to recover for carrier's loss of goods. Nigerian National Shipping Line, Ltd. v. Tip-Top-Tools, Inc., 22:279.

To another's property not redressable by suit in own behalf. Nowa v. Wolo, 8:355.

Trespass to real property. Clark v. Barbour, 2:15; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Trespass vi et armis. Attia v. Summerville, 1:215.

Uncertain, speculative or contingent, cannot be recovered. Franco-Liberian Transport Co. v. Bettie, 13:318; Brant, Willig & Company v. Captan, 23:98.

Warranty, rule in breach of cases. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

DEADLY WEAPONS, see Homicide.

DEATH, see Administrators and Executors; Decedents' Estates; Divorce; Murder; Probate Courts; Wills.

Party to action, substitution on death of. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

Substitution after death of party, default judgment for lack of timely application for. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Substitution for deceased party, power of court to order. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Substitution on death of party to action. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

Testimony of layman as to cause may be insufficient. Banjoe v. Republic, 26:255.

Unliquidated claim against estate for damages caused by intestate not triable by probate court. Barclay v. Thompson, 17:351.

DEBT, see also Accounts and Accounting; Actions; Bonds; Contracts; Costs; Currency; Judgments; Limitations of Actions; Mortgages.

Action defined. Republic v. Estate of W.S. Anderson, 1:97; Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 9:59; Dormah v. Pierce, 10:420.

Action dismissed for failure of proof. McAuley v. Lackman, 1:474.

Action not triable in labor court. Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Action on executed contract. Witherspoon v. Grigsby, 7:6.

Admission of indebtedness. Logan v. Meyer, 2:200; Brown v. Cavalla River Co., Ltd., 12:136.

Answer cannot deny debt and plead setoff. Arrivets v. Barclay, 9:223.

Arbitration in action. Taylor v. Worrell, 3:14.

Book account may be supplemented by extrinsic evidence. McCauley v. Brown, 2:359.

Certificate of correctness of account distinguished from promissory note. Logan v. Meyer, 2:200.

Counterclaims and setoffs. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145; Buken v. King, 3:101; Watson v. Kromah, 4:147; Arrivets v. Barclay, 9:233; Saleeby Bros. v. Haikal, 14:298.

Decedent's. Liability of one interfering with estate. Gray v. Blau, 3:177.

Decedent's. Payment from estate. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Decedent's, payment from estate through fiduciary. Judge of Debt Court v. Horton, 24:392.

Default judgment affirmed where debt admitted. Brown v. Cavalla River Co., Ltd. 12:136.

Default judgment reviewable by same court in case of fraud. Jantzen v. Modern Housing Construction Co., 14:508.

Distinguished from action for injury to personal property. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

Documentary evidence of. Davis v. Johnson, 10:416.

Government liable where consul contracted in official capacity. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Husband's disaffirmance of wife's business obligations. McCauley v. Brown, 2:359.

Imprisonment in execution of judgment by default. Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Joinder with detinue improper. Dormah v. Pierce, 10:420.

Jurisdiction of circuit courts. Burney v. Jantzen, 4:322.

Jurisdiction of trial court terminated by payment on bond after judgment. Faulkner v. Morris & Co., 1:478.

Letter of foreign corporation sufficient authority for Liberian attorney to collect claim in action of. Fazzah v. Rogers Bros. Shoes, Inc., 12:300.

Notice of demand for payment adequate. Massaquoi v. Kutu, 10:3.

Order payable to bearer. Attia v. Payne, 1:205.

Postdated check accepted in satisfaction of judgment. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Prior action as demand for payment. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93.

Promissory note delivered in consideration for oral stipulation of forebearance no defense on appeal from default judgment in action of. Brown v. Cavalla River Co., Ltd., 12:136.

Setoff against Republic allowed only as provided by statute. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

Setoff defined. Arrivets v. Barclay, 9:233.

Setoff presented as counterclaim. Watson v. Kromah, 4:147.

Statute of limitations tolled by new promise to pay. Henrichsen v. Logan, 6:18.

Tender defined. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

Tender not a discharge. Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Tender stops accrual of damages. Sherman v. Republic, 1:245.

Value received defined. Anderson v. Powell, 4:134.

Verdict should state sum due. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:220.

DEBT COURT.

Jurisdiction. Walley v. Isaac, 8; Williams v. Abraham, 20:220; Habre v. Jallah, 20:309; Richards v. The Commercial Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:349.

Motion for new trial as prerequisites for appeal. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:319.

Rules of Circuit Court, applicability of. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt & Company, Ltd., 21:165.

DEBTS.

Collection of private debt, effect of initiation of criminal proceedings for. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

DECEDENTS' ESTATES, see also Debt; Executors and Administrators; Probate Courts; Wills.

Actions by and against, representatives of as necessary parties. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

Administration by probate commissioner. King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Administration in county where property located. Brown v. Summerville, 4:353.

Administration may be investigated by court. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Administration must be completed in statutory time. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Administration pendent elite. King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Administrator cum testamento annexo, power to administer property named in will only. Styker v. Massey, 9:88.

Claims against. Limitations of time for presentation. Estate of Ross v. Estate of Fuller, 2:190.

Claims against. Quantum of proof required to establish property as that of deceased wife of intestate. Williams v. Wynn, 2:148; Robertson v. Morgan, 9:71.

Claims against. Services rendered to decedent. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Collateral relative defined. Cole v. Williams, 10:370.

Costs refunded to curator of intestate estates. Leigh v. Taylor, 9:431.

Curtesy. Brown v. Payne, 1:9.

Custody of intestate vests in surviving spouse pending court order. Tee v. Chea, 12:205.

Descent of real property of intestate. Richardson v. Subblefield, 7:107.

Determination of status of alleged widow necessary before distribution of estate of intestate. Railey v. Brewer, 9:64.

Devise of fee by life tenant void. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Devise of property subject to homestead exemption. Wiles v. Wiles, 1:423; Diggs v. Ferguson, 2:397; Perry v. Knight, 6:154.

Distribution per stirpes, not per capita. Diggs v. Ferguson, 2:397.

Emergency Powers Act of 1973 not applicable to. Davies v. Rif, 25:144.

Entry of caveat not ground for suspension of probate proceedings. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Executrix's sale of real property must be authorized by probate court. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Expenses of curator of intestate estates should be brought before probate court to determine issue of refund. Leigh v. Taylor, 9:431.

Grantee's duty to examine executrix's right to convey real property. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Guardian. Facts necessary to make appointment of valid. Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394.

Guardian. Testamentary, supersedes claims of all other guardians. Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394.

Guardianship, petition for revocation. Dorum v. Smallwood, 9:425.

Interference with intestate estate, liability for. Gray v. Blau, 3:177; Ross v. Roberts, 3:266; In re Caranda, 14:320.

Joint tenancy cannot be created by descent through intestacy. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Jurisdiction of probate courts. In re Caranda, 14:320.

Legacies, payment of debts out of. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Legacy of real property sold to person other than legatee. Anderson v. Anderson, 10:384.

Legitimacy and right of intestate succession to real property established by will describing descendant as "my grandson." Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Liabilities of. Ross v. Roberts, 3:325.

Minor orphan, rights of. Dorum v. Smallwood, 9:425.

Moneys payable to estate must be paid to representative. In re Estate of McClain, 14:334.

Objectants to probate of will entitled to opportunity to appear. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Objections to probate of will require no prescribed phraseology. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Partition to satisfy claim against devisee. Moore & Son v. Cooper, 1:134.

Power to probate court to cite administrator of intestate estate to appear without summons. Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Preference of parent of intestate over aunt. Cole v. Williams, 10:370.

Probate court has general authority whether estate is testate or intestate. Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245.

Probate court should exercise care and diligence in enforcing and administering the law. Woodson v. Heuston, 12:133.

Probate no adjudication of testamentary gift or capacity to take property. Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Probate of executor's deed as notice to heirs. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Probate of will denied where devise of real property void. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Procedure in action on administrator's bond controlled by statute. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Proceeding complaining of interference with, and maladministration of, estate by executor is not a summary proceeding. Horace v. Harris, 8:73.

Property of an intestate estate may be transferred, conveyed or disbursed only under authorization of court. Tee v. Chea, 12:205.

Provision for child. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Real property not distributable in lieu of personal property. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Report of administration must be passed upon before distribution of estate. Railey v. Brewer, 9:64.

Requirements of bill of discovery. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Residuary legacy, definition, effect. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Responsibilities of personal representatives and probate courts. White v. Harmon, 2:17; Sharpe v. Urey, 11:251.

Statute of Wills incorporated into law of Liberia. Brown v. Brown, 1:14; Roberts v. Roberts, 1:107.

Substitution of representative of deceased party to case on appeal. Harmon v. Republic, 13:589.

Unlawful taking of property of estate, liability of one guilty of. Davies v. Rif, 25:144.

Unliquidated claim against estate for damages caused by intestate not triable by probate court. Barclay v. Thompson, 17:351.

Widow married under customary law not entitled to letters of administration. Brown v. Bormor, 16:227.

Widow of intestate not authorized to administer estate. White v. Harmon, 2:17.

Wife's personal property not deemed part of husband's estate. Williams v. Wynn, 2:148.

Will, denied probate on technical grounds may be offered again. Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43.

Writ of error granted where distribution of intestate property decreed although status of widow questioned and report of administrator not passed upon. Railey v. Brewer, 9:64.

DECEIT, see Fraud.

DECLARATIONS, see Pleadings.

DECREES, see Divorce; Equity.

Participation in execution as estoppel against subsequent contest. Abi-Rached v. Gemayel, 17:14.

DEEDS, see also Dower; Ejectment; Equity; Escheat; Executors and Administrators; Fraud; Mortgages; Leases; Probate Courts; Real Property; Republic of Liberia; Surveys and Surveyors.

Administrator's grant to self invalid. Savage v. Dennis, 1:51.

Against whom admissible. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Allegation or proffer of deed to disputed property necessary with pleadings in ejectment. Dundas v. Botoe, 17:457.

Authenticated copy secondary evidence of conveyance. Mombo v. Nah, 15:491.

Cancellation by court causes title to revert to prior owners. Pratt v. Smith, 26:160.

Cancellation by court of equity. Smart v. Daniels, 5:369; Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453; Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Freeman v. Webster, 14:493; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434; Mombo v. Nah, 15:491.

Cancellation of by court does not confer title; action of ejectment appropriate remedy. Barbour-Tarpeh v. Dennis, 25:468.

Cancellation of for fraud in execution. Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

Cannot be varied by oral testimony. Neal v. Kandakai, 17:590.

Communal grant of real property pursuant to statute upheld. Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Conveyance bars claimants under grantee. Smith v. Hill, 1:157.

Copies of deeds attested by Secretary of State in absence of unavailable originals, consideration by Supreme Court of. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Court's instruction to jury that defendant in ejectment action "had no deed" reversible error. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Delivery insufficient to convey title. Coleman v. Schweitzer, 16:319.

Deposit as security for debt insufficient to create mortgage. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Effect of probate as notice. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Evidence of title. Smith v. Hill, 1:157; Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Williams v. Wynn, 2:148; King v. Cooper, 6:12; Railey v. Clarke, 10:330; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Executrix's conveyance void if not authorized by court. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Failure to register and probate within statutory time, effect of. Salifu v. Lassanah, 5:152; Barbour v. Bickersteth, 8:183; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Forged, court will order cancelled. Smart v. Daniels, 5:369.

Fraud. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Freeman v. Webster, 14:493; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434; Mombo v. Nah, 15:491; Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Fraud in execution may be asserted in ejectment. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3.

Government land. Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Grantee's duty to examine executrix's right to convey real property. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Grounds for cancellation must be supported by proof of facts. Hope v. Ward, 17:390.

Husband's conveyance to wife. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453.

Immigrant allotments. Harris v. Locket, 1:79; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Improper for probate commissioner to adjudicate as to deed wherein he is named grantor. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Improper to probate while title under dispute in pending appeal. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Inadmissible as evidence of title where descriptions vary from pleadings. Page v. Harland, 1:463.

Infant may affirm conveyance on coming of age. Blunt v. Barbour, 1:58.

Instrument dividing property between owners. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Intention of parties controls construction of deed executed with agreement to reconvey. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Interlineations presumed contemporaneous with execution. Roberts v. Roberts, 1:107.

Invalid where grantor had neither title nor possession. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Invalidity of, due to improper probation, can only be asserted on behalf of properly probated deed. Kissell v. Diago, 22:329.

Joint tenancy created by. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Laches in contesting title. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Made legal evidence of title by probation. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271.

Mortgage, when deed will be regarded as. Saunders v. Gant, 3:152.

Not invalidated by inadvertent error. Worrell v. McGill, 1:63.

Not invalidated by mistake in grantee's name if identity clear. Nagbe v. Nyema, 17:601.

Objections probate of warranty to dismissed where objector has no written evidence of title. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112.

Objections should be raised at time of probation. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Howard v. Roberts, 2:217; Dennis v. Holder, 11:14.

Objection to probation by buyer's agent improper. Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 9:59.

Objections to probation on ground of fraud. Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Objections to registration estopped by acquiescence. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Oral testimony cannot vary. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Parent's conveyance of infant's real property must be specially authorized in writing. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Party estopped from contesting own. Dennis v. Holder, 11:14.

Presumption of validity when duly proved and registered. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Priority. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Probate, less than required period for placarding before. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Probated and registered superior to prior instruments not probated and registered. Dundas v. Botoe, 17:457.

Probation denied where property is subject of perfected appeal. Bracewell v. Massaquoi, 7:390.

Probation not reviewable in ejectment action. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Public land grants. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; Harris v. Locket, 1:79; Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Reformation of recission for cloud on title. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350.

Requirements for subscription of witnesses. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Statute of frauds. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112.

Statute of Frauds requires writing. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Superior title determined by tracing back to the Republic as sovereign grantor. Johnson-Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 26:146.

Tenancy at will under oral promise to execute. Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Tenancy by the entirety created by conveyance to husband and wife. Estate of Lloyd K. Whisnant, In re, 24:298.

Title not established by mere possession of. McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Unprobated not necessarily void. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3.

Validity determined in probate court. Smith v. Page, 11:146.

Value as evidence of title in ejectment action. King v. Simpson, 17:226.

Void when obtained by fraud or abuse of confidential relationship. Duff v. Harmon, 11:344.

Voidable if not entered for probate within four months. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

DEFAMATION, see also Civil Procedures; Damages; Pleadings; Slander.

Action for, will not lie against innocent bystander. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Burden of plaintiff. Itoka v. Noelke, 6:329.

Certain persons making statements in specified instances protected from action for. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Constitutional provision as to criminal prosecution for. Benson v. Roberts, 1:32.

Damages an essential part of pleading and proof. Itoka v. Noelke, 6:329.

Defined. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Distinguished from malicious prosecution. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Exemplary damages in. Itoka v. Noelke, 6:329.

Issues of law in jury trial for libel. Benson v. Roberts, 1:32.

Pleading and proof of defamatory words. Wooding & Co. v. Gibson, 2:409; Cummings v. Green, 3:11.

Police investigation of reported crime no basis for action even where report untrue. Brown Boveri & Cie, AG. v. Morris, 26:397.

Privilege of true and fair report of facts of public record and significance. Knowlden v. Reeves, 12:103.

Publication by person of defamatory words about him, recovery denied in case of. Addo v. Texaco Africa, Ltd., 25:229.

Publication by plaintiff of slander. Cummings v. Green, 3:11.

Publication, words not actionable without. Cummings v. Green, 3:11.

Seditious publications as criminal libel. Sie v. Republic, 12:59.

Slander per se. Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204.

Slander requires special damages when not per se. Dennis v. Bowser, 1:5.

When communication is defamatory. Addo v. Texaco Africa, Ltd., 25:229.

DEFAULT.

Failure to file motion for continuance or appear for trial, effect of. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

DEFENDANTS, see Civil Procedures; Criminal Procedure; Pleadings.

Securing presence within court's jurisdiction by writ of ne exeat. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Separate trials granted when interests conflicting. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

DEFRAUDING AND CHEATING, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Trials; Witnesses.

Conviction reversed for insufficiency of evidence. Ali v. Republic, 13:125.

Defined. Ali v. Republic, 13:125; Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Distinguished from issuing worthless checks. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

DEPORTATION.

Conviction of serious crime required if same is basis of alien's deportation. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

Statutory procedure to be strictly followed by Minister of Justice. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

DEPOSITIONS, see Affidavits; Civil Procedures; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Signatures; Witnesses.

Party unable to attend trial may have testimony taken by. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:511.

DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION, see Cotenancies; Decedents' Estates; Deeds; Executors and Administrators; Probate Courts; Real Property; Wills.

DESERTION, see Divorce; Husband and Wife.

DIMUNITION OF RECORD, see Appeals; Civil Procedures; Continuances.

DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY.

Certification of status by foreign government conclusive. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Barriero, 25:306.

Domestic courts may determine status in absence of foreign government certification. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Barriero, 25:306.

Effect on jurisdiction when conferred subsequent to commencement of suit. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Harriero, 24:546.

Revolutionary new governments, effect on status of current envoys. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Barriero, 25:306.

DIRECTED VERDICT, see Trials.

DISCOVERY.

Bill for, as equitable claim. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Purpose of suit for. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

DISMISSAL.

For lack of jurisdiction not adjudication on merits. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

DIVORCE, see also Husband and Wife.

Adequate hearing for defendant, responsibility of trial court for, as basis for decree. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Adultery. Requisites of complaint. George v. George, 9:33.

Alimony, consideration by trial court of defense of judgment in suit for. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Alimony defined. Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301.

Alimony pendente lite. Dean v. Dean, 7:47.

Alimony suit maintainable in absence of pending action for. Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301.

Appeal not abated by death. Buchanan v. Buchanan, 15:477.

Charge of professional misconduct by defendant's counsel. Potter v. Potter, 15:269.

Collateral attack on legality. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

Collusion, raising plea of, on appeal. Davison v. Davison, 3:36.

Collusion between counsel as ground for dismissal. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Condonation plea available to plaintiff where defendant charges adultery in recrimination plea. George v. George, 9:33.

Decree reversed when party who was material witness was physically unable to attend trial. Samuels v. Samuels, 13:27.

Decree set aside for lack of adequate hearing. Potter v. Potter, 15:269.

Decree void when defendant was irregularly served. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Defense to action. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328.

Desertion as ground. Porte v. Porte, 9:279; Hill v. Hill, 13:257, 392.

Desertion as grounds, essential elements of. King v. King, 24:414.

Failure by husband to institute action for, effect of in alimony suit by wife. Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301.

Father has right to custody of children. White v. Whitherspoon, 9:100,

Guardianship of children. Benedict v. McGill, 1:26.

Incompatibility defined. Jones v. Jones, 6:38.

Incompatibility. Requisites of complaint. Dennis v. Dennis, 7:288.

Interest of state. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328.

Legislative. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

Legislative and judicial powers relating to. Wolo v. Wolo.

Maintenance, immediate and continued enforcement of decree required by law pending decision of appellate court. Harris v. Harris, 9:344.

Mandamus to have action redocketed. Harris v. Harris, 9:338.

Nature of action of, as sui generis. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Pleadings. Jones v. Jones, 6:38; Dennis v. Dennis, 7:288; George v. George, 9:33; Cole v. Cole, 10:111.

Procedure governing. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328.

Procurement. Plea available to plaintiff where defendant charges adultery in recrimination plea. George v. George, 9:33.

Recrimination. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328; George v. George, 9:33.

Remarriage after foreign judgment as estoppel against jurisdictional challenge. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Statutes analyzed. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328.

Suit money, application for, when applicant awarded support in alimony suit. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Tenancy by the entirety, conversion by decree to tenancy in common. Estate of Lloyd K. Whisnant, In re, 24:298.

Tripartite nature of proceeding. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328; Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20; Potter v. Potter, 15:269.

Venue for action of, proper. King v. King, 22:106.

Void decree for improper venue in action of. King v. King, 22:106.

Where defendant charges adultery in recrimination plea plaintiff may plead condonation and procurement. George v. George, 9:33.

Wife abandoning husband not entitled to alimony except for causes stated in statute. Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301.

DOMEST RELATIONS.

Claim for alimony when wife abandons husband. John-Travers v. Travers, 18:35.

Petition for support cannot be entertained once ordered in criminal proceedings. John-Travers v. Travers, 18:35.

Right to alimony pendent elite. John-Travers v. Travers, 18:35.

DOMICILIARIES.

Attachment issued against foreign national who is. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Foreign national is, when. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

DOUBLE JEOPARDY, see also Indictments; Murder.

Certiorari can only determine issue if first raised in court below. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Certiorari proper remedy to review denial of motion for discharge from prosecution. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Discharge of defendant, pleading after void. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Discharge of defendant on preliminary examination no bar to subsequent prosecution. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

Discharge of jury because of manifest necessity obviates application of doctrine. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Doctrine effective even though no verdict has been returned. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Granting of new trial on court's own motion when court has no power places defendant in jeopardy. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Illegitimate children, mother's right to custody. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Indictment, criterion for sufficiency of. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Indictment, sufficiency of, to allow for defense. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Panel of jurors in first trial reduced below minimum, retrial after. James v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:691.

Remand of case pursuant to appeal as. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Trial for greater offense bars later trial for lesser. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

Trial when no jury empaneled on previous charge. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.

Waiver of right not effected by defendant's thanking court for decision upon which right is based. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

DOWER, see Customary Law; Husband and Wife; Real Property.

Estoppel by joining in husband's deed. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

DOWRY.

Payment as sealing marriage. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Rendering services to woman's parents as constituting payment of. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

DUE PROCESS, see also Constitution.

Administrative agency. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Judicial process. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

DUE PROCESS OF LAW.

Citation and opportunity to be heard as requirements. Walker v. Kazoula, 25:325; Barbour-Tarpeh v. Dennis, 25:468.

Defined. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Harriero, 24:546.


E

EASEMENTS, see Real Property.

EDUCATION.

Commissioner of, disqualified to serve as teacher. McAuley v. Republic, 1:354.

EJECTMENT, see also Deeds; Leases; Real Property.

Adverse possession as defense. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Minor v. Pearson, 2:82; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95; Thorne v. Thompson, 3:193; Karnga v. Williams, 10:10; Williams-Baguri v. Cooper, 14:101; Soco v. Johnson, 15:320; Toles v. Williams, 15:537.

Affidavit defective, rejected as surplusage. Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462.

Affidavit not required in summary proceedings where no issue of fact. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Answer. Failure to file cannot be rectified by amendment or repleading. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Certiorari in action of. Coffah v. Pyne, 8:380.

Complaint dismissible on rebuttal of essential allegations. Davies-Johnson v. Alpha, 13:573.

Damages. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 20:100.

Deeds duly probated and registered superior to prior instruments not probated or registered. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Default judgment, reservation of summons before. Washington v. Dennis, 20:285.

Defenses. Moore v. Gye, 19:429.

Denial of title by implication. Moore v. Gye, 19:429.

Description of land awarded. Ginger v. Bai, 19:372.

Estoppel a defense to action. East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95; Dennis v. Holder, 11:14; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Evidence necessary to support action of. Buchanan v. Juah, 17:79.

Fraud in execution of deed. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3.

Fraud in execution of instrument a defense. Nimley v. Harris, 17:41.

Fraudulent procurement of deed cannot be alleged for first time on appeal. Freeman v. Webster, 14:493.

Grantee of premises involved, not a party to action, not concluded by judgment in spire of privity with defendant. Rove v. Nelson, 27:174.

If neither party proves title. Moore v. Gye, 19:429.

Injunction with. Fiske v. Artis, 11:334; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178.

Issue involves mixed questions of law and fact. Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:376; Karnga v. Williams, 10:10; Pratt v. Summerville, 10:147, 325; Gbassage v. Holt, 24:293.

Issue not ties of blood but title. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Issue of title raised when action in circuit court. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Judgment by default. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Judgment in. Prohibition against execution. Davies-Johnson v. Alpha, 13:573.

Judgment in summary proceedings. Appeal not a stay to enforcement. Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

Judgment relied upon as proof of title must designate property with certainty. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Jurisdiction of circuit courts. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Jury trial, requirement for. Gbassage v. Holt, 24:293.

Jury trial of fact issues mandatory. Scott v. Sawyerr, 24:500.

Lease a defense in summary proceedings. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Lessor must be joined as codefendant with lessee. Dennis v. Dennis, 24:490.

Lessor must be names codefendant with lessee. Liberia Trading Corp. v. Cole, 15:61.

Limitation of action, principles as applied to action for. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Misjoinder for strangers to appear as plaintiffs. Smith v. Hill, 1:157.

Motion for new trial unnecessary as prerequisite in appeal. Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:376; Karnga v. Williams, 10:10.

Not maintainable against Republic. Republic v. Potter, 13:48.

Not maintainable for breach of contract. Rached v. Knowlden, 13:68.

Not maintainable for breach of covenant in lease. Tubman v. Westphal et al., 1:367.

Not maintainable to evict lessee from property sold to plaintiff. Watson v. Oost Afrikaanishce Compagnie, 13:94.

Notice required in summary proceedings. Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

Older deed, preference to. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Plaintiff has burden of proving title. Neal v. Kandakai, 17:590.

Plaintiff must prove title affirmatively. Tay v. Teh, 18:310.

Plea of adverse possession impliedly admits plaintiff's color of trial. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

Pleading when plaintiff seeks benefit of statute. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Posting property with copy of summons. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Prior possession prevails without title. Tay v. Teh, 18:310.

Probate, undoing of, by action at law. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Probated and registered deed held prevailing evidence in ejectment action. Dundas v. Botoe, 17:457.

Probation of will or deed not reviewable in. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Prohibition against execution of judgment in. Davies-Johnson v. Alpha, 13:573.

Prohibition against trial of title by justice of peace in summary proceeding. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330.

Resummons; judgment by default after. Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Statute of limitations. Gibson v. Jones, 3:78; Toles v. Williams, 15:357.

Summary proceedings. Affidavit not required absent issue of fact. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Summary proceedings. Appeal not a stay to enforcement of judgment. Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

Summary proceedings. Change of venue. Johns v. Howard, 12:208.

Summary proceedings. Jurisdiction of magistrates and justices of peace. Fahnbulleh v. Anthony, 16:118.

Summary proceedings. Lease a defense. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Summary proceedings. Statutory rights of defendant cannot be invoked after jury trial. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Summary proceedings. Title not triable. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330; Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Survey of property ordered by appellate court. Freeman v. Webster, 14:493.

Survey ordered where evidence of title insufficient. Aidoo v. Jackson, 24:306.

Surveyor's report is evidence, not award. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Tenant in possession may bring. Beavans v. Jurs, 3:28.

Title defined. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271.

Title. Not triable by justice of the peace involved. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330.

Title. Not triable in summary proceeding. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330; Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Title, plaintiff has burden of proving. Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Title. Plaintiff must prove. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; Savage v. Dennis, 1:51; Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; White v. Steel, 2:22; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Gibson v. Jones, 3:78; Williams v. Karnga, 3:234; Salifu v. Lassanah, 5:152; Horace v. Harris, 9:372; Cooper v. Cooper-Scott, 11:7; Miller v. McClain, 12:3; Cooper v. Cooper-Scott, 12:15; Yamma v. Street, 12:356; Duncan v. Perry, 13:510; Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32; Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Title, plaintiff to establish his own, not defect in defendant's. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Title. Priority a material element. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Title, proof of by descent or purchase as prerequisite. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Title. Proof where claimed by both parties to be derived from Republic. Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Title, to be affirmatively established first by plaintiff. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97; Cassell v. Campbell, 24:237.

Title. Two verdicts conclusive evidence. Karnga v. Williams, 11:299.

Title by descent in action of. Barclay-Dunbar v. Peabody, 19:159.

Title in plaintiff, requirement of, as prerequisite for action of ejectment. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Title not conferred by mere blood relationship. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Title to be affirmatively established by plaintiff. Kissell v. Diago, 22:329.

Title to be established by plaintiff. Yarkpawolo v. Robertson, 19:226; Neufville v. Seton, 19:54; Ginger v. Bai, 19:372; Barclay-Dunbar v. Peabody, 19:159.

Value of deed over possession as evidence. King v. Simpson, 17:226.

Venue. Change in summary proceedings. Johns v. Howard, 12:208.

Waiver of rights to interpose affirmative defense. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Writ of error denied after return of writ of possession. Joh v. Hill, 17:122.

Writ of error in action of. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Writ of possession, execution of. Gbeh v. Flomo, 25:58.

ELECTION OF REMEDIES.

Contract and tort, single action on theories of both. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Rescission of contract by part who affirms, barring of. Francis v. Liberian French Timber Corp., 22:168.

ELECTIONS.

Courts lack jurisdiction over conduct. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202; Emmons v. Williams, 3:30; Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234.

Each house of Legislature judge of returns as to own members. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Sedition in connection with. Sie v. Republic, 12:59.

EMBEZZLEMENT, see also Agents; Bail; Conversion; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Defrauding and Cheating; Evidence; Fraud; Grand Juries; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Larceny; Trials; Witnesses.

Cash equivalent computed. Toe v. Republic, 18:168.

Circumstantial evidence of. Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Conversion of Government funds. Monger v. Republic, 18:76.

Conversion of proceeds of property. Johns v. Republic, 13:143.

Definition essential elements; gravamen of the crime. Clarke v. Republic, 2:498; Hodge v. Republic, 3:7; Sancea v. Republic, 3:347; Seton v. Republic, 4:238; Dennis-Mitchell v. Republic, 7:134; John v. Republic, 7:261; Attoh v. Republic, 9:3; Kebeh v. Republic, 11:196; Tugba v. Republic, 12:218; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Johnson v. Republic, 15:88; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Distinguished from debt. John v. Republic, 7:261.

Distinguished from defrauding and cheating. Attoh v. Republic, 9:3.

Distinguished from larceny. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45; Dennis-Mitchell v. Republic, 7:134; John v. Republic, 7:261.

Distinguished from obtaining money under false pretense. Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Fiduciary's failure to pay, standing alone, not considered as. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Form of indictment. Ware v. Republic, 5:381.

Lumping of valuation in indictment. John v. Republic, 7:261.

Of goods. Mannah v. Republic, 4:366.

Of government property by public officer. Clarke v. Republic, 2:498; Hill v. Republic, 3:130; Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411; Seton v. Republic, 4:238; Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Omission from indictment of charge for money claimed to have been converted, requires reversal of conviction. Lone v. Republic, 27:148.

Presumption of criminal conversion from unexplained shortage in account. Appleton v. Republic, 11:284.

Proof of only a portion of sum charged, sufficiency of. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Prosecution not barred by failure to seek recovery on bond posted to secure performance of duties of revenue agent. Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372.

Requirements to be proved for conviction. Lone v. Republic, 27:148.

Shortage in accounts of large sums of government money, unexplained, as basis for upholding guilty verdict. Matthews v. Republic, 12:257.

Uncorroborated testimony of accused insufficiency to rebut proof of guilt. Johns v. Republic, 13:143.

Unexplained shortage in an account as presumption of criminal conversion. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Variance between indictment and proof. John v. Republic, 7:261.

When mens rea presumed. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

EMBLEMENTS, see Real Property.

EMERGENCY POWERS ACT.

Deceased persons and their estates, Act of 1973 not applicable to. Davies v. Rif, 25:144.

Service of process on person arrested without warrant, as soon as possible. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

EMINENT DOMAIN.

Constitutional prohibition against taking private property for public use without just compensation. Johnson v. Republic, 1:103.

EMPLOYEES, see Labor.

EQUITY, see also Accounts and Accounting; Actions; Civil Procedures; Courts; Decedents' Estates; Divorce; Evidence; Fraud; Injunctions; Judges and Justices; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Probate Courts; Real Property; Referees; Venue; Wills.

Accounting. Bill to compel. Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Action classified and defined. Nassre and Saleby v. Elias Bros., 5:108; Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Adequate remedy at law defined. Nassre & Saleby v. Elias Bros., 5:108.

Adequate remedy at law ground for denial of relief. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161; Francis v. Menzo Salami Bros., 11:422; Francis v. Anderson, 12:269.

Attorney General's opinion not binding on court of. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350.

Cancellation of a deed for fraud. Wilson v. Wilson, 27:182.

Cancellation of conveyances, jurisdiction of court in equity as to. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Cancellation of deed does not authorize issuance in same proceeding of a writ of possession. Pratt v. Smith, 26:160.

Completeness of remedy. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350.

Considers that done which ought to be done. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

Contents of bill. Goodridge v. Dennis-Brown, 10:129.

Coordinate relief by court of, not barred by statute authorizing court to vacate own judgment. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Court of, will not lend itself to perpetration of fraud. Jackson v. Trinity, 17:631.

Damages not awarded in. Nassre v. Elias Bros., 5:108; Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Reeves, 13:356.

Decedents' estates. General jurisdiction over. Johns v. Pelham, 2:550.

Decree by default. Cess-Pelham v. Pelham, 4:54.

Decree must be predicated on record. United Liberia Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Decree to remove cloud on title and quiet possession to real property. Reeves v. Knowlden, 11:199.

Deliberate violation of law causing injury, establishes liability. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 21:487.

Discovery of estate. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Equitable mortgages. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Equitable relief for breach of contract denied where adequate remedy at law. Tarabay v. Awar, 17:36.

Exercise of equitable powers requires showing of specifically equitable right to relief. Moor v. Mensah, 11:339.

Fraud as basis for civil and criminal jurisdiction. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:425.

Incorrect title of bill. Goodridge v. Dennis-Brown, 10:129.

Judgment void on its face may be set aside by equity court of coordinate jurisdiction with court which granted judgment. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Laches. Page v. Jackson, 2:77; Vietor and Huber v. Thatcher, 2:80; Estate of Ross v. Estate of Fuller, 2:190; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:221; Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161; Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Methods of administering justice. Thorne v. Thompson, 3:193.

Mistake as basis for relief. Banks v. Hayes, 10:98.

Ne exeat, writ of. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69.

Nonjoinder of proper or necessary party may be corrected by court sua sponte. Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

Of redemption in mortgage of realty. Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

One party cannot enjoy benefits of mistake of law by other of which he knew. Dagber v. Molley, 26:422.

Other equitable relief available, instituting proceeding in equity when. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Pleadings must be addressed to equity division of court. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Pleadings, prayer for relief necessary. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:36; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26.

Power of court to administer both legal and equitable relief. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Power of court when fraud proved. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Quarter Session and Common Pleas may sit in. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69.

Referees. Responsibility to courts. United Liberia Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Reformation of deed. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350.

Reformation of lease. Collins v. Elias Bros., 11:258.

Relief may be granted though not prayed for. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

Remedy at law. Morris v. Jackson, 19:311.

Removal of cloud on title. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350; Reeves v. Knowlden, 11:199.

Rescission of contract for sale of personal property. Nassre v. Elias Bros., 5:108.

Specific performance of contract. Collins v. Elias Bros., 11:258; Kamara v. Logan, 12:28; Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480; Reeves-Gibson v. Johnson, 15:612.

Statute of limitations, when applied in. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Stay of proceedings at law by. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69.

Title of real property not determinable by court of. Johnson v. Cassell, 1:161; Green v. Turner, 1:276.

Undue advantage as basis of relief. Banks v. Hayes, 10:98; Goodridge v. Dennis-Brown, 10:129.

Unjust enrichment doctrine of. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Void judgment may be set aside on bill for relief. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

When doctrine can be invoked. Simpson v. Peters, 19:185.

ERROR.

When writ of error to issue. Handsford v. Harris, 19:176.

ERROR, WRIT OF, see Writ of Error.

ESCHEAT.

Condition of. Birch v. Quinn, 1:309.

ESTATES, see Cotenancies; Curtesy; Decedents' Estates; Deeds; Ejectment; Escheat; Immigrant Allotments; Homesteads; Leases; Probate Courts; Real Property; Wills.

Conveyance in intestate. Morris v. Jackson, 19:311.

ESTOPPEL, see also Civil Procedures; Contracts; Equity; Real Property; Waiver; Wills.

Acquiescence as basis of. Blunt v. Barbour, 1:58; McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95; Sinoe v. Nimley, 16:152.

Acquiescence in possession of another as basis of awarding title to real property. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97; Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Agreed bill of costs. In re Harmon, 4:314.

By stipulation. Smith v. Page, 11:146.

Change of position of another party, effect of on. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

Change of venue does not estop party as to any legal right or privilege. Liles v. Batam, 1:70.

Corporate existence, denial of, by party which held itself out as corporation. Francis v. Liberian French Timber Corp., 22:168.

Defendant taking advantage of own objection. Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263.

Definition and effect. East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; Foreign Mission Board of the Nat'l. Bapt. Conv., Inc. v. Horton, 3:133; Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436; Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Denial by bank of debt owed depositor. Bank of Monrovia v. Kobbah, 10:281.

Denial of existence of state of facts after inducing belief in their existence. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Effect of plea of. Clark v. Lewis, 3:95.

Ejectment. Defense. East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95; Dennis v. Holder, 11:14; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Failure to defend action against person to whom liable. Salifu v. Lassannah, 5:152.

From contesting title to real property. Blunt v. Barbour, 1:58; East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95; Dennis v. Holder, 11:14; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

From contesting will. Williams v. Finch, 10:249.

From denial of admission. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

From denial of execution of chattel mortgage. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

From raising plea of misnomer. Wear v. Kpah-Leandh-Jaiyawa, 8:361.

Husband cannot disaffirm wife's business debts after consenting to transactions. McCauley v. Brown, 2:359.

Illegal agreement, when applied. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

In case of fraud. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

In ejectment action. East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

In pais. Foreign Mission Board of the Nat'l Bapt. Conv., Inc. v. Horton, 3:133.

Intervention. Party who failed to intervene estopped from contesting judgment. Sinoe v. Nimley, 16:152.

Method of pleading. Clark v. Lewis, 3:95.

Oath on change of venue does not operate as. Liles v. Batam, 1:70.

Of chattel mortgagee from assertion of lien by conduct inconsistent with its existence. Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Of contest of will. Williams v. Finch, 10:249.

Of lessee from disputing lessor's title. Saunders v. Gant, 3:152.

Of lessor from disputing own title. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Of party in privity with lessor from asserting that lease is illegal. Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159.

Of party to illegal contract. West v. Dunbar, 1:313.

Participation in execution of decree estops against subsequent contest. Abi-Rached v. Gemayel, 17:14.

Protesting action previously sought. Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Remarriage after foreign judgment of divorce as negating challenge to jurisdiction. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Stipulation, denial of legality of enforcement of party's own. Stereo Hotel v. S. & A. Construction and Trading Co., 21:415.

Submission to jurisdiction of court as. King v. Williams, 2:523.

Wife joining in husband's deed as. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

EVIDENCE, see also Appeals; Burden of Proof; Civil Procedures; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Cross Examination; Discovery; Homicide; Indictments; Murder; Parol Evidence; Self-Incrimination; Subpoenas; Trials; Verdicts; Witnesses.

Accomplice, competency of on behalf of prosecution. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Accomplice's uncorroborated testimony, sufficiency of, to sustain conviction. Jappa v. Republic, 21:339.

Accused's uncorroborated testimony, insufficiency of. Toopah v. Republic, 23:119.

Accused's uncorroborated testimony, sufficiency of, to establish innocence. Toe v. Republic, 24:462; Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Acknowledgment of correctness of account constitutes an admission in embezzlement. Clinton v. Republic, 18:19.

Admissibility of coconspirator's confession. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Admissibility of confession. Dennis v. Republic, 19:318.

Admissibility of writing. Fahbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Admissible, as prerequisite for jurisdictional conviction. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Admissions. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:569; Dennis v. Republic, 3:45; Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328; Teddaway v. Republic, 5:126; Richards v. Coleman, 6:285; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93; Smith v. Barbour, 8:229; Bank of Monrovia v. Kobbah, 10:281; Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Admissions of a party, effect as. Scott v. Sawyerr, 24:500.

Admissions of principal and agent regarding acting within scope of authority, admissibility of. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:99.

Affidavit necessary to support showing of fact on motion to dismiss appeal. Haid v. Ebric, 17:215.

After discovered, as ground for new trial. Harmon v. Republic, 6:186; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:37; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Toles v. Williams, 14:384; Hood-Adams v. Jackson, 15:431.

Alibi. Capps v. Republic, 2:313; The v. Republic, 10:234.

Allegations of fact must be sustained by. Twegbey v. Republic, 11:295; Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Hill v. Hill, 13:257.

Ancient documents, admissibility of. Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

Barring evidence of defense when party wrongly placed on bare denial. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Best, duty of parties to present. Sirleaf v. Azar, 21:221.

Best, effect of not producing. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Best evidence. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Best evidence, rule explained. Scott v. Sawyerr, 24:500.

Best evidence is testimony of person with direct knowledge. Blamo v. Republic, 17:232.

Best evidence rule. Shell Co., Ltd. v. Ghandour, 18:298.

Beyond a reasonable doubt. Tolbert v. Republic, 19:251.

Beyond reasonable doubt lacking, proof of element of crime. Garhein v. Republic, 21:423.

Burden of proof, rests upon affirmative proponent. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Burden of proof in criminal cases. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Burden of proof in criminal prosecution. Dunn v. Republic, 1:401; Hance v. Republic, 3:161; Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Teh v. Republic, 10:234; Tendi v. Republic, 12:109; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Johnson v. Republic, 15:66; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Burden of proof in defense of insanity. Saamoon v. Republic, 22:321.

Burden of proof in libel action. Knowlden v. Reeves, 12:103.

Burden of proof not affected by dismissal of defendant's pleadings. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Burden of proof on party who alleged facts. Appleton v. Republic, 11:284; Twegbey v. Republic, 11:295.

Burden of proving beyond reasonable doubt essential elements of offenses charged. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Burden of proving defendant's insanity in criminal case. Serjleh v. Republic, 20:371.

Burden on prosecution in criminal case. Collins v. Republic, 21:366.

Character of defendant in criminal trial. Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Lewis v. Republic, 5:358.

Circumstantial, in criminal prosecution. Coleman v. Republic, 1:320; Dyson v. Republic, 1:481; Berrian v. Republic, 2:258; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529, 569; Kamarah v. Republic, 3:204; Gardiner v. Republic, 8:406; Williams v. Republic, 10:78; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Glay v. Republic, 15:181; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Circumstantial, value of. Nimley v. Republic, 21:348.

Collateral, inadmissible in criminal prosecution. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75.

Confession, requirements for valid. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Confession and avoidance. Cannot be shown after pleading general denial. Butchers' Assn. of Monrovia v. Turay, 13:365.

Confession of incompetent witness as against accessory. Dennis v. Republic, 18:220.

Confessions. Padmore v. Republic, 2:387; Logan v. Republic, 2:472; Ferguson v. Republic, 2:553; Kamarah v. Republic, 3:204; Teddaway v. Republic, 5:126; Collins v. Collins, 10:61; Williams v. Republic, 10:78; Sese v. Republic, 12:164; Glay v. Republic, 15:181; Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Confessions to crimes permit no coercion. Tolbert v. Republic, 19:251.

Confessions, when illegally obtained, inadmissible. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Conviction of accused, evidence so conclusive as to exclude every rational doubt of guilt for. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

Copies of documents admissible only when original not available. Stubblefield v. Nassah, 25:152.

Copies of writings, inadmissibility of generally. Nymo v. Republic, 24:154.

Copy of will taken from public record admissible. Fuller v. Johnson, 1:56.

Copy of writing, when admissible. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

Corroboration of accomplice testimony. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Corroborative. Coleman v. Republic, 1:320, 2:1; Zaigler-Or v. Republic, 2:624; Capps v. Republic, 2:313; Logan v. Republic, 2:472; Thomas v. Republic, 2:562; Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Smith v. Republic, 3:58; Faber v. Republic, 3:69; Fuller v. Republic, 3:118; Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Sawyerr v. Republic, 8:311; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Court's reliance on personal knowledge of local prejudice in application for change of venue. Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Court's summarization in charge to jury. George v. Republic, 14:339.

Criminal appeal. Entire record reviewable. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Criminal case, quantum required for conviction. Nimley v. Republic, 21:279; Toe v. Republic, 24:462.

Criminal defendant entitled to any reasonable inference from circumstantial. Otto v. Republic, 17:186.

Cross-examination, latitude of questioner on. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Cross-examination, relevancy test of subject matter on. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Cross-examination, use of document on, when introduced by opposing counsel. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Damages, proof of special. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Declaration of parties in business matters. Yancy v. Republic, 19:63.

Deeds and other writings, admissibility of, as evidence of transfer of title and other rights. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Defense, affirmance when no. Yallah v. Republic, 20:243.

Demonstrative. Inadmissible when produced by person incompetent to testify. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Demonstrative. Instruments with which crime was allegedly committed admissible when conclusively identified. Ammons v. Republic, 12:360.

Dismissal of a pleading negatives admission of documents annexed. Gbassage v. Holt, 24:293.

Dismissal of answer as barring introduction of. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Divorce action. Evidence of specific adultery inadmissible where complaint does not name correspondents. George v. George, 9:33.

Documentary. Account books and entries. Lee v. Hirsch, 1:116; Attia v. Sherman, 1:222; Harmon v. Woodin & Co., Ltd., 2:334.

Documentary. Annexation to pleadings. Woodin & Co. v. Gibson, 2:409; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Documentary. Best and secondary. Fuller v. Johnson, 1:56; Johnson v. Republic, 1:75; Lowrie v. Crusoe Bros. & Co., 1:123; Williams v. Wynn, 2:148; Thomas v. Republic, 2:562; Williams v. Karnga, 3:234; Dennis v. Republic, 6:56, 269; Freeman v. Freeman, 8:187; Twegbey v. Republic, 11:295; Tugba v. Republic, 12:218; Hill v. Hill, 13:257; Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Mombo v. Nah, 15:491.

Documentary. Contested will admissible. Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Documentary. Copy inadmissible unless original accounted for. Tugba v. Republic, 12:218.

Documentary. Copy of instrument referred to in pleading may be annexed. Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Documentary. Copy of public record admissible. Thomas v. Republic, 2:562.

Documentary. Deed as evidence of title. Smith v. Hill, 1:157; Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Clark v. Barbour, 2:15; Williams v. Wynn, 2:148; King v. Cooper, 6:12; Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Documentary. Depositions. Thompson v. Republic, 9:400.

Documentary. Duty of court to expound to jury. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75; Ware v. Republic, 5:381.

Documentary, duty of court to present to jury. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Documentary. Foundation for admissibility. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75; Attia v. Sherman, 1:222; Harmon v. Woodin & Co., Ltd., 2:334; Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Smart v. Proh, 11:49; Maritime Transportation Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Documentary, identification required before admission of. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Documentary. Instrument differing from that set forth in pleadings inadmissible. McGill v. Woermann, 1:163.

Documentary. Judgment of justice of peace. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376.

Documentary. Legitimacy and intestate succession established by will describing descendant as "my grandson." Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Documentary must be taken altogether. Washington v. Lloyd, 1:83.

Documentary. Notice to produce. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Documentary. Objection must be made when offered. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:220.

Documentary, once admitted, is part of case. Gbeh v. Gblah, 24:347.

Documentary, presentation to jury of those admitted. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Documentary. Public records. Thomas v. Republic, 2:562.

Documentary. Published description of invention admissible in patent case. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117.

Documentary. Revenue stamps required. Scotland v. Republic, 3:252.

Documentary. Should be presented to jury. Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Documents not admitted into evidence cannot form basis for judge's ruling. Dagber v. Molley, 26:422.

Dying declaration. Gibson v. Republic, 18:353.

Dying declarations. Dunn v. Republic, 1:401; Berrian v. Republic, 2:258; Morris v. Roberts, 2:469.

Dying declarations, additional proof required for admission in evidence. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Dying declarations, conclusiveness and weight considered in connection with all other evidence. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Erroneous rulings as to admissibility and insufficient evidence grounds for new trial. Vianini (Liberia) Ltd. v. McBourrough, 17:439.

Evidence not permitted on issues not raised by pleadings. Nah v. Nah, 18:195.

Exclusion of irrelevant or legally untenable questions by trial court sua sponte, authority for and method of. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Exclusion of testimony for repetitiveness proper. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Expert testimony. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376; Dunn v. Republic, 1:401; Scott v. Republic, 1:430.

Expert testimony must accompany such documentary proof. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Failure of defendant in criminal case to present evidence in rebuttal. Kamara v. Republic, 21:319.

Failure to explain shortages is presumptive evidence of guilt. Clinton v. Republic, 18:19.

Failure to prove necessary element of crime ground for reversal of conviction. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

Favorable alteration of finances admitted to prove embezzlement. Clinton v. Republic, 18:19.

Flight as circumstantial evidence of crime. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Flight as evidence of guilt. Freeman v. Republic, 1:306; Paye v. Republic, 10:55; Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Flight of accused, admissibility of. Brown v. Republic, 21:65; Jappa v. Republic, 21:339.

Flight of accused, as indication of guilt. Gray v. Republic, 23:49.

Flight of defendant as evidence of guilt. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Former testimony. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Gould v. Gould, 1:389; Bey-Solow v. Gordon, 2:95; Tolbert v. Gibson, 2:608; Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Fraud allegations unsupported by evidence, not proof. Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Company v. Crystal  Steamship Corporation, S.A., 27:198.

Fraud, sufficiency to establish. Sirleaf v. Azar, 21:221.

Functions of court and jury in relation to. Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Phillips v. Republic, 4:11; Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

Hearsay, relaxed attitude of courts towards. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Hearsay, statement of unavailable witness as. Serjleh v. Republic, 20:371.

Hearsay. Cummings v. Republic, 4:284; Yancy v. Republic, 5:182; Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211; Smith v. Republic, 7:205; Banks v. Republic, 7:279; Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301.

Hearsay rule, admissibility of statement by deceased as exception to. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Homicide, burden of proof on state in prosecution for. Jalloh v. Republic, 21:255.

Hypothetical question. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Hypothetical question defined. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Impeachment of witnesses. Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Logan v. Republic, 5:398; Gardner v. Neal, 13:422; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

In rebuttal under general denial. Mobil Oil, Inc. v. Sano, 19:15.

Inadmissibility of comments on another's confession. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Inadmissibility of dismissed prior proceedings. Dennis v. Browne-Philips, 19:189.

Indictment need not contain. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Inference in favor of defendant from refusal of prosecution to produce available eyewitness. Blamo v. Republic, 17:232.

Inferences drawn from failure of witness to testify. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Informers as feigned accomplices in conspiracy, corroboration not required. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Insanity by rage not established. Gibson v. Republic, 18:353.

Insufficiency. State's stipulation as to, ground for reversal of conviction. Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Insufficiency to support indictment. Yarssah v. Republic, 20:14.

Insufficient in homicide prosecution. Seton v. Republic, 21:133.

Insufficient to establish reasonable basis for verdict awarding damages. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Insufficient when it supposes existence of better evidence. Johnson-Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 26:146.

Intent, proof of felonious, by inference from circumstances. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Irrelevant evidence prejudicing jury. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Irrelevant is inadmissible. Jackson v. Trinity, 17:631.

Issues of fact raised in pleadings, all documentary evidence on, to be presented to jury. Dagber v. Molley, 26:422.

Judgment as evidence of title. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Judgment by default, proof required by plaintiff to obtain. Baky v. George, 22:80.

Judicial notice. Phelps v. Williams, 3:54; Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Johnson v. Republic, 15:66; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Medical doctor qualified as expert on mental competence. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Medical testimony by physician. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376; Dunn v. Republic, 1:401.

Motion for judgment of acquittal may be made when evidence wholly insufficient to establish accused's guilt. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

Multiple objections to introduction of, disposal of by court. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Newly discovered evidence, meaning of, for purpose of motion for relief from judgment. Stubblefield v. Nassah, 25:152.

Nonexpert witness may not be asked hypothetical question. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Nonexpert witness may testify only as to facts within personal knowledge. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Non-joinder of issues, effect on introduction of. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Notice to produce documentary evidence required only when in possession of another. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Objections to admissibility must be specified in bill of exceptions. Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

Objections to immaterial questions, court's failure to specify grounds for overruling. Raymond Concrete Pile Co. v. Awar, 21:493.

Objections. Trial court should indicate which are sustained and which overruled. Yamma v. Street, 12:356.

Offering or objecting to in good faith, error to threaten contempt to counsel for. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Oral and documentary evidence of fraud admissible in ejectment action. Nimley v. Harris, 17:41.

Order of presentation. Thompson v. Republic, 9:400.

Original documents required. Shell Co., Ltd. v. Ghandour, 18:298.

Parol. Deed cannot be varied by oral testimony. Neal v. Kandakai, 17:590.

Parol evidence at variance with writing. Shell Co., Ltd. v. Ghandour, 18:298.

Parol evidence cannot vary written documents. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Parol evidence rule. Holder v. Teoh, 2:391; Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263; Richards v. Coleman, 6:285; Ware v. Watson, 8:335; Butchers' Assn. of Monrovia v. Turay, 13:365; Thompson v. Republic, 14:290; Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Parol evidence rule stated. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Parol evidence rule inapplicable in criminal case. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Physically impossible allegations in indictment need not be proved where immaterial to essential elements of crime charged. Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Plaintiff in ejectment must establish title affirmatively. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Pleadings. Burden of proof unaffected by dismissal of answer. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Pleadings. Instruments differing from inadmissible. McGill v. Woermann, 1:163.

Pleadings. Introduction of affirmative matter barred by dismissal of answer placing defendant on bare denial. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Pleadings. Matter not raised inadmissible. Holder v. Teoh, 2:391; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26; Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Butchers' Assn. of Monrovia v. Turay, 13:365.

Pleadings. Right to cross-examine unaffected by dismissal of answer. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Pleadings of facts not supposed by the record should be supported by affidavits. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Pleadings unsupported by evidence, not proof. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Possessions found at scene of crime. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Precluding contrary proof. Clinton v. Republic, 18:19.

Prejudicial matter. Introduction by prosecuting attorney reversible error. Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Preponderance required to prove self-defense as justification for homicide. Garswar v. Republic, 2:278; Slocum v. Republic, 11:140.

Preponderance when single witness testifies against other witnesses. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Presumption from completion of official acts that preliminaries were completed. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Presumption of correctness of account stated. Morris v. Rumanapf, 4:263.

Presumption of correctness of public records. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75.

Presumption of death from seven years' absence. Administrators of Estate of Washington v. Lloyd, 1:104.

Presumption of embezzlement from unexplained shortage in account. Appleton v. Republic, 11:284.

Presumption of fraud from circumstantial evidence in suit of equity. John v. Republic, 7:261.

Presumption of genuineness of signature of reply letter. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Presumption of innocence in criminal prosecution. Hance v. Republic, 3:161; Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; McCauley v. Republic, 9:116; Teh v. Republic, 10:234; Tendi v. Republic, 12:109; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Johnson v. Republic, 15:66; Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Presumption of intent when injury inflicted. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Presumption of knowledge of effect of signing legal instruments. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Presumption of legitimacy from statement in will. Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Presumption of malice from taking of human life. Gouykro v. Republic, 11:102; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Presumption of sanity. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Presumptions, basis of. Walker v. Kazoula, 25:325.

Previous conviction. Evidence inadmissible in criminal prosecution. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Prima facie defined. Paye v. Republic, 10:55.

Prima facie proof sufficient to support criminal verdict where no evidence in rebuttal. Paye v. Republic, 10:55; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Primary evidence defined. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Privilege against self-incrimination. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Privileged communications. Confidential relationship required. Clarke v. Republic, 2:498.

Proof beyond reasonable doubt of guilt of accused to overcome presumption of innocence. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12; Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Proof defined. John v. Republic, 7:261.

Proof. Motion for directed verdict in criminal prosecution is in nature of demurrer. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Proof of acceptance of terms of chattel mortgage. Elias Bros. v. Gibson, 11:218.

Proof of adverse possession of real property. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Soco v. Johnson, 15:320.

Proof of alibi. Capps v. Republic, 2:313; Teh v. Republic, 10:234.

Proof of assault and battery. Smith v. Republic, 7:205; Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

Proof of attempted crime. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Proof of authority of administrator of intestate estate. Anderson v. McGill, 1:46.

Proof of authority to sue in representative capacity. McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Proof of authenticity of boundary line. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Proof of bank deposit. Bank of Monrovia v. Kobbah, 10:281.

Proof of business transaction. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Proof of cause of death in prosecution for murder by administration of drug. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Proof of character of defendant in criminal trial. Lewis v. Republic, 5:358.

Proof of corpus delicti in criminal prosecution. Berrian v. Republic, 2:258; Kolli v. Republic, 3:238; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524.

Proof of customary law. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Proof of damages. Attia v. Sherman, 1:222; Firestone Plantation Co. v. Greaves, 9:250; Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52; Wright v. Tay, 12:223; Franco-Liberian Trucking Co. v. Bettie, 13:318; Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Reeves, 13:356; Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313; Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554; Vianini Co. v. Cole, 16:95.

Proof of debt. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:220; McAuley v. Lewis & Co., 1:220; McAuley v. Lackman, 1:474; Buken v. King, 3:101; Davis v. Johnson, 10:416.

Proof of defamation. McCarthy v. Weeks, 2:39; Cummings v. Green, 3:11; Knowlden v. Reeves, 12:103.

Proof of defrauding and cheating. Ali v. Republic, 13:125.

Proof of embezzlement. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75; Hodge v. Republic, 3:7; Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411; John v. Republic, 7:261; Watson v. Ware, 10:158; Appleton v. Republic, 11:284; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Proof of extortion. Carter v. Republic, 3:275.

Proof of false pretense and representation. Potter v. Republic, 1:67.

Proof of fraud. Holder v. Teoh, 2:391; Alston v. Castro, 3:3; Henrichsen v. Moore, 5:60; Nassre & Saleby v. Elias Bros., 5:108; Beysolow v. Coleman, 9:156; Watson v. Ware, 10:158; Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82; Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Proof of insanity. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Freeman v. Freeman, 8:187; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Proof of invention in patent case. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117.

Proof of legitimacy and paternity. Watson v. Ware, 10:158; Harge v. Republic, 14:217; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Proof of local prejudice on motion for change of venue of criminal trial. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Proof of malice in assault and battery. Bokai v. Republic, 13:400.

Proof of malice, premeditation or deliberation in homicide. Sartu v. Republic, 11:400; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Wlarye v. Republic, 14:224; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Proof of mitigation of restitution in prosecution for larceny. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Proof of power of attorney. Fazzah v. Rogers Bros. Shoes, Inc., 12:300.

Proof of public records. Thomas v. Republic, 2:562.

Proof of rape. Coleman v. Republic, 1:320; Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Smith v. Republic, 3:58; Faber v. Republic, 3:69.

Proof of sedition. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Proof of self-defense as justification for homicide. Garswar v. Republic, 2:278; Kpeh-You v. Republic, 11:108; Slocum v. Republic, 11:140.

Proof of setoff in action of debt. Birch v. Quinn, 1:309; Buken v. King, 3:101.

Proof of signature by handwriting. Washington v. Lloyd, 1:83.

Proof of status of corporate stockholder. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Proof of surcharge of account. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Proof of title to real property. Smith v. Hill, 1:157; Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Williams v. Wynn, 2:148; King v. Cooper, 6:12; Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446; Karnga v. Williams, 10:114; Railey v. Clarke, 1:330; Cooper v. Cooper-Scott, 11:7; Karnga v. Williams, 11:299; Duncan v. Perry, 13:510; Walker v. Morris, 15:424; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434; McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Proof of undue influence in execution of will. Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82.

Proof of unfitness of judge. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347.

Proof required at trial of alleged wrongs. Salala Rubber Company v. Onadeke, 24:441; Scott v. Sawyerr, 24:500.

Proof that property belonged to deceased wife of intestate. Robertson v. Morgan, 9:71.

Proving aspects of documents deemed valid. Dennis v. Browne-Philips, 19:189.

Quality of, as factor in verdict. Hutchins v. Republic, 5:63.

Quality of proof on party asserting affirmative. King v. King, 24:414.

Reasonable doubt, defined. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Reasonable doubt, requirement for proof beyond, in criminal case. Koffe v. Republic, 20:18.

Rebutting and impeaching evidence distinguished. Ware v. Republic, 5:381.

Record should show exclusion by trial court sua sponte. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Referee's report on. United Liberia Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Release, effect of on obligations. Bestman v. Acolatse, 24:126.

Replevin. Evidence of ownership of property by nonparty reviewable by certiorari. Nahyahda v. Carter, 15:297.

Report of surveyor in ejectment action. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Reports of foreign organizations. Simpson v. Republic, 3:300.

Request to leave Government property does not constitute coercion to explain an admission. Clinton v. Republic, 18:19.

Requirement of prior admission. Dowayee v. Konneh, 19:330.

Res gestae defined. Berrian v. Republic, 2:258.

Revenue stamps, admissibility of document lacking. Acolatse v. Dennis, 22:147.

Reversal of conviction where guilt not proved beyond reasonable doubt. Blamo v. Republic, 17:232.

Review of determination of hearing officer, no requirement Board of General Appeals hear additional evidence on. Liberia Mining Company v. Bomi Workers Union, 26:410.

Self-incrimination. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 15:99; Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Self incrimination, defendant testifying in own behalf can assert privilege. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Self-incriminatory statement by counsel pro se in criminal trial. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Signature written by someone else on request, validity of. Lone v. Republic, 27:148.

Silence as admission. Ledlow v. Republic, 2:569.

Silence deemed evidence of acquiescence in disposition of real property. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Statute of frauds. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112; Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Subpoena duces tecum, failure of prosecution to comply with. Talib v. Republic, 20:254.

Sufficiency of, to support findings of fact by National Labor Affairs Agency. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Sufficiency of circumstantial to support conviction. Otto v. Republic, 17:186.

Sufficiency to support verdict of murder. Delaney v. Republic, 20:199.

Testimony excluded where witness listened to testimony of other witness on same side. Togai v. Johnson, 14:187.

Testimony in rebuttal may be introduced though timely answer not filed. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Testimony of layman as to cause of death, sufficiency of. Banjoe v. Republic, 26:255.

Testimony of witness not listed as having appeared before grand jury admissible in criminal prosecution. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Testimony on cross-examination as to credibility must be relevant to that issue. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Testimony of documentary proof. Tolbert v. Republic, 19:251.

Total failure to rebut. Davis v. Davis, 19:150.

Totality of proof in crimes. Tolbert v. Republic, 19:251.

Traffic  Court conviction of defendant's driver for causing accident sufficient proof of negligence. Yes Taxi Company v. Pratt, 27:45.

Trespass, proper to admit evidence of title. Everyday v. Due, 27:291.

Uncorroborated testimony, weight of. Kamara v. Republic, 21:319.

Uncorroborated testimony of accused, effect of. Brown v. Republic, 21:65.

Variance of proof in crimes. Tolbert v. Republic, 19:251.

Variance of proof not ground for reversal of verdict when immaterial. Johnson v. Republic, 13:435.

Variance of proof when different weapon used than stated in indictment. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Veracity of official document is presumed. Kparnee v. Tano-Freeman, 18:159.

Vital evidence and technicalities. Outland v. Pritchard, 19:362.

Waiver of objection to exclusion of evidence on affirmative defense in ejectment action. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Weight and credibility. Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Lewis v. Republic, 5:358; Logan v. Republic, 5:398; Beysolow v. Coleman, 9:156; Gardner v. Neal, 13:422; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Koon v. Koon, 14:34; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

Weight when not rebutted. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

When copies may be introduced at trial. Monger v. Republic, 18:76.

Witness, right of defendant in criminal case to present testimony of. Jappa v. Republic, 21:339.

EXCEPTIONS, see Appeals; Bill of Exceptions; Civil Procedures; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Trials.

EXECUTION, see Judgments; Sheriffs.

Issuance of writ of, reviewable by appellate court only. Sessay v. Kandakai (Chambers), 21:552.

EXECUTIVE AGENCIES.

Impairment of contracts by, unconstitutional. Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Liberian Logging and Wood Processing Corporation, 27:11.

Imposing punishment for criminal offense beyond authority. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

Performance of judicial function, constitutionally forbidden, as forfeiture of posted bonds. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

EXECUTIVE BRANCH.

Criminal sanctions cannot be imposed by. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Law enforcement agencies may not usurp judicial functions. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT>.

Mayor as member of Executive Department cannot interfere in matter pending in court. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

Time Limitation of. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

EXECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS, see also Bonds; Curators; Decedents' Estates; Probate Courts; Real Property; Wills.

Action on administrator's bond controlled by statute. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Advice of counsel. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Appointment of administrator by probate court. Hodge v. Williams, 2:487; Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; King v. Howard, 9:135; In re Caranda, 9:240.

Authority to sue as, proof thereof required when challenged. McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Cancellation of deed by court of equity. Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Citation by probate court without summons to appear in estate proceeding. Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Conveyance to self void. Savage v. Dennis, 1:51.

Cum testamento annexo. Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; Stryker v. Massey, 9:88.

Distinguished. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Duties in connection with intestate estates. Ross v. Roberts, 3:266.

Duties must be completed in statutory time. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Duty of administrators to exercise such care and diligence which an ordinarily prudent man would exercise. Ballah v. Johnson, 27:343.

Duty to exercise diligence, good faith and prudence. Sharpe v. Urey, 11:251.

Fairness in dealing with legatees and devisees. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Fraud by. Ross v. Roberts, 3:266; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Grant to self invalid. Savage v. Dennis, 1:51.

Grantee's duty to examine executor's right to convey real property. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Improper for executor to withhold provision for minor child until payment of all liabilities. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Investigation of probate court. Strong v. Williams, 2:515; Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Issuance of letters in intestacy dependent on determination of issue as to next of king. Harmon v. Tompo, 15:272.

Letters as conclusive evidence of authority. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Letters of testamentary necessary evidence of authority. Anderson v. McGill, 1:46; Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47.

Limitation of time for action to enforce legacy. Johns v. Pelham, 2:550.

Mandamus to compel probate court to appoint, denied. Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43.

Married woman, qualification of. Tuning v. Thomas, 21:33.

Moneys payable to decedent's estate must be paid to representative. In re Estate of McClain, 14:334.

Not exempt from accounting. Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Party to action, substitution on death of. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

Payment of decedent's debts by. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Pendent elite. King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Probate proceeding alleging interference with and maladministration of estate by executor not summary proceeding. Horace v. Harris, 8:73.

Proof of authority to sue as, production of letters proper method. McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Real property, authorization by Probate Court for sale by administrator of. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Real property conveyed by estate to innocent purchaser, purchase by administrator of. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Removable by probate court. Dennis v. Weeks, 11:317.

Removal for cause. Cole-Larston v. Thompson, 20:339.

Report must be passed upon before distribution of estate. Railey v. Brewer, 9:64.

Responsibilities cease with discharge from bond. Goulsby v. Davis, 1:173.

Responsibilities in actions and claims against estate. Sharpe v. Urey, 11:251.

Sale of real property must be authorized by court. Brown v. Allen, 2:115; Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Share pro rata with other claimants in assets of estates. Sherman v. McGill, 1:81.

Substitution of representative of deceased party to action. Harmon v. Republic, 13.589.

Widow married under customary law not entitled to letters of administration. Brown v. Bormor, 16.227.

EXEMPTIONS, see Homesteads.

EXTORTION, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Trials; Witnesses.

Defined. Phillips v. Republic, 4:11; Yancy v. Republic, 5:216.

Indictment, sufficiency of. Yancy v. Republic, 5:216.

Jurisdiction of cases of. Carter v. Republic, 3:275.


F

FALSE IMPRISONMENT.

Defined. Doe v. Republic, 9:420.

Jury trial mandatory. Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Not triable in monthly and probate court. Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Requisites. Doe v. Republic, 9:420.

FALSE PRETENSE AND REPRESENTATION, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Fraud; Grand Juries; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Trials; Witnesses.

Documentary evidence required to prove commission of offense. Potter v. Republic, 1:67.

FEES, see Attorneys and Counselors.

FELONIES, see Crimes and Offenses.

FILIATION, see Bastardy.

FINES.

Not imposed when insufficient revenue stamp made sufficient. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

FINES AND PENALITIES, see Contempt of Court; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Injunctions.

FIREARMS.

Security officer, when use of gun by, justified. Freeman v. Republic, 22:188.

FORGERY, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Fraud; Grand Juries; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Signatures; Trials; Witnesses.

Acquittal of, no bar to indictment for obtaining money by false pretenses. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Cancellation of forged deed. Smart v. Daniels, 5:369.

Circumstantial evidence. Gardiner v. Republic, 8:406.

Corroborative evidence unnecessary. Fuller v. Republic, 3:118.

Counterfeiting or imitation of writing or instrument an essential element. Payne v. Republic, 2:539; Adorkor v. Republic, 2:544.

Defined. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Distinguished from uttering a forged instrument. Coleman v. Republic, 2:139; Payne v. Republic, 2:539; McCauley v. Republic, 9:116.

Elements. Payne v. Republic, 2:539; Adorkor v. Republic, 2:544; Ferguson v. Republic, 2:553; Dennis v. Republic, 3:105; Fuller v. Republic, 3:118.

Felony of, may include misdemeanor of obtaining money under false pretenses. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Fraud a necessary element. Stewart v. Republic, 2:240.

Gravamen of the crime. Bruce v. Republic, 12:141.

Instrument to be subject must be valid. Stewart v. Republic, 2:240.

Jurisdiction of circuit court over prosecution for offense committed by Liberian consular official abroad. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Of will. Coleman v. Republic, 2:139; Andrews v. Gardiner, 10:389; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

Penalty. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Unnecessary for indictment to set out marks, ornaments, or marginal figures which are not part of contract or endorsement on bill or note. Gardiner v. Republic, 8:406.

Uttering forged instruments, elements of crime of. Tubman v. Republic, 23:301.

FRAUD, see also Actions; Conversion; Defrauding and Cheating; Embezzlement; Equity; Evidence; Larceny; Limitations of Actions; Pleadings; Trials; Witnesses.

By clerk of probate court. Mingle v. Richards, 11:323.

By grantor of chattel mortgage. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

Cancellation of Deed. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Freeman v. Webster, 14:493; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434; Mombo v. Nah, 15.491; Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89; Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

Complainant must plead. Holder v. Teoh, 2:391.

Concealment as fraudulent misrepresentation. Davies v. Republic, 14.249.

Criminal prosecution for does not preclude cognizance by court of equity. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:425.

Defined. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

Direct proof unnecessary. Watson v. Ware, 10:158.

Distinguished from inadvertent error. Worrell v. McGill, 1:63.

Elements. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Elements constituting. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

Evidence of fraud attending drafting of agreement before the court is admissible. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

In affidavit. In re Ricks, 4:58.

In contract action. Nassre & Saleby v. Elias Bros., 5:108.

In execution of deed may be asserted as defense in ejectment. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3; Nimley v. Harris, 17:41.

Jurisdiction of justices of peace to try crimes involving. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Jury must pass upon evidence in support of allegation of. Beysolow v. Coleman, 9:156; Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Justice of peace court lacks jurisdiction of cases involving. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

May be inferred from circumstances. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Negotiable instruments. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Never presumed. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347; John v. Republic, 7:261.

Of administrator of intestate estate. Ross v. Roberts, 3:266.

On public revenue under statutory jurisdiction of admiralty court. Lee v. Republic, 1:184.

Oral documentary evidence admissible where fraud defense in ejectment. Nimley v. Harris, 17:41.

Parol evidence admissible to show that writing does not represent actual agreement between parties. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

Power of court of equity when fraud proved. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Practiced on court, judgment reversible for. Jantzen v. Modern Housing Construction Co., 14:508.

Probate of will set aside for. Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82.

Prompt pursuit of remedy required. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Proof, sufficiency of. Sirleaf v. Azar, 21:221.

Proof of. Holder v. Teoh, 2:391; Alston v. Castro, 3:3; Henrichsen v. Moore, 5:60; Nassre & Saleby v. Elias Bros., 5:108; John v. Republic, 7:261; Beysolow v. Coleman, 9:156; Watson v. Ware, 10:158; Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82; Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Proof of allegations of required. Francis v. Mesurado Fishing Company, Ltd., 20:542.

Proof of by circumstances surrounding transaction. Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

\Remedy must be pursued promptly. Page v. Jackson, 2:77; Rauls v. Railey, 10:229; Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610; Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Statute of frauds. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112; Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Use of word "fraud" in reply not departure in pleading if complaint alleged fraud. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND PRESS.

Constitutional right to not absolute. In re Porte, 24:3.


G

GRAND JURIES, see also Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Trials.

Constitutional right to trial on indictment by. Harge v. Republic, 14:217.

Disbandment by reason of manifest necessity. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Disclosure of proceedings before. Seton v. Republic, 4:238.

Disqualification. Failure to object as waiver. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45.

Disqualification of grand juror from service on petit jury in same case. Watts v. Republic, 11:77.

Empaneling of. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Length of term of. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Presentment. When required. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Prosecuting attorney. Presence at sessions. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Regulation of proceedings. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

GRIEVANCE AND ETHICS COMMITTEE.

Attorney, authority in disciplinary proceeding against. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Chairman of committee has right to defend recommendations before supreme court. In re… Pelham, 27:112.

Investigation of character and conduct of attorney. In re Acolatse, 26:456.

Supreme Court has jurisdiction to consider and pass directly on recommendations of. In re… Pelham, 27:112.

GUARDIANS, see also Infants.

Ad litem, requirement for infant. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

Appointments suspended by court. Dennis v. Weeks, 11:317.

Infants in divorce proceedings. Benedict v. McGill, 1:26.

Jurisdictional requisites for valid appointment. Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394.

Parents of minor children as. Nimley v. Kabah, 14:82.

Revocation of appointment. Williams v. Williams, 2:255; Dorum v. Smallwood, 9:425.

Testamentary, defined. Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394.

GUNS, see Firearms.


H

HABEAS CORPUS, see also Civil Procedures; Constitution; Criminal Procedure; Infants.

Appeal from denial not dismissible for defect in bond. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Appeal from denial not dismissible for failure to file timely notice of completion. Montgomery v. Haddard, 15:420.

Appropriate remedy to secure release of a person from illegal detention. Karout v. Flomo, 27:60.

Arrest, against sheriff, to obtain release from illegal. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Certiorari to review. Peakeh v. Nimrod, 2:102; Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480.

Constitutional basis. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259; Montgomery v. Haddard, 15:420.

Courts having power to issue writ of. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

Custody of child, prima facie right to be shown in habeas corpus proceeding for. Johnson v. Fadel, 25:174.

Custody of children. Benedict v. McGill, 1:26; Manney v. Money, 2:618; White v. Witherspoon, 9:100; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593; Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259; Daniels v. Daniels, 16.58.

Custody of minor, to determine. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

Customary law as to possession of wife enforceable by. Mitchell v. Johns, 2:400.

Defect in form not ground for denial of. White v. Witherspoon, 9:100; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259; Montgomery v. Haddard, 15:420.

Execution of writ not stayed by appeal. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593.

Father of illegitimate child, right of, to institute habeas corpus proceedings. Johnson v. Fadel, 25:174.

Granted as of right, for detention without due process. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Granted only where person deprived of liberty without due process. Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480.

Granted to compel mother and foster father to yield custody of children to father, although mother and foster father claimed reimbursement for maintenance during abandonment by father. White v. Witherspoon, 9:100.

Granted where accused was committed to custody on unspecified charge. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Issuance discretionary. Proceedings, 1:190.

Jurisdiction of Supreme Court. Proceedings, 1:190; Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243.

Not granted to challenge adjudication of court of concurrent jurisdiction as to custody of children where no change of circumstances alleged. Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480.

Not granted to collect dower or damages for seduction or alienation of wife's affections. Peakeh v. Nimrod, 2:102; Saab v. Samson, 5:296.

Not granted where petitioner failed to prove by preponderance of evidence that he was imprisoned by respondents. Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Power of President to suspend writ to deal with national emergency. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Procedure under writ. Proceedings, 1:190.

Prohibition granted to stay execution where child's welfare requires. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593.

Proper use of writ. Saab v. Samson, 5:296.

Release of civilians from custody of military. Sio v. Gibson, 2:287.

Respondent not dischargeable until returns made. Sio v. Gibson, 2:287.

Responsibility of sheriff under writ. Gray v. Beverly, 1:500.

Stays time for completion of appeal. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Trial and examination of prisoner. Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241.

Trial court's nonapproval of minor count of bill of exceptions not ground for dismissal of appeal where bill approved as whole. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Venue in equity instead of law division of circuit court not ground for quashing writ. White v. Witherspoon, 9:100.

HANDWRITING, see also Signatures.

Analysis by examining characteristics of the writing without regard to punctuation. Amagashie v. Mensah-Tormetie, 25:92.

HEARINGS, see also Appeals; Civil Procedures; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Habeas Corpus; Reargument and Rehearing; Trials; Venue; Witnesses.

Denial of fair. Phillips v. Smith, 20:27.

Divorce action, responsibility of trial court in, for adequate hearing of defendant. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Notice, requirement of when before Supreme Court Justice. Ashuman v. Lewis, 21:104.

Opportunity to be heard lacking. Jeto Liberian Clothing v. Breckwoldt & Company, Ltd., 21:165.

HIGHWAYS AND STREETS, see also Deeds; Municipal Corporations; Real Property.

Access to abutting property. Witherspoon v. Brown, 11:177.

HOMESTEADS, see also Immigrant Allotments; Real Property.

Cannot be created by will. Proud v. Cooper, 5:412.

Devise of property subject to exemption. Wiles v. Wiles, 1:423; Diggs v. Ferguson, 2:397; Perry v. Knight, 6:154.

Exemption from attachment by creditors. McAuley v. Jorgusin, 1:289.

How created. Proud v. Cooper, 5:412.

Nature of estate. Wiles v. Wiles, 1:423; Prout v. Cooper, 5:412; Perry v. Knight, 6:154; Maier v. Jurgensmeyer, 6:256.

Provisions for not constitutional or part of common law. Maier v. Jurgensmeyer, 6:256.

Revocation of exemption authorized by statute. Maier v. Jurgensmeyer, 6:256

HOMICIDE, see also Manslaughter; Murder.

Conflicting evidence concerning identity of weapon used creates doubt of guilt. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Corpus delicti, proof of by confession to. Toe v. Republic, 24:462.

Deadly weapons, when fists or feet. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Death due to neglect of condition by hospital rather than wounds inflicted by defendant as creating doubt of guilt. Eldine v. Republic, 27:133.

Defense of accidental killing, proof of. Jalloh v. Republic, 21:255.

Evidence to convict insufficient. Seton v. Republic, 21:133.

Hearsay rule, admissibility of statements by deceased as exception to. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Heat of passion, killing in, manslaughter. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Instrument causing death different than alleged, when no variance chargeable. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Instrument or agency used, presumption from. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Intoxication, evidence of, to show no intent to kill. Jalloh v. Republic, 21:255.

Intoxication, voluntary, effect on degree. Dandy v. Republic, 21:3.

Malice, when present. Brown v. Republic, 21:65.

Premeditation and intent to kill, degree when no. Jalloh v. Republic, 21:255.

Proof, required of state. Jalloh v. Republic, 21:255.

Proof of criminal agency, necessity for. Nimley v. Republic, 21:348.

Proof of element of crime beyond reasonable doubt lacking. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Provocation, circumstances leading to. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Provocation, what constitutes, Brown v. Republic, 21:65.

Proximate cause of death, requirement for criminality that defendant's act was. Doe v. Republic, 21:279.

Reasonable doubt, responsibility of defendant for death of decedent must be proved beyond. Banjoe v. Republic, 26:255.

Reporter of coroner or competent medical practitioner as prerequisite for conviction. Yancy v. Republic, 27:265.

Variance in means between allegations in indictment and proof held substantial. Flomo v. Republic, 26:51.

When insufficient explanation of cause of death of decedent, conviction will not be supported. Banjoe v. Republic, 26:255.

HUSBAND AND WIFE, see also Customary Law; Divorce; Parents.

Abandonment of spouse. Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301; White v. Witherspoon, 9:100; Hill v. Hill, 13:257, 392.

Alteration of marriage contract by consent of. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Business debts. Husband's responsibility for wife's. McCauley v. Brown, 2:359.

Contract by married woman. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73.

Counsel fees not payable by husband for defense of wife in criminal actions. Morris v. Flomo, 26:314.

Coverture by alien no bar to holding of real property. Williams v. Young, 1:293; Curtis v. Brown, 3:320.

Custody of minor children. Benedict v. McGill, 1:26; Manney v. Money, 2:618; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593; Nimley v. Kaba, 14:82; Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:531; Daniels v. Daniels, 16:58.

Customary law. Gofah v. Wreh, 1:458; Peakeh v. Nimrod, 2:102; Mitchell v. Johns, 2:400; Manney v. Money, 2:618; Tea v. Teetee, 3:407; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Jartu v. Estate of Konney, 10:318; Harmon v. Tompo, 15:272; Brown v. Bormor, 16:277.

Decree awarding maintenance and support by husband to wife enforceable only from date thereof. Samuels v. Samuels, 12:211.

Desertion defined. Hill v. Hill, 13:257, 392.

Dower right of widow in real property. Brown v. Allen, 2:115; Wright v. Wright, 5:208; Cole v. Dixon, 6:301; Harmon v. Tompo, 15:272.

Dowry, payment of, as sealing marriage. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Duty of husband to support minor children. Nimley v. Kaba, 14:82.

Estoppel of husband from disaffirmance of wife's business debts. McCauley v. Brown, 2:359.

Habeas corpus cannot be used to recover dower paid by husband for wife. Peakeh v. Nimrod, 2:102; Saab v. Samson, 5:296.

Interest of state in marriage. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328.

Joinder as coplaintiffs or codefendants. Pratt v. Hazeley, 3:127.

Legislative and judicial powers relating to marriage. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

Marriage a condition of immigrant allotment. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Marriage defined. Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

Married woman, qualification of, as executrix or administratrix. Tuning v. Thomas, 21:33.

Personal property of wife not deemed part of husband's estate. Williams v. Wynn, 2:148.

Property rights of wife. Statutes liberally construed. Pritchard v. Parker, 2:426.

Rights of wife enumerated. Wolo v. Wolo, 5:423.

Rights to dispose of children's property. Nimley v. Kabah, 14:82.

Running of statutory period for desertion in divorce suit. Hill v. Hill, 13:257, 392.

Suit instituted by wife in own name dismissed. Horace v. Harris, 8:73.

Support. Award enforceable only from date of decree. Samuels v. Samuels, 12:211.

Support. Award of one-third of husband's salary to wife for maintenance not contrary to law or necessarily inadequate. Samuels v. Samuels, 12:211.

Support for wife who abandons husband. Morris v. Flomo, 26:314.

Tenancy by curtesy. Brown v. Payne, 1:9.

Widow, dower rights of. Brown v. Allen, 2:115; Wright v. Wright, 5:208; Cole v. Dixon, 6:301; Harmon v. Tompo, 15:272.

Witnesses against each other. Dennis v. Republic, 3:45.


I

ILLEGITIMACY.

Appeal from support order, does not suspend putative father's obligation during pendency of. Moussallem v. Puah, 23:8.

Mother of child, right to initiate complaint in Circuit Court for support of. Moussallem v. Puah, 23:8.

Power of Circuit Court to compel putative father to support child and post bond for security. Moussallem v. Puah, 23:8.

IMMIGRANT ALLOTMENTS, see also Deeds; Homesteads; Real Property.

Contract to lease to alien void. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47.

Deed void when land was private property. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Public land grant admitted to probate. Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416.

Right of grantees. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Terms and conditions of grants. Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

IMPEACHMENT, see Evidence; President; Public Officers and Employees.

INCOMPETENCY, see Insanity, Witnesses.

INDEMNIFICATION, see Bonds; Damages; Injunctions.

INDICTMENTS, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Grand Juries; Juries and Jurors; Trials.

Act or omissions not mentioned in statute not indictable thereunder. Wade v. Republic, 12:284.

Appearance on arraignment not waiver of defect. Dunbar v. Republic, 1:269.

Attack upon, after end of trial term. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Attempted crimes. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Charge, requirement of sufficient notice to accused of. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Collateral attack on. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Constitutional right to trial on. Harge v. Republic, 14:217.

Conviction for lesser crime than charged. Bryant v. Republic, 17:643.

Crimes and offenses subject to. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Defective caption of venue does not go to jurisdiction. Koffah v. Republic, 6:336.

Defective indictment, motion to dismiss as only method of raising objection to. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Defined. Brewer v. Republic, 1:363.

Documentary proof need not be set forth. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Essential elements. Hill v. Republic, 2:517; Seton v. Republic, 4:238; Yancy v. Republic, 5:216; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Williams v. Republic, 15:99; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Glay v. Republic, 15:181; Republic v. Brown, 15:199; Togba v. Republic, 15:206; Horace v. Republic, 16:341.

Essential facts required in indictment, necessity for documentary proof of. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Failure to charge an offense, ground for motion in arrest of judgment. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Filing of. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Form, if rights of defendant not prejudiced, insufficiency because of. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Information, sufficiency of, for plea of double jeopardy. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Material defects not waived by appearance or cured by judgment. Dunbar v. Republic, 1:269; Popo v. Republic, 1:305; Brewer v. Republic, 1:363; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Motion in arrest of judgment lies for material defects on fact of. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Motion to quash. Trial court's ruling is an interlocutory order. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Motion to quash is defendant's remedy for omission of essential facts. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Name of defendant must be stated with certainty. Dunbar v. Republic, 1:269.

Nature of charge must be stated with certainty. Brewer v. Republic, 1:363; Yancy v. Republic, 5:182; John v. Republic, 7:261; Attoh v. Republic, 9:3; Sampson v. Republic, 11:135; Horace v. Republic, 16:341.

Nonprejudicial error in indorsement not ground for quashing. Republic v. Brown, 15:199.

Not quashed for nonprejudicial errors. Republic v. Brown; 15:199.

Objection on ground of insufficient notice inappropriate remedy for failure to set forth essential facts. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Objection to must be heard before defendant compelled to plead. Potter v. Republic, 1:67.

Obtaining money under false pretense, necessity for setting forth written instrument when only incident of offense. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Official misconduct triable only on. Davis v. Diggs, 11:237.

Place where offense committed must be stated with certainty. Brewer v. Republic, 1:363.

Quashing not equivalent to acquittal. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Reindictment and retrial after quashing. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Remedy for failure to set forth essential facts is motion to quash rather than objection as to insufficient notice. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Requirement as to material facts charged in. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Requirement of. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Statutory crime or offense. Indictment sufficient where words of statute or form prescribed therein followed. Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Zangbah v. Republic, 4:140.

Sufficiency, criterion for. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Supplementation by bills of particulars not required when not demanded. Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Surplusage, effect of. Bestman v. Republic, 20:216.

Valid, as prerequisite for juridical conviction. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Variance, different instrument causing death used than stated in indictment as. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Variance between indictment and proof. Hill v. Republic, 2:517; Smith v. Republic, 3:58; Smith v. Republic, 7:205; John v. Republic, 7:261; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Sangee v. Republic, 9:288; Johnson v. Republic, 13:435; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Variance of proof. Kamara v. Republic, 21:319.

Variance of proof when different weapon used than stated in. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Waiver of dilatory defects. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

INDIGENOUS LAW, see Customary Law.

INFANTS, see also Children; Divorce; Guardians; Habeas Corpus; Husband and Wife; Parents.

Arrest of alleged father of illegitimate child on complaint of mother. Wright v. Bedell, 17:163.

Authority of probate court as to property of. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Nimley v. Kabah, 14:82.

Competence as witnesses. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Court will disregard legal niceties to protect right of. Dorum v. Smallwood, 9:425.

Custody, habeas corpus to determine. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

Custody of. Benedict v. McGill, 1:26; Manney v. Money, 2:618; White v. Witherspoon, 9:100; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593; Nimley v. Kabah, 14:82; Nyekan v. Havens, 14:480; Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:531; Daniels v. Daniels, 16:58.

Custody when father has not paid dowry according to customary law. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

Disposing of property owned by. Paterson, Zochonis and Co., Ltd. v. Witherspoon, 19:411.

Filiation proceedings. Enforcement of stipulations for support of illegitimate child. Wright v. Bedell, 17:163.

Guardians. Benedict v. McGill, 1:26; Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394; Dorum v. Smallwood, 9:425; Dennis v. Weeks, 11:317; Nimley v. Kabah, 14:82.

Habeas corpus not maintainable to challenge holding of court of concurrent jurisdiction as to custody, absent change of circumstances. Nyeran v. Havens, 14:480.

Illegitimacy. Fuller v. Johnson, 1:56; Lee v. Republic, 1:115; Cyrus v. Fuller, 1:181; Prout v. Cooper, 5:412; Harge v. Republic, 14:217.

Improperly disposing of property owned by. Paterson, Zochonis and Co., Ltd. v. Witherspoon, 19:411.

Legitimacy when father has not paid dowry according to customary law. Newindeh v. Kromah, 22:3.

May affirm conveyances on coming of age. Blunt v. Barbour, 1:58.

Parent's conveyance of real property must be specially authorized in writing. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Prohibition granted to stay execution of habeas corpus where required for welfare of child. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593.

Provision for, in insolvent estates, Campbell v. Dorum, 7:141.

Putative father, right to bring action in behalf of. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Representatives required in action. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

When child legitimate under customary law. Reawhe v. Johnson, 17:361.

INFORMATION.

Application for amendable. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Commencement of special proceeding, how accomplished. Pratt v. Kroma, 26:64.

Hearing of evidence precludes decision by Supreme Court which has no original jurisdiction in case presented. Pratt v. Smith, 26:160.

Original jurisdiction, decision by Supreme Court in information proceedings for contempt of court as exercise of. Anandani v. Massaquoi, 26:286.

Reinstitution of bill dismissed for lack of jurisdiction permitted where no mandate issued on first bill. Pratt v. Smith, 26:160.

INJUNCTION.

Circumstances under which writ issues. Simpson v. Obeidi, 18:273.

Discretion of judge, within. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

Discretionary powers of judge in proceedings. Bestman v. Findley, 19:57.

Dissolution, when ancillary to withdrawn action of ejectment. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

Dissolution on court's initiative. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

Equitable consideration of. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

Final writ rises from order to show cause. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

Lessee wrongfully threatened with eviction entitled to. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

Limitation on the issuance of. Cummings v. Hughes, 19:18.

Modification of final judgment. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

Only when no other remedy available. Sodatonow v. Agip Corp. 19:77.

Requirements for granting when related to realty. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

When preliminary writ issues. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

When title not determined. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

INJUNCTIONS, see also Civil Procedures; Courts; Equity; Supreme Court; Warranties

Abuse of process by. Service v. Tolbert-Baker, 15:362.

Action for commenced by issuance of writ. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Adequate remedy at law ground for denial. Francis v. Menzo Salami Bros., 11:422; Francis v. Anderson, 12:269; Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Cole, 13:356.

Against sheriff. Kissa v. Stubblefield, 1:342.

Amount of indemnification of bond discretionary with court. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Appeal from, dismissible when reinstitution futile. Brackoldt & Co., Ltd. v. Bitter & Fadl, 14:3.

Bond amount not fixable by Supreme Court Chambers Justice. Vito v. Formosa, 20:480.

Certiorari proper remedy for review of issuance of preliminary. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Chattel mortgage enforced by. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

Constructive notice of. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

Defined. Johnson v. Powell, 4:221; Fiske v. Artis, 11:334; Moore v. Mensah, 11:339.

Dismissal of bill before trial denied where pleadings show triable issue of facts. King v. International Trust Company of Liberia, 20:438.

Dissolution. Abuse of discretion to dissolve without hearing or showing of grounds. Raynes-Frederick v. George, 14:593.

Dissolution may be ordered by court without motion by defendant. Wahab v. Adorkor, 12:152.

Function preventive, not for redress. Dunbar v. Farhart, 24:427.

Harassment by, remediable by certiorari. Service v. Tolbert-Baker, 15:362.

Hearing on granting of preliminary injunction may be ex parte. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Irreparable injury must be shown. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400; Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Cole, 13:356.

Judgment by default. Reeves v. Spiller, 1:298.

Legally sufficient bond a jurisdictional requisite. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Nature of, not possessory. Tubman v. Murdoch, 4:179; Johnson v. Powell, 4:221.

No indemnifying bond may be required of defendant pending appeal of order dissolving. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:573.

Order dissolving or extending temporary not appealable. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:504.

Petitioner must have right or title to interest sought to be protected. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:504.

Pleading. Acts prohibited must be clearly stated. Young v. Embree, 5:242.

Pleading. Complaint may be dismissed for stating cause of action as lying in law rather than equity. Yangah v. Melton, 12:178.

Pleading. Not necessary to state title of case in body of supporting affidavit. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400.

Pleading. Petitioner must sign application. Hill v. Hill, 13:257.

Political election not subject to. Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234.

Preliminary, function of. Togba v. Smith, 24:458.

Preliminary or interlocutory, defined. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Fiske v. Artis, 11:344.

Preliminary vacation of, when motion for may be made. Nestle's Products Ltd. v. Gallina  Blanca, S.A. (Chambers), 22:495.

Probability of irreparable injury as criterion for granting writ. Dunbar v. Farhart, 24:427.

Procedure. Filing of answer is prerequisite to dissolution. Porte v. Dennis, 9:213.

Procedure for issuance. Blacklidge v. Blacklidge, 1:371.

Procedure. Service of writ. Phelps v. Williams, 2:621; Porte v. Dennis, 9:213.

Real Property. Ancillary to specific performance of contract to convey land. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:504.

Real Property. Enforcement of right to access. Witherspoon v. Brown, 11:177.

Real Property. Not issuable in ejectment actions. Fiske v. Artis, 11:334.

Real Property. Title cannot be determined by. Johnson v. Cassell, 1:161; Green v. Turner, 1:276; Phelps v. Williams, 2:621; Curtis v. Brown, 3:320; Davies v. Darweh, 3:357; Young v. Embree, 5:242.

Real Property. To prohibit trespass requires proof of title. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400; Moore v. Mensah, 11:339.

Relief discretionary. Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234.

Requisites for issuance. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400; Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234; Francis v. Anderson, 12:269; Paterson, Zochonis & Co. v. Cooper, 13:348; Nimley v. Cole, 13:356; Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:504.

Res adjudicata held no defense to renewal of action. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Restraining order, modification of. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Company, 20:108.

Stay of proceeding at law. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69; Adjavon v. Bull, 13:314.

Supreme Court cannot order modification pending appeal. Cooper v. Cooper, 12:412.

Supreme Court. Restraint of execution of mandate of constitutes contempt. In re Coleman, 11:350.

Violation as contempt of court. Porte v. Dennis, 9:213; In re Dennis, 9:389; Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie v. Mensah, 13:11; Karpeh-Buchanan v. Buchanan-Ratazzi, 15:510.

Violation. Constructive notice. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288.

Violation not excused by defect in form. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie v. Mensah, 13:11.

Violation. Persons bound. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Young v. Embree, 5:242; Porte v. Dennis, 9:213; In re Dennis, 9:389; In re Cassell, 10:17.

Violation. Service prerequisite to enforcement. Phelps v. Williams, 2:621.

Violation. Supreme Court can penalize when issued by lower court before appeal. Karpeh-Buchanan v. Ratazzi, 15:510.

Violation. When commencement of compliance required. In re Cassell, 1:17.

When preliminary injunction will be granted. Tarabay v. Awar, 17:36; International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Wrongful. Indemnification by action on bond. Urey-Holder v. Dennis, 15:264.

INSANITY, see Evidence.

Burden of proof in criminal case. Serjleh v. Republic, 20:371.

Burden of proof in criminal prosecution. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Constitutional right of defendant in criminal prosecution to compulsory process to produce witnesses as to. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Tay v. Republic, 9:92.

Definition of, in criminal case. Serjleh v. Republic, 20:371.

Degrees of. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376.

Expert testimony. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376; Scott v. Republic, 1:430; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Freeman v. Freeman, 8:187; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Improper to deny defendant in criminal case right to produce witnesses to corroborate plea of. Tay v. Republic, 9:92.

Never presumed. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Nonexpert testimony admissible. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364.

Of administrator of estate. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Of judge. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347.

Of testator. Freeman v. Freeman, 8:187.

Plea in criminal prosecution. Ledlow v. Republic, 1:376; Scott v. Republic, 1:430; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Presumption of sanity. Brown v. Republic, 21:65.

INSURANCE.

Company ordered to hold proceeds of policy for disposition at conclusion of trial. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Definition. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Foreign insurer, agent relationship of broker performing services for. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

Party to be sued in action against tortfeasor. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Policy is a contract. Flood v. Conneh, 3:257; Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70.

INTEREST, see also Banks and Banking; Bonds; Costs; Currency; Customs Collections; Negotiable Instruments; Revenue Laws.

Compound, not permitted in absence of contract or statutory authority. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:310.

In excess of ten percent per annum usurious. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610.

Investment defined. Massaquoi v. Kutu, 10:3.

Maximum legal rate determined by law of place where principal advanced. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610.

Maximum legal rate ten percent. Williams v. Tubman, 13:610.

Payable on loans or debit balances after judgment. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Usuriousness determined by substance, not form of transaction. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:610.

Waiver of objection to excessive. McGill's Trustees v. Worrell, 1:175.

INTERIOR, SECRETARY OF, see also Constitution; Customary Law; Public Officers and Employees; President; Republic of Liberia.

Responsibility as to tribal affairs. Gray v. Beverly, 1:500; Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317.

Responsibility for enforcement of Alien Residence Act. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

INTERVENTION.

Another adequate remedy no bar to request. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Application of third party denied. Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:152.

Application of third part granted. Childs v. States, 4:138.

Basis for granting request for. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

By shipowner's agent in admiralty action in personam against employee. Kruger v. Johns, 2:89.

Considerations in determining rights to. Gaddini v. Iskander, 19:490.

Estoppel from contest of judgment by party who failed to intervene. Sinoe v. Nimley, 16:152.

Filing of answer causes movent to be a party in spite of denial of motion. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Judgments, effect of, on person not party with right to intervene. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Knowledge that pending action may affect rights does not require nonparty to intervene. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Limitation of time for. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Person's commencement of own action as alternative. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

To be reasonably applied for. Gaddini v. Iskander, 19:490.

INTOXICATION, see also Crimes and Offenses.

Evidence showing, to prove no intent to kill. Jalloh v. Republic, 21:255.

Voluntary, effect on degree of homicide. Dandy v. Republic, 21:3.

ISSUES OF LAW.

Decision by trial court before dealing with facts. Thompson v. Farah, 25:34.

Non-joinder, effect on introduction of evidence relating to. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Requirement that trial court rule on all issues of law raised by pleadings, when answer dismissed on one point only. Claratown Engineers, Inc. v. Tucker, 23:211.

Trial judge to first pass on. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 25:116; Stubblefield v. Nassah, 26:153.

ISSUING WORTHLESS CHECKS, see also Banks and Banking; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Forgery; Fraud; Grand Juries; Indictments; Juries and Jurors; Signatures; Trials; Witnesses.

Defined and distinguished from defrauding and cheating. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.


J

JOINDER, see Pleadings.

JOINT TENANCY, see Cotenancies.

JUDGES, see Courts.

JUDGES AND JUSTICES, see also Admiralty; Amicus Curiae; Appeals; Appearance; Attorneys and Counselors; Certiorari; Civil Procedures; Clerks of Courts; Constitution; Contempt of Court; Continuances; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Injunctions; Judgments; Juries and Jurors; Jurisdiction; Justices of the Peace; Magistrates; Mandamus; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Quo Warranto; Reargument and Rehearsing; Republic of Liberia; Supreme Court; Trials; Witnesses.

Absenteeism and lateness as violation of duty. Marcars Construction Company, Inc. v. K & H Trading Company, 26:108.

Arrestee from custody, liability of sheriff for release of, when requested by Supreme Court Justice. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Assigned circuit judge lacks jurisdiction unless assignment renewed. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Bias as ground for disqualification. Bestman v. Dunbar, 21:227.

Bias or prejudices, duty to conduct trial without. Tubman v. Republic, 23:301.

Chambers Justice. Power to grant prohibition pendent elite. King-Howard v. Karpeh. 16:11.

Chambers Justice, "submission" to is not a cognizable proceeding before. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Chambers Justice, unappealed rulings of, finality. Saab v. Bharwaneys, Inc., 24:289.

Charge to jury must be reduced to writing on request. Porte v. Porte, 9:279.

Comments by trial judge patently prejudicial. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Complaints against by lawyers are to be submitted promptly and fairly to Supreme Court. Marcars Construction Company, Inc. v. K & H Trading Company, 26:108.

Concurrent jurisdiction, limitation on authority in Wesley v. Tyler, 20:477; Francis v. Mesurado Fishing Company, Ltd., 20:542; Soko v. Mallobe (Chambers), 20:669.

Consanguinity of spouse to spouse of party not ground of disqualification. Gardner v. Neal, 13:422.

Contempt of Supreme Court by inferior court judge. Wolo v. Simpson, 20:24.

Contempt of Supreme Court by judge of inferior court. Rottger v. Williams, 5:348; In re Smallwood, 8:3; In re Caranda, 9:240; Amierable v. Cole, 13:17; Richardson v. Perry, 14:7.

Costs. Assessment against. Snyder v. Clarke, 9:226; Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Disqualification, mere request for judge to recuse himself is not in itself sufficient for his. Yancy v. Republic, 26:374.

Disqualification for disability. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347; Porte v. Porte, 9:279.

Disqualification for interest. Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Republic v. Harmon, 5:300; Howard v. Dennis, 5:375; Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Dennis v. Republic, 7:341; Gittens v. Yanfor, 10:176; Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:408; Gardner v. Neal, 13:422; Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Disqualification from his hearing appeal, refusal by Justice in chambers to issue certiorari no. Yancy v. Republic, 26:374.

Disqualification, judge's friendliness with a party's lawyer, or prior membership in his firm, not grounds. In re Dennis-Webb and Dennis, 27:355.

Duties and responsibilities in general. Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Republic v. Harmon, 5:300; Howard v. Dennis, 5:375; Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Dennis v. Reffell, 7:332; Carr v. Republic, 9:416; In re Davis, 10:6; Richards v. Republic, 10:13; Greene v. Clarke, 11:171; Brown v. Simpson, 11:245; Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:408; Gardner v. Neal, 13:422; Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463; Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Duties of judges defined and classified as mandatory and discretionary. Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Duty of trial judge to inform litigants as to procedural matters. Tweh v. Massaquoi, 11:152.

Duty of trial judge to insure completeness of records. Webbe v. Parhat, 5:292.

Duty of trial judge to Supreme Court. Tweh v. Massaquoi, 11:152.

Duty to be prompt and diligent. Greene v. Clarke, 11:171.

Duty to investigate charges of misconduct by officers of court. Tubman v. Tubman, 3:243.

Execution of ruling by circuit court cannot be set aside by probate commissioner. Freeman v. Tweh, 7:227.

Grounds for disqualification of Justice of Supreme Court from hearing case. Yancy v. Republic, 26:374.

Impartiality required. Anderson v. Satia, 17:251.

Impartiality required. Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Republic v. Harmon, 5:300; Howard v. Ketter, 5:375; Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Improper for probate commissioner to adjudicate as to deed wherein he is named grantor. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Inconsistent rulings in same matter not error. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Irregular to preside over case in which relative is party. Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Joinder of unsummoned parties in interest, sua sponte authority for. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Judge of inferior court true defendant on appeal. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Judge's failure to execute mandate of supreme Court constitutes contempt. Richardson v. Perry, 14:7.

Judgment void for failure of judge to recuse himself for personal interest. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3.

Jurisdiction of Circuit Court judge after expiration of assignment. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 22:32.

Justice cannot issue prohibition against Supreme Court en banc. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453.

Justice in chambers cannot issue order without proper application of parties. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Mandamus, power of Justice in chambers to issue. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Neutrality, requirement of. Talib v. Republic, 20:254.

Objections to an appellate judge, when made. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Power to modify or reverse actions of predecessors. Elie J. Haj Brothers v. Dennis, 20:294.

Powers subject to constitutional limitations. Brown v. Simpson, 11:245.

Prejudicial haste in disposing of matter. Davies v. Yancy, 10:89; Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Liberian Logging and Wood Processing Corporation, 27:11.

Proceedings in lower court, procedure necessary for Supreme Court Justice to issue order affecting. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Punitive measures against defendant and counsel. James v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:691.

Recusal, failure of judge to recuse himself for personal interest voids judgment. Bility v. Dennis, 27:327, 435.

Recusancy. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300; Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Dennis v. Republic, 7:341; Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Recusation, application to trial judge for, prior to trial. Bestman v. Dunbar, 21:227.

Removal and suspension. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347.

Removal of Supreme Court Justice from office. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175.

Respect due to. In re Davis, 10:6; Richards v. Republic, 10:13.

Review, modification or rescission of decision of judge of concurrent jurisdiction, exception to principle. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Review of act of colleague, right to. Sherman v. Reeves, 23:227.

Review of acts of predecessor by judge or concurrent jurisdiction. Hunter v. Hunter, 22:87.

Review or reversal by Supreme Court Justice of order of another Justice. Ashumana v. Lewis, 21:104.

Ruling enforcing previous ruling of predecessor, effect of. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Sub judice defined. Liberian Bar Assn. v. Gittens, 7:253.

Supreme Court Justice in chambers, cognizance by, only of matters contained in record. Peal v. Flomo (Chambers), 23:400.

Trial judge, demeanor of. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 21:176.

Unfounded charge of corruption against Justices of Supreme Court in letter by attorney to President is ground for his disbarment. In re Acolatse, 26:456.

JUDGMENTS, see also Actions; Admiralty; Appeals; Certiorari; Civil Procedures; Clerks of Courts; Contempt of Court; Convictions; Costs; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Decrees; Judges and Justices; Jurisdiction; Justices of the Peace; Orders; Parties; Pleadings; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Quo Warranto; Reargument and Rehearing; Replevin; Res Judicata; Sheriffs; Stipulations; Trials; Venue; Writ of Error.

Act by party subsequent to execution of mandate of appellate court as violation. Crusoe-Marsh v. Morgan-Bedell, 20:334.

Amendment of after appeal is announced. King v. International Trust Company of Liberia, 20:438.

Appeal, announcing of when counsel not present. Gabbidon v. Flomo, 26:214.

Appearance, default judgment for lack of defendant's. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Appellate court may render such as should have been rendered by lower court. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Townshend v. Cooper, 11:52; Simpson v. Caranda, 13:121; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

An order to enforce a void judgment. Handsford v. Harris, 19:176.

As proof of title. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Authority for entry of dependent upon obtaining jurisdiction over person. Donzoe v. Thorpe, 27:166.

Based on invalid verdict of guilt. Kennedy v. Republic, 19:376.

Binding effect of on parties and intervenors. Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

By default after abandonment. Cole v. Industrial Building Contractors, 17:476.

Compromise. Johnson v. Powell, 4:221.

Confession, stipulation for entry by. Stereo Hotel v. S. & A. Construction and Trading Co., 21:415.

Confession of, as consent to entry of. Commercial Bank of Liberia v. Tip Top Tools, Inc., 24:397.

Correction before final. Bonah v. Kandakai (Chambers), 20:677.

Correspondence with verdicts. Cassell v. Cummings, 10:409.

Costs. Correction of costs at subsequent term. Pet. of Adm'rs. of Massaquoi, 9:81.

Costs. Satisfaction incomplete where costs remain unpaid. Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20.

Declaratory, improper when it does not terminate controversy. Cooper v. K. & H. Construction Company, 27:187.

Default, circumstances rendering improver judgment by. Baky v. George, 22:80.

Default, establishment of proof of claim for judgment by. Baky v. George, 22:80.

Default, in ejectment. Washington v. Dennis, 20:285.

Default, not set aside where no excuse for. George v. Hall (Chambers), 20:661.

Default. Reeves v. Spiller, 1:293; Bey-Solow v. Moore, 2:73; Theume v. Ross, 3:386; Cess-Pelham v. Pelham, 4:54; Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293; Karnga v. Williams, 10:114; Brown v. Cavalla River Co., 12:136; Franco-Liberian Trucking Co. v. Bettie, 13:318; Bouhadir v. Day-You-Gar, 15:328; Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Default of judgment for lack of timely application for substitution after death of party. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Default opened up when absence of counsel at trial due to his engagement before superior court. Walker v. Kazoula, 25:325.

Delay in rendering, error. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay's Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:520.

Dismissal for lack of jurisdiction not adjudication on merits. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Effect on person not party with right to intervene. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Entry. Timeliness. Jantzen v. Williams, 4:280; Barnes v. Republic, 5:395.

Equity decree must be predicated on record of case. United Liberia Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Estoppel, application of doctrine upon satisfaction of. Wahab v. Hellou Brothers, 24:250.

Estoppel applied to jurisdictional challenge against foreign judgment. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Estoppel from contest by party who failed to intervene. Sinoe v. Nimley, 16:152.

Execution. Against township does not run against its chairman. Wilks v. Page, 2:126.

Execution. Directed to constable and returnable before justice of the peace may not properly carry words, "land" and "arrest." Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Execution. Duty of sheriff. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176.

Execution. Effect of compliance with illegal judgment under duress. Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241.

Execution. Errors arising from attempted enforcement of void judgment may be corrected on unverified application for prohibition. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Execution. Irregularities by probate court. Freeman v. Tweh, 7:227.

Execution. Issued only in course of judicial proceeding. Blahmo v. Ware, 2:63.

Execution. Levy on property of nonparty. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176; Jantzen v. Modern Housing Construction Co., 14:508.

Execution. Liability of chairman of corporation. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Execution. Liability of sheriff for damages for error. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176.

Execution. Not binding on party who was not served. Gbae v. Geeby, 14:147.

Execution. Procedure. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176.

Execution. Remission to trial court. James v. Logan, 4:161; DeShields v. King, 4:170.

Execution. Warrant of commitment may not issue in lieu or advance of writ of execution in civil case. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Final, when. Hunter v. Hunter, 22:87.

Finality. Alterable by court at any time before entry. Voss v. Hooke, 2:183; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178.

Finality. Certiorari not maintainable after enforcement. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Finality. Interlocutory distinguished from final. Halaby v. Farhart, 7:124.

Finality. Interlocutory not appealable. Minus v. Crayton, 1:73; Cooper v. McGill & Bros., 1:93; Williams v. McGill & Bros., 1:96; Tuning v. Morel, 1:235; Robertson v. Morgan, 9:71; Ketter v. Dennis, 12:353.

Finality. Judgments of justice of peace courts not reviewable by certiorari. Peter v. Onanuga, 16:102.

Finality when no appeal. Cole-Larston v. Thompson, 20:339.

Fixed amount required. Johnson v. Powell, 4:221.

Foreign decree, impeachability of jurisdiction of. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Foreign decree, lack of in personam jurisdiction effect in Liberia. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Formal defects do not render invalid. Jackson v. Saturday, 13:31; Johnson v. Republic, 13:435.

Fully executed precludes issuance of writ of error. Gray v. Crump-Macauley, 17:157.

Grantee of premises involved, not a party in ejectment action, not concluded by judgment in spite of privity with defendant. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Homestead property exempt. McAuley v. Jorgusin, 1:289.

Imperfect. Montgomery v. Zeiser, 1:437; Bey-Solow v. Moore, 2:73.

Interference with, by courts of concurrent jurisdiction. Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469; Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Interlocutory order incompatible with simultaneous final judgment. Union National Bank, SAC v. M.C.C., Inc., 20:525.

Interpretation by Supreme Court. Application for, not maintainable. Richardson v. Gabbidon, 16:282.

Invalid against a party not allowed day in court. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Invalid against person not a party. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Invalid against person over whom court lacked jurisdiction. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Invalid where circuit judge's assignment expired. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445; Union National Bank, SAC v. M.C.C., Inc., 20:525.

Mistake, inadvertence and other grounds for relief from judgment, when considered by court. Stubblefield v. Nassah, 25:152.

Modification of judgment of murder when no malice prepense. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Modify or vacate, motion to, addressed to discretion of court. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

Money judgment to award sum certain. National Iron Ore Co. v. Gibson, 26:365.

Motion for relief from judgment, effect of. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:24.

Motion for relief from judgment, meaning of newly discovered evidence for purpose of. Stubblefield v. Nassah, 25:152.

Motion for relief from judgment denied for absence of attorneys from hearing and rendition of judgment. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

Motion to vacate, when inapplicable. Francis v. Mesurado Fishing Company, Ltd., 20:542.

Motions in arrest of. Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Attoh v. Republic, 9:3; George v. George, 9:33; Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Motions to enforce. Timeliness. Dennis v. Republic, 7:212.

No execution of judgment against deceased party unless substitution or default. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

Of trial court enforced when default on completed appeal. Kloose v. Sandy, 17:400.

Only invalid judgment can be enforced. Handsford v. Harris, 19:176.

Partial payment as precluding issuance of writ of error. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Premature rendition, reversible error. Quezon v. Republic, 23:33.

Premature rendition ground for new trial. Brown v. Karnley, 13:454.

Prior to four days after verdict, rendering, as error. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Quality of final judgment. Kru v. Tarpeh, 19:472.

Relief from, abuse of discretion as basis for. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

Relief from on ground of after-discovered evidence. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:37; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Toles v. Williams, 14:384; Hood-Adams v. Jackson, 15:431.

Rendering of after trial judge's removal void. Nurse v. Republic, 21:474.

Rendering of by court when losing counsel absent. Gabbidon v. Flomo, 26:214.

Request for extension of time for payment as bar to question of legality. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Res adjudicate, power of court to decide matters. Cole-Larston v. Thompson, 20:339.

Res judicata. Phelps v. Williams, 3:54; Tweh v. Massaquoi, 11:152; Liberia Trading Corp. v. Abi Jaoudi, 14:43; Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73.

Res judicata, operative although not covered by doctrine of. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Res judicata doctrine elucidated. Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Rescission by judge allowed in term in which he is sitting. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Retrial where action not adjudicated on merits. Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

Reversal or modification of lower court's judgment after denial of application for writ of error. B.F. Goodrich, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 23:251.

Reversed when insufficient evidence to support verdict awarding damages. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Reviewable by same court if obtained by fraud. Jantzen v. Modern Housing Construction Co., 14:508.

Satisfaction by acceptance of postdated check. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Satisfaction of, finality of. Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Scope. Amount in excess of court's jurisdiction, Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Scope. Issues determined must be raised in pleadings. Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237; Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73.

Scope. Persons bound. Tubman v. Murdoch, 4:179.

Scope, persons not within court's jurisdiction not to be included. Karneh v. Baysah, 25:300.

Scope. Should cover all material issues raised in pleadings. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:36; Clarke v. Snyder, 9:111; Porte v. Porte, 9:279; Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73.

Service of process or voluntary appearance required to support in personam judgment, otherwise void. Gabbidon v. Flomo, 26:214.

Slander judgment based on special damages requires proof at trial. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Stare decisis defined. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Stay of enforcement extends time for appeal. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 15:259.

Stay of execution, when granted. Stereo Hotel v. S. & A. Construction and Trading Co., 21:415.

Staying order for support of child. Moussallem v. Puah (Chambers), 20:684.

Sub judice defined. Liberian Bar Assn. v. Gittens, 7:253.

Termination of jury session, rendition after. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.

Upheld though counsel absent from hearing of which he was notified. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:472.

Vacating of, only by a party in action in which rendered. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Validity of, determined by record. Acolatse v. Chase Manhattan Bank, 23:14.

Void, for failure to cite or grant opportunity to be heard. Barbour-Tarpeh v. Dennis, 25:468.

Void for failure of judge to recuse himself for personal interest. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3.

Void for lack of jurisdiction over person, writ of error as proper procedural remedy. Greaves v. Jantzen, 24:420.

Void Judgment, writ of prohibition granted to prevent enforcement of. National Iron Ore Co. v. Gibson, 26:365.

Void. Prohibition granted to restrain enforcement. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Void, upon failure of judge to recuse himself for personal interest. Bility v. Dennis, 27:327, 435.

Void, vacating by court of coordinate jurisdiction. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Void. Vacation by equity court of coordinate jurisdiction with court which granted. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Void where court not competent. Cooper v. Alamendine, 20:416.\

Void where defendant improperly summoned. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

"Without prejudice," when used in a judgment nullifies res judicata aspects. Morris v. Johnson, 26:73.

JUDICIAL CONSTRUCTION.

Latest expression in statutory conflict. Neufville v. Diggs, 19:389.

Literal interpretation. Cooper v. Republic, 19:269.

Nullification or reduction of statutes. Cooper v. Republic, 19:269.

Presumption in statutory amendments. Neufville v. Diggs, 19:389.

When rules of statutory interpretation not applied. Richards v. Monrovia Brewery, 19:241.

JUDICIARY.

Law enforcement agencies may not usurp judicial functions. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

JUDICIARY LAW.

Sections 12.5 and 12.6, unconstitutional with relation to Supreme Court. In re Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved May 10, 1972, 24:37.

JURAT

, see Affidavits.

JURIES AND JURORS, see also Appearance; Civil Procedures; Constitution; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Damages; Ejectment; Evidence; Grand Juries; Probate Courts; Trials; Verdicts; Witnesses.

Absence of accused from trial necessitates re-empanelment. Simpson v. Republic, 3:300.

Bribery ground for new trial. Andrews v. Gardner, 10:389.

Challenge as to illegality, how made. Bestman v. Lewis (Chambers), 21:568.

Challenges by joint defendants. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Change of venue as denial of right to trial by. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Charge, comment in, on testimony not reflected in record. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Charge, request to, must be in writing. Kasimu v. Republic, 25:80.

Charges, objections to must be particularized. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Charges, specific objections to required. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Charges to. Court may summarize evidence. George v. Republic, 14:339.

Charges to. Duties of courts. Greenwood v. Republic, 7:150; Padmore v. Republic, 9:195; Porte v. Porte, 9:279; Duncan v. Perry 13:510; Coleman v. Schweitzer, 16:319.

Charges to. Exceptions not nullified by clerical error. Saleeby Bros. v. Haikal, 14:298.

Charges to. In writing may be requested by counsel. Banks v. Republic, 7:279; Porte v. Porte, 9:279; Duncan v. Perry, 13:510; Coleman v. Schweitzer, 16:319.

Charges to. Not required on points not raised in pleadings. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

Charges to. Not reviewable on appeal if oral where written charges not requested. Knowlden v. Reeves, 12:103.

Charges to; written request for, duty of judge. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Communication by juror with person outside panel ground for new trial. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:229; Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Zangbah v. Republic, 4:140; Jones v. Dennis, 8:342.

Computation of quarterly session during which jury may be empanelled. Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

Contest of will must be tried by. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220; Gage v. Pratt, 6:246; Roberts v. Roberts, 7:358; Ware v. Watson, 8:335; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Coroner's jury, literacy of members of. Garhien v. Republic, 21:423.

Defined. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418.

Directed verdict. When proper. Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Disbandment. Failure to object not waiver of constitutional right as to double jeopardy. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Disqualification for expression of opinion. Seton v. Republic, 4:238; Pratt v. Republic, 4:386.

Disqualification for service on coroner's jury in same case. Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Disqualification for service on grand jury in same case. Watts v. Republic, 11:77.

Disqualification, legal grounds for. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Disqualification of accepted juror effect on verdict. Tambo v. Republic, 3:382.

Disqualification. When objections shall be offered. McBurrough v. Republic, 4:25.

Empanelment out of regular term illegal. Parker v. Pritchard, 2:386.

Exception to charge, form of. Saleh v. Montgomery, 21:125.

Expiration of assignment of judge, effect on. Union National Bank v. Monrovia Construction Company, 23:197.

Greater weight of evidence, determination of. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Illness not necessarily ground for new trial. Ledlow v. Republic, 2:569; Banks v. Republic, 7:279.

Imprisonment by judge. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Improper influence by counsel. Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278.

Improper influence by judge. McBurrough v. Republic, 4:25.

Improper selection of supplemental venire by judge. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Improper to deliver verdict through clerk of court. Brown v. Grant, 1:87.

Instruction in language requested, need for. Collins v. Republic, 21:366.

Instructions not based on evidence. Saleh v. Montgomery, 21:125.

Investigation of excuse of illness. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Issue of, may be determined by competent court at any time before or after judgment. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Issues of fact, all documentary evidence on, to be presented to jury. Dagber v. Molley, 26:422.

Judgment on verdict contrary to evidence reversible on appeal. Zangbah v. Republic, 4:140.

"Jury of vicinity," meaning of, in Constitution. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Motion addressed to, may be interposed at any time before final judgment. Union National Bank v. Monrovia Construction Company, 23:197.

New trial after disbandment by reason of manifest necessity. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Order to reconsider damages erroneous. Potter v. Stevenson, 1:53.

Panel of, court cannot circumvent selection process because of necessity. Bestman v. Lewis (Chambers), 21:568.

Panel of, how list prepared. Bestman v. Lewis (Chambers), 21:568.

Participation by nonjuror in deliberations ground for new trial. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:229.

Peremptory challenges by State, exceeding statutory number per se reversible error. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Peremptory challenges, number of in case of joint defendants charged with capital offense. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Polling of. Davidson v. Worrell, 3:362; McBurrough v. Republic, 4:25; Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359; Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Prejudgment by juror as basis for new trial. Seton v. Republic, 4:238; Pratt v. Republic, 4:386.

Prejudicial conduct of, as ground for new trial. McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Questions of fact, triers of. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Reasonable doubt, defined. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Reduction on first trial below minimum, retrial after. James v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:691.

Remedy for errors in procedure of empaneling is appeal not certiorari. Williams v. Lewis, 14:23.

Should be instructed to disregard improper or prejudicial statements by prosecution. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Submission to, estops party not served process from denying it. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Submission to, though not served by process. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Substitution of juror as basis for new trial. Cummings v. Republic, 4:284.

Summons requiring appearance at impossible time, invalid for. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Supplemental venire, improper for judge to select names of. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Tampering with. Jones v. Dennis, 8:342.

Threat by juror to induce another's assent to verdict ground for new trial. Johns v. Republic, 1:240.

Time during which jury to be kept together. Doe v. Republic, 21:279.

Trial court's refusal to order jury to be kept together until discharged. Davies-Johnson v. Early, 17:3.

Trier of fact determining guilt or innocence. Sackun v. Republic, 20:246.

Triers of fact. Haider v. Kassas, 20:324.

Triers of facts must determine weight and credibility of evidence. Simpson v. Republic 3:300; Lewis v. Republic, 5:358; Logan v. Republic, 5:398; Beysolow v. Republic, 9:156; Gardner v. Neal, 13:422; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Koon v. Koon, 14:34; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

Unanimous verdict defined. Davidson v. Worrell, 3:362.

Verdict cannot be set aside for defect in form. Jogenson v. Knowland, 1:266.

Verdict defined. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418.

Verdict for greater offense than charged illegal in criminal trial. Brooks v. Republic, 1:284.

Verdict. Improper for jury to deliver through clerk. Brown v. Grant, 1:87.

Verdict in action of debt should state sum due. Williams v. R. Lewis & Co., 1:220.

Verdict in criminal case must be unanimous. Johns v. Republic, 1:240; Wood v. Republic, 1:445; Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Zangbah v. Republic, 4:140.

Verdict must be certain. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Verdict must conform with facts and instructions. Birch v. Quinn, 1:309.

Verdict of damages must specify counts on which awards made. Wright v. Tay, 12:223.

Waiver of challenge. Cummings v. Republic, 4:284; Watts v. Republic, 11:77.

Waiver of right to poll jury. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

JURISDICTION, see also Appeal Bonds; Appeals; Civil Procedures; Constitution; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Divorce; Ejectment; Habeas Corpus; Indictments; Justices and Judges; Labor Courts; Magistrates; Parties; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Quo Warranto; Supreme Court;and particular courts.

Absence of, ground for dismissal of case on court's own motion. Emmons v. Wilson, 3:30.

Admiralty. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145; Lee v. Republic, 1:184; Dennis v. Republic, 1:323; Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267..

Admitting to by acts or conduct, estoppel from denying. Lloyd's Insurance Company v. African Trading Company, 24:70; Greaves v. Jantzen, 24:420.

Agreement of parties cannot defeat court's. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Appeal divests trial court of. Horace v. Howard, 13:200.

Appeals from Governor of Krootown. Teah v. Teetee, 3:407.

Appeals from justices of peace and magistrates. Nowa v. Wolo, 8:355.

Attachment as basis of. Halaby v. Farhart, 7:129.

Attempt by agreement to deny. Goba v. Dennis, 19:459.

Authority to enter judgment or decree dependent upon obtaining jurisdiction over person. Donzoe v. Thorpe, 27:166.

Bastardy proceedings. Lee v. Republic, 1:115.

Bond as security for appearance. Lee v. Republic, 1:86; Halaby v. Farhart, 7:129.

Bond not required in criminal appeal where appellant held without bail. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Circuit court judge, commencement and termination of jurisdiction of. Morris v. Johnson, 21:93.

Circuit court judge's, after expiration of assignment. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 22:32.

Circuit court's residual powers. Cooper v. Republic, 19:269.

Circuit courts. Confined to statutory authorization. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202.

Circuit courts. Issuance of attachment. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Circuit courts. Lack jurisdiction over exercise of powers of municipal corporations. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202.

Circuit courts. Prosecution of officer of government for crime committed abroad. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Circuit judge lacks jurisdiction in assigned circuit unless assignment renewed. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Competency of court to render judgment defined. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Concurrent, does not empower court to interfere with judgment of another court. Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469.

Concurrent, of circuit and justice of peace courts over petty offenses. Carter v. Republic, 3:275; Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Concurrent, of magistrate's court with justice of peace. Hammond v. Corp. of Monrovia, 1:137.

Coordinate court, vacating of judgment when defendant not properly summoned. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Court's original, when government agency given original jurisdiction. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Criminal appeal. Basis similar to civil. Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Criminal cause of action restricted to criminal court. Davis v. Diggs, 11:237.

Criminal courts. Punishment for offenses. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334; Hill v. Republic, 3:130.

Defective process, motion as sole means of raising lack of. Rasamny Brothers, Inc. v. Gardiner, 24:530.

Diplomatic immunity, effect of when conferred subsequent to commencement of suit. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Harriero, 24:546.

Duration of, once acquired. Morris v. Johnson, 21:93.

Equity. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69; Stevens v. McGill, 1:73; Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; Thorne v. Thompson, 3:193; Nassre and Saleby v. Elias Bros., 5:108; Henrichsen v. Moore, 6:351; Smith v. Faulkner, 7:53.

Estoppel from challenge by party who invoked. Gemayel v. Almassian, 16:290.

Filing of formal appearance and answer sufficient basis for in personam jurisdiction. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Improper service of notice of completion. Furman v. Griffiths, 19:433.

In an appeal. Glapoh v. Bolado, 19:352; Furman v. Griffiths, 19:433.

In personam, requirement for party's presence in court for. In re Wolo, 20:40.

Inferior court cannot set aside ruling of superior court. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Inferior courts, time when jurisdiction ceases after appeal has been taken. Jarboe v. Jarboe, 24:352.

Judgment reversible for lack of. Cooper v. Republic, 19:269

Justices of peace. Lee v. Republic, 1:115; Hammond v. Corp. of Monrovia, 1:137; Yancy v. Republic, 4:204; Yunis v. Davis, 11:350; Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Labor courts. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Lack of, over person cured by appearance. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Lack of, over subject matter may be asserted until final judgment. Barclay v. Thompson, 17:351.

Limitation on amount of controversy. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204; Urey v. Republic, 5:120; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Limits imposed by statute. Williams v. Abraham, 20:220.

Magistrates. Hammond v. Corp. of Monrovia, 1:137; Phillips v. Nelson, 10:134; Mensah v. Tecquah, 12:147; Moore v. Bull, 13:106; Daye v. Brown, 13:109; Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Manner of endowment. Kennedy v. Republic, 19:376.

Motion attacking trial court's, priority in considering. Richards v. The Commercial Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:349.

Motion challenging lower court's, time for. Richards v. The Commercial Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:349.

Motion in arrest of judgment on jurisdictional grounds. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Motion to, may be interposed at any time before final judgment. Veldkamp v. Coffee, 1:232; Liberty v. Republic, 9:437.

Motion to, may be interposed by amicus curiae. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Municipal courts. Anderson v. Powell, 4:134.

Not terminated by withdrawal of complaint where writ remains before court. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Objection to court's, when raised. Union National Bank, SAC v. M.C.C., Inc., 20:525.

Objections as to subject matter, time for raising. Bestman v. Republic, 20:216; Cooper v. Alamendine, 20:416.

Omission of service of affidavit in attachment proceedings, effect on. Halaby v. Farhart, 7:129.

Original jurisdiction of Supreme Court limited. Stubblefield v. Nassah, 25:152.

Over subject matter may be questioned up to final judgment. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80; Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:180.

Over subject matter may be raised at any stage of proceeding. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

Party who admits jurisdiction may not thereafter deny it. Gallina Blanca S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 25:116.

Pendency of an appeal on same subject matter bars inferior tribunal consideration. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

Pending actions in other courts. Kru v. Tarpeh, 19:472.

Perfection of appeal, loss of by lower court. Baky v. George, 24:387.

Personal defined. Hill v. Republic, 2:517; Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Personal dependent on timely service of summons. Johnson v. Givens, 1:28; McAuley v. Laland, 1:254; Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92; George v. George, 9:33; Yangah v. Melton, 12:128; Gbae v. Geeby, 14:147.

Precedence of motion addressed to. King v. Morris, 19:306.

President and members of cabinet. When subject to courts. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

Private agreement cannot oust court of. Grant v. Foreign Mission Board of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv., Inc., 10:209.

Probate court. Foreclosure of mortgage. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

Probate court. Infant's property. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Nimley v. Kabah, 14:82.

Probate court. Inferior to that of circuit court. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Probate court. Matters affecting decendents' estates. Sherman v. McGill, 1:81; Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; Brown v. Summerville, 4:353; Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43; Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161; Sharpe v. Urey, 11:251; Worjroh v. Harris, 11:388; Tee v. Chea, 12:205; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57; In re Caranda, 14:320.

Probate court. Partnership estate. McGill's Trustees v. Moddermann, 1:170.

Probate court. Probation of deeds. Howard v. Roberts, 2:217; Ross v. Roberts, 3:325; Salifu v. Lassannah, 5:152; Smith v. Page, 11:146.

Prosecutions for offenses committed by government officials abroad. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Prosecutions for petty offenses. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Quarter sessions, Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yancy v. Republic, 4:210.

Quo warranto proceeding. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Reargument, question as to jurisdiction as ground for. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 22:32.

Reduction by jury of offense. Kennedy v. Republic, 19:376.

Service. Returns presumed correct. Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

Service by proper ministerial officer a prerequisite. Melton v. Republic, 2:25.

Service of process, prerequisite for unless there is voluntary submission. Seton v. Azango (Chambers), 20:674.

Service of process or voluntary appearance necessary to support in personam judgment. Gabbidon v. Flomo, 26:214.

Stipendiary Magistrates. Habre v. Jallah, 20:309.

Subject matter. Defined. Hill v. Republic, 2:517; Compagnie des Cables Sud-Am Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Subject matter. Not conferrable by consent. Hill v. Republic, 2:517; Davis v. Diggs, 11:237; Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Terminated by dismissal of action. Harmon v. Woodin & Co., Ltd., 2:334.

Terminated by payment on bond after judgment in action of debt. Faulkner v. Morris & Co., 1:478.

Territorial. Absence of, renders judgment void. Philips v. Nelson, 10:134; Morris v. Phillips, 14:588.

Territorial cannot be conferred by consent. Hill v. Republic, 2:517.

Territorial. Objection in criminal prosecution must be made prior to appeal. George v. Republic, 14:339.

Trial court, time when jurisdiction ceases. Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Trial court divested of, on appeal. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:606.

Venue, court's lack of jurisdiction for improper. King v. King, 22:106.

Venue. Jurisdiction in change. Batam v. Liles, 1:64; Attia v. Tuning, 1:131; Massaquoi v. David, 6:320.

Waiver of improper or no service, submitting to court's, as. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

Waiver of irregularity through failure to seek remedial process from Justice in chambers. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Waiver of objection to. King v. Williams, 2:523; Gardner v. Neal, 13:422; Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

When issue may be raised. Cooper v. Republic, 19:269.

JUSTICES AND JUDGES, see also Courts; Jurisdiction.

Causes surviving jurisdictional defects. Morris v. Mohamed. 19:245.

Controlling dockets. Gayee v. Jeblee, 19:291.

Expiration of term. Morris v. Mohamed, 19:245; Cooper v. Republic, 19:269.

Lacking jurisdiction. Morris v. Mohamed, 19:245.

Lacking legal authority. Morris v. Mohamed, 19:245.

Master of proceedings' record. Glapoh v. Bolado Sawmilling Co., 19:451.

Not disqualified. DeShield v. Mends Cole, 19:395.

Objections to lack of jurisdiction. Morris v. Mohamed, 19:245.

Reservation of rights on application withdrawn before Justice. Hunter Real Estate, Ltd. v. Dunbar, 19:217.

Reversing prior rulings. DeShield v. Mends-Cole, 19:395; Freeman v. Liberian Supply Co., 19:438.

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE, see also Courts; Judges and Justices; Magistrates.

Appeals from judgment by default denied. Bouhadir v. Day-You-Gar, 15:328.

Appeals from must be heard de novo. Lamine v. Futeh, 2:464; Jackson v. Saturday, 13:31.

Cannot enter default judgment without service of notice. Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293.

Cannot exercise functions of tribal chief in same case. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Change of venue in courts of. Pratt v. Republic, 4:386.

Civil procedure in courts of. Bryant v. Beer, 5:280.

Counterclaims in courts of. Watson v. Kromah, 4:147.

Courts not of record. Peter v. Onanuga, 16:102.

Defects in precepts issued by. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376.

Defendants must enter all pleas or demurrers. Davis v. Crow, 2:309.

Error in form no ground for reversal of judgment of. Jackson v. Saturday, 13:31.

Judgments. Review or appeal from. Peter v. Ononuga, 16:102; Fahnbulleh v. Anthony, 16:118.

Jurisdiction in extortion cases. Carter v. Republic, 3:275.

Jurisdiction limited to one hundred dollars. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Yancy v. Republic, 4:204; Harris v. Charlie Number 12, 12:171.

Jurisdiction of bastardy proceedings. Lee v. Republic, 1:115.

Jurisdiction of larceny prosecutions. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Justices of the Peace Code, precepts issued in accordance with. Clay v. Freeman, 3:376.

Lack of jurisdiction in summary ejectment actions where title to real property is at issue. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330.

Lack of jurisdiction of cases involving fraud. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

May not declare statute unconstitutional. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

May simultaneously serve as Registrar of Deeds. Sancea v. Mallobe (Chambers), 21:563.

Not restrained by writ of prohibition from exercising statutory jurisdiction. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Obtaining money under false pretense, jurisdiction to try. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Preliminary examination jurisdiction in criminal matters upheld. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

Responsibilities defined. In re Ricks, 4:58.

Review of circuit court. Fahnbulleh v. Anthony, 16:118.

Summary investigations against. King v. Ledlow, 2:283; Fahnbulleh v. Anthony, 16:118.

Usurpation of jurisdiction by. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330.

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE COURT.

Writ of error to Supreme Court not allowed. Kyne v. Mulbah, 25:183.


K


L

LABOR, see also Board of General Appeals.

Amendments to labor laws enacted in 1966 applicable to employment under prior formed contract. Maryland Logging Corporation v. Omole, 27:98.

Annual leave, watchmen, not within category of excluded domestic servants, entitled to. British Independent Preparatory School v. Weegee, 27:3.

Appeals board procedure, authority to dismiss appeal as abandoned circumscribed. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Appeals board procedure, formal court procedure need not be followed on summary review. Doe v. Sinkor Bakery, 25:292.

Dismissal from employment for misconduct, contents of notice to employee. Maryland Logging Corporation v. Omole, 27:98.

Dismissal of employee whose employer intends to move to a new distant location wrongful unless employee rejects offer to accompany employer. British Independent Preparatory School v. Weegee, 27:3.

Domestic servants, watchmen not within category of. British Independent Preparatory School v. Weegee, 27:3.

Employment contract, power of National Labor Affairs Agency to award damages for breach of. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Labor courts. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264; Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Minimum Wage Act. Compagnie des Cables Sud-Américaine v. Johnson, 11:264.

Pensions computed on basis of commencement of employment and not from date of enactment of statute. Maryland Logging Corporation v. Omole, 27:98.

Pensions, wrongful dismissal to avoid payment of, award in lieu of reinstatement compensation. Maryland Logging Corporation v. Omole, 27:98.

Rest period, recovery by employees not paid for. Liberia Mining Company v. Bomi Workers Union, 26:410.

Settlement of labor dispute, writing and signature of parties necessary for. Liberia Mining Company v. Bomi Workers Union, 26:410.

Wages to be awarded person who is wrongfully dismissed. National Iron Ore, Ltd. v. Board of General Appeals, 26:429.

Watchmen, not within category of domestic servants. British Independent Preparatory School v. Weegee, 27:3.

Wrongful, dismissal of employee for entering workplace in morning before working hours is. National Iron Ore, Ltd. v. Board of General Appeals, 26:429.

LABOR LAW.

Labor Practices Law, employee's leaving of hospital for cause as forfeiture of benefits under. Freeman v. Firestone Plantations Company, 23:276.

LACHES, see also Equity.

Certiorari, bar to granting. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Doctrine of stated. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Refusal of court to interfere where demand antiquated. Tuning v. Thomas, 21:33.

LANDLORD AND TENANT.

Lessee wrongfully threatened with eviction entitled to injunction. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

Nonpayment of rent, right of landlord to take possession of leased property for. Anandani v. Massaquoi, 26:286.

LARCENY, see also Bail; Conversion; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Defrauding and Cheating; Embezzlement; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Obtaining Money under False Pretenses; Theft; Trials; Witnesses.

Admissibility of evidence of amount of defendant's money before and after crime. Williams v. Republic, 10:78.

Burden of proof on defendant in mitigation of restitution. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

By bailee. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45.

By false pretenses, jurisdiction of justice of peace. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

By false pretenses, merged with forgery. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

By finder of lost property. Torkor v. Republic, 6:88; Sangee v. Republic, 9:288.

By trick. Dennis v. Republic, 2:494.

Conviction partially reversible where restitution impossible. Tarpeh v. Republic, 13:383.

Deception vitiates consent to taking. Dennis v. Republic, 2:494.

Defined. Dennis-Mitchell v. Republic, 7:134; Sangee v. Republic, 9:288.

Distinguished from embezzlement. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45; Dennis-Mitchell v. Republic, 7:134; John v. Republic, 7:261.

Distinguished from receiving stolen goods. Coleman v. Republic, 2:1.

Distinguished from tortious conversion. Sangee v. Republic, 9:288.

Essential elements of indictment and proof. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Sangee v. Republic, 9:288; Wade v. Republic, 12:284.

Felonious taking must be proved. Sangee v. Republic, 9:288.

Grand larceny an infamous crime. Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Mitigation of restitution in prosecution for. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Petit, defined. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16.

Petit, jurisdiction of prosecutions for. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16.

Restitution part of penalty on judgment of conviction. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Value of stolen property must be proved. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16.

LAW.

Declaration of what is law as judicial power. Browne v. Republic, 22:121.

Practice, well settled rule of, setting aside. Browne v. Republic, 22:121.

LAWYERS, see Courts.

LEASES, see also Contracts; Ejectment; Evidence; Landlord and Tenant; Mortgages; Real Property.

Admitted into evidence in proceeding to probate deed where basis of objections to probate. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

As incumbrances on real property. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Covenant of quiet enjoyment. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Defense against summary ejectment. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Defense in injunction proceeding to prevent trespass. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400.

Devise by will of, possession of lessee and devisee. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

Effect of conveyance of fee by landlord. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Ejectment not remedy for failure to pay rent. Tubman v. Westphal et al., 1:367.

Emblements defined. African Industrial Co. v. Cole, 7:381.

Equitable reformation. Collins v. Elias Bros., 11:258.

Estoppel of lessee from disputing lessor's title. Saunders v. Gant, 3:152.

Estoppel of lessor from disputing own title. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Estoppel of party in privity with lessor from asserting that lease is illegal. Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159.

Illiteracy no defense where lessor received rent and observed construction on premises. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Later drawn will ambiguities concerning lease has no effect on. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

Lessor must be named codefendant with lessee in ejectment action. Liberia Trading Corp. v. Cole, 15:61.

Not probated, not void but voidable as to third parties only. Clarke v. Snyder, 9:111.

Option to renew void for uncertainty. Mirza v. Crusoe, 14:95.

Profits derived from as ground for cancellation by lessor. Cooper v. C.F.A.O., 20:554.

Remedy for breach of covenant. Tubman v. Westphal et al., 1:367.

Right of possession, time when obtained by lessee. African Industrial Co. v. Cole, 7:381.

Specific performance of claim of right to occupy house under oral agreement to construct and pay rent. Reeves-Gibson v. Johnson, 15:612.

Statute of frauds. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112; Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Summary ejectment proceedings. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330; Johns v. Howard, 12:208; Williams v. Horton, 13:444; Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178; Flood v. Alpha, 15:331; Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338; Fahnbulleh v. Anthony, 16:118.

Tenancy at will. Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Tenant having right to possession may bring ejectment. Beavans v. Jurs, 3:28.

Tenant's option to purchase premises. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

To aliens, Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; West v. Dunbar, 1:313; Couwenhoven v. Green, 2:301; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Beavans v. Jurs, 3:28; African Industrial Co. v. Cole, 7:381.

Voidability for illegality. Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159.

LEGISLATION.

Amendments to labor laws enacted in 1966 applicable retroactively. Maryland Logging Corporation v. Omole, 27:98.

Canons for judicial interpretation of. Shannon v. Liberia Trading Corporation, 23:66.

Declaration of unconstitutionality by Supreme Court, cautious manner of consideration by Court. Morris v. Reeves, 27:334.

Intent gathered from meaning of words used. West African Trading Corporation v. Arline (Liberia) Ltd., 25:3.

Intent of, how determined. Carter v. Massaquoi, 24:511.

Interpretation of by court where meaning is plain. Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Company v. Crystal  Steamship Corporation, S.A., 27:198.

Statutory construction, guides. Kerpai v. Kpene, 25:422.

LEGISLATURE, see Constitution; Republic of Liberia; Statutes.

Constitution, power to enact legislation infringing upon. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

LEGITIMACY, see Bastardy; Decedents' Estates; Husband and Wife; Infants; Probate Courts; Real Property; Wills.

When child legitimate under customary law. Reawhe v. Johnson, 17:361.

LEGITIMIZATION PROCEEDINGS.

Cancellation of decree of legitimization, effect on custody of child. Johnson v. Fadel, 25:174.

LETTERS ROGATORY, see also Witnesses.

Trial court, right of, to refuse. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 21:176.

LEWDNESS, see also Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Conversation; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Seduction; Seduction; Trials; Witnesses.

Indictable offense. Payne v. Republic, 1:101.

LIBEL, see Defamation.

LICENSES.

For burial in a cemetery is revocable. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

For sale of liquor. Muller v. Republic, 2:187; Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195; Woermann v. Republic, 2:251; Republic v. Joe, 2:297.

Of attorneys and counselors. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139; In re Payne, 1:530; Williams v. Mathews, 2:56.

LIENS, see Attachment; Bankruptcy and Insolvency; Chattel Mortgages; Judgments; Mortgages; Real Property.

LIMITATION OF ACTIONS.

Twelve years' adverse possession not sufficient under twenty-year statute of limitations. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS, see also Appeals; Actions; Civil Procedures; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Pleadings.

Contract. Kamara v. Logan, 12:28.

Debt. Henrichsen v. Logan, 6:18.

Decedents' estates. Estate of Ross v. Estate of Fuller, 2:190; Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Divorce. Running of prescribed period for desertion. Hill v. Hill, 13:392.

Ejectment. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364.

Ejectment, principles of in action for. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Intervention. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Mortgagor's action to redeem equity in real property. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Person injuries. Doe v. Tarplah, 15:410.

Plea presents issue of law. Cassell v. Richardson, 1:89; Jackson v. Horace, 1:99; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Principles of statute of limitations defined. Hilton v. Sherman, 1:43; Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Republic, none applicable in a suit brought by it to cancel its deed for fraud. Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

Statute must be pleaded affirmatively and cannot be pleaded hypothetically. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Tolling of statute. Jackson v. Horace, 1:99; Henrichsen v. Logan, 6:18; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Toles v. Williams 15:357; Doe v. Tarplah, 15:410; Perry v. Ammons, 16:268.

LITIGANTS.

Rule of responsibility. Ammons v. Barclay, 18:212.


M

MAGISTRATE COURT.

Writ of error to Supreme Court not allowed. Kyne v. Mulbah, 25:183.

MAGISTRATES, see also Bail; Constitution; Courts; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Judges and Justices; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Justices of the Peace; Stipendiary Magistrates; Trials.

Abuse of jurisdiction ground for prohibition. Mensah v. Tecquah, 12:147.

Cannot commit prisoner on unspecified accusations. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Cannot try title in summary ejectment action. Yunis v. Davis, 11:330; Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Certiorari to in summary ejectment actions. Williams v. Horton, 13:444; Weeks v. Johns, 13:498.

Controlled by statutory requirements in summary ejectment actions. Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

Jurisdiction concurrent with justices of peace. Hammond v. Corp. of Monrovia, 1:137.

Jurisdiction in preliminary hearing on criminal complaint. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Jurisdiction limited to statutory bounds. Daye v. Brown, 13:109.

Jurisdiction of prosecution for assault and battery. Larmouth v. Republic, 13:493.

Jurisdiction of Replevin action. Moore v. Bull, 13:106.

May entertain and deny demurrers in summary ejectment actions. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

May punish for contempt of court. Moore v. Bull, 13:106.

Official misconduct a misdemeanor. Davis v. Diggs, 11:237.

Power of magistrate to review and reverse decision of associate. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Preliminary hearings in criminal cases. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Summary investigation against. King v. Ledlow, 2:283; Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338; Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

Territorial jurisdiction. Philips v. Nelson, 10:134.

Without jurisdiction in ejectment when title in issue. Kolola v. Kroma, 17:436.

MAGISTRATES' COURTS.

Obtaining money under false pretense, jurisdiction to try. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

MALFEASANCE, see Public Officers and Employees.

MALICE, see Assault; Crimes and Offenses; Defamation; Evidence; Malicious Mischief; Malicious Prosecution; Manslaughter; Murder.

Determination of. Dennis v. Republic, 19:318.

Inference from circumstances. Freeman v. Republic, 22:188.

Nature of. Dennis v. Republic, 19:318.

Presumption in homicide. Dennis v. Republic, 19:318.

MALICIOUS MISCHIEF, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Trials; Witnesses.

Civil action. Witherspoon v. Witherspoon, 3:284.

Defined and distinguished from larceny and embezzlement. Dennis-Mitchell v. Republic, 7:134.

Purposeful intent must be established as a necessary element of the crime. Marty v. Republic, 18:3.

MALICIOUS PROSECUTION, see also Actions; Attorneys and Counselors; Bail; Defamation; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Pleadings; Trials.

Action will not lie against innocent bystander. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Advice of counsel as defense. Ross v. Arrivets, 7:80.

Defined. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Distinguished from defamation. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Malice, proof of required in addition to lack of probable cause. Mayson v. Bowen, 24:365.

No action against complainant who had reasonable or probable cause for making complaint. Saleeby Bros. v. Bright, 17:170.

Proof that prosecution was instituted without probable cause essential to successful maintenance of action. Massaquoi v. Sillah, 9:270.

Requisites for sustaining action. Ross v. Arrivets, 7:80; Salala Rubber Company v. Onadeke, 24:441.

MANDAMUS, see also Appeals; Bills of Exceptions; Bonds; Civil Procedures; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Judges and Justices; Jurisdiction; Public Officers and Employees.

Appeal offers adequate remedy, writ denied. Johnson v. Johnson, 27:351.

Application for amendable. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Appropriate remedy to compel trial court to approve duly presented appeal bond. Amierable v. Cole, 13:17.

Authority of Supreme Court Justice to issue writ. Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Authority to issue writ limited to Supreme Court or Justice thereof. In re Bassil, 2:353.

Denial of application cannot be relitigated by certiorari. Goodridge v. Fiske, 14:65.

Exercise of judicial discretion not reviewable. Harmon v. Horace, 10:29; King v. Randall, 10:225.

Failure to execute mandate may constitute contempt of Supreme Court. Richardson v. Perry, 14:7.

Fruitless, refusal where. Khoury v. Brooks (Chambers), 20:688.

Imposes ministerial act upon public official. Liberian Air Taxi, Inc. v. Meissner, 18:40.

Issuance, if relief unavailing when granted. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Justice in chambers, power of, to issue. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Laches in taking appeal, effect on application for writ. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:221.

Necessary parties. Harmon v. Horace, 10:29.

Not granted if duty already performed. Gbeh v. Koroma, 25:404.

Not granted if ineffectual. Davidson v. Worrell, 3:362; Hassen v. Krakue (Chambers), 20:653.

Not granted if its issuances would be useless to accomplish it purpose. Silib International Ltd. v. Kennedy, 27:30.

Not granted if other remedy available. Davidson v. Worrell, 3:362; Harmon v. Horace, 10:29.

Not granted to dismissed attorney instituting proceedings on behalf of former client. Silib International Ltd. v. Kennedy, 27:30.

Not granted where court denied injunction in controversy concerning conduct of elections commission. Coleman v. Beysolow, 12:234.

Not issuable to review exercise of judicial discretion. Verdier v. Thompson, 17:625.

Not substituted for an appeal to review an exercise of judicial discretion. Gbeh v. Koroma, 25:404.

Not substituted for an appeal to review an exercise of judicial discretion. Johnson v. Johnson, 27:351.

Not substituted for appeal of writ of error. King v. Randall, 10:225.

Official discretion cannot be reviewed by writ. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Persons having joint interest as applicants. Harmon v. Horace, 10:29.

President, futility of issuing writ against. Ghoussalny v. Nelson, 20:591.

Proper remedy to compel public officers to perform duty, and not specific performance. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Purpose. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Return to writ. In re Fuller, 1:133.

Territorial limits of Liberia, issuance to compel performance beyond. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Time for applying for, to compel trial judge to at on bill of exceptions. Sheriff v. Sesay, 22:25.

To compel judge to endorse date of tender of bill of exceptions. Rottger v. Williams, 5:348.

To compel judge to set aside compromise effected in lower court denied. Vonjama v. Massaley, 9:96.

To compel magistrate to grant bail. Giese v. Jallah, 16:141.

To compel new trial for newly discovered evidence. Harmon v. Republic, 6:186.

To compel probate court to complete appraisement and appoint administrators denied. Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43.

To compel probate court to revoke appointment of administrator. King v. Howard, 9:135.

To compel redocketing of divorce action. Harris v. Williams, 9:338.

To compel Secretary of State to issue passport. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

To compel trial judge who refuses to enter judgment on a verdict. Republic v. Walser, 27:274.

Use of. Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405.

When issued. Gbeh v. Flomo, 25:58.

Where abuse of judicial discretion and no other adequate remedy. King v. Howard, 9:135.

Will not issue to lower court for denying application to open record. Gibson v. Harris, 19:139.

Writ may emanate directly from the Supreme Court or a Justice. Liberian Air Taxi, Inc. v. Meissner, 18:40.

Writ of error distinguished from. Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405.

MANSLAUGHTER, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Homicide; Indictments; Murder; Trials; Witnesses.

Conviction when charge of murder unproved. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.

Defined. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Defined and distinguished from murder. Socho v. Republic, 1:359; Garngajuah v. Republic, 3:185; Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Greenwood v. Republic, 7:150; Padmore v. Republic, 9:195; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360.

Distinguished from accidental homicide. Padmore v. Republic, 9:195; Jackson v. Republic, 10:220.

Distinguished from murder. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

In case of vehicular accident. Weah v. Republic, 18:87.

Malice prepense, when no. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

Provocation requisite of. Garngajuah v. Republic, 3:185; Greenwood v. Republic, 7:150.

Results when fatal injuries inflicted spontaneously. Scott v. Republic, 18:13.

MARRIAGE, see Customary Law; Divorce; Husband and Wife.

MARRIED WOMAN, see Parties.

MARSHALS.

Ministerial officers in admiralty cases. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

MAYHEM, see also Assault; Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Trials; Witnesses.

Defined. Walker v. Republic, 1:186.

Distinguished from assault and battery with intent to kill. Gibson v. Republic, 11:379.

Elements of the crime. Gibson v. Republic, 11:379.

Immaterial variance between indictment and proof not ground for reversal of conviction. Johnson v. Republic, 13:435.

Malice presumed where injurious act proved. Walker v. Republic, 1:186.

MINISTER OF JUSTICE.

Court process, when subject to. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE.

Preliminary examination in criminal matters not authorized when matter is sub judice. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

MISNOMER, see Pleadings; Waiver.

MISREPRESENTATION, see Fraud.

MISTAKE OF LAW.

Equity will not allow one party to enjoy benefits of mistake of law by other of which he knew. Dagber v. Molley, 26:422.

MONEY, see Currency; Obtaining Money under False Pretenses.

MONTHLY AND PROBATE COURTS.

Jurisdiction in construction of will. Cooper v. Cooper, 17:503.

MORTGAGES, see also Chattel Mortgages; Deeds; Leases; Real Property.

Bonus payments, legality of. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

By feme covert valid. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26.

Debt action without foreclosure approved. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Defined. Brown v. Settro, 8:284.

Distinguished from conditional sales of real property. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Equitable. English and United States doctrines. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Instruments which will be considered as. Saunders v. Gant, 3:152.

Intention to apply estate as security, determinable from transfer documents. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Jurisdiction of circuit court to foreclose. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Not created by deposit of deed a security for debt. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168.

Probate court's jurisdiction over foreclosure. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

Promissory notes, use of in. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Redemption, right of. Saunders v. Gant, 3:152; Brown v. Settro, 8:284; Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

Require enforceable contracts. Karmo v. Yemgbie, 13:84.

Transfer of interest in realty as security for loan deemed mortgage regardless of form. Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

Usurious interest rate reduced by court on foreclosure. Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

MOTION FOR JUDGMENT OF ACQUITTAL.

Evidence wholly insufficient to establish accused's guilt, may be made when. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

MOTIONS, see also Appeal Bonds; Appeals; Civil Procedures; Continuances; Criminal Procedure; Jurisdiction; Pleadings; Reargument and Rehearing; Supreme Court; Trials.

Amended, overcoming void motion by. Buchanan v. Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 20:330.

Amendment, right to, after withdrawal before appellate court. M.I.M. Timber Company v. Bayeh, 20:357.

Amendment of, rule for, form of. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394.

Amendments of, rule for, form of. King Peter's Heirs v. Gigger, 27:287.

Appearance, motion at beginning of trial as. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Appearance by movent, failure of. Johnson v. Mattar Brothers, 20:30.

Arrest of judgment, right to move in, when new trial waived. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

Attorney without license, by. Buchanan v. Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 20:330.

Costs upon renewing motion after withdrawal. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:330.

Dismissal of appeal, second motion for. Woniwalla v. Sengbe, 21:153.

Exception to laying basis for new trial. Monger v. Republic, 18:76.

Facts not in record, procedure when. Fagans v. Harris-Fagans, 23:190.

Harmless errors as improper basis for dismissal. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Irregularity of, prevents consideration of any issues contained therein. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394.

Judgment, motion for, denial as within discretion of judge. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Mislabeling motion to vacate injunction. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

Motion to dismiss, as raising any defense or objection capable of determination without trial. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Motion to dismiss as only method to raise objection to defects in institution of proceedings or indictment. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Motion to dismiss complaint cannot be granted on appellee's withdrawal. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

On matter of law requires no affidavit. Nagbe v. Republic, 17:656.

Pleading rules not applicable to. Bedell v. Bedell, 20:484.

Pleadings, applicability of rules governing. Brown v. Grandee, 21:157; Abraham v. Cooper, 21:157; K. Rasamny Bros. v. Brunet, 21:271.

Renewals of motion after withdrawal to be denominated as "amended." Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394.

Requests before trial by plaintiff in error who was layman, as motion. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Requisites for a new trial. Monger v. Republic, 18:76.

Resistance, verification of. Buchanan v. Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 20:330.

Writing requirement for. Yah River Logging Corporation v. United Logging Corporation, 24:57.

MOTOR VEHICLES.

Reckless driving, willful disregard of consequences needed for conviction for. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12.

Red tail light required on parked vehicle at night. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12.

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS, see also Public Officers and Employees; Quo Warranto.

Action in name of must be authorized by. Wilkes v. Page, 2:126.

Defined. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202.

Execution against, cannot be levied against chairman. Wilkes v. Page, 2:126.

Exercise of powers not reviewable by injunction. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202.

Powers of city of Monrovia under charter. Decision, 1:15; Hammond v. Corporation of Monrovia, 1:137.

Rights triable only by quo warranto. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202.

MURDER, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Homicide; Indictments; Manslaughter; Trials; Witnesses.

Accessories before and after the fact. Peehn v. Republic, 5:192.

Accident distinguished from intentional killing. George v. Republic, 1:239.

Aiding and abetting. Lawrence v. Republic, 2:65.

Adultery of spouse as provocation. Greenwood v. Republic, 7:150.

Cause of death must be unlawful act of the accused. Kpeh-You v. Republic, 11:108; Tendi v. Republic, 12:109; Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Circumstantial evidence as proof of guilt. Kamarah v. Republic, 3:204; Williams v. Republic, 10:78; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Confession of accused as proof of guilt. Kamarah v. Republic, 3:204; Gouykro v. Republic, 11:102; Sese v. Republic, 12:164; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Conspiracy to commit. Lawrence v. Republic, 2:65; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Corpus delicti. Berrien v. Republic, 2:258; Kollie v. Republic, 3:238; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524.

Corpus delicti, requisites of proof. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Defined. Socho v. Republic, 1:359; Lawrence v. Republic, 2:65; Hondor v. Republic, 3:190; Padmor v. Republic, 3:418; Darnenoh v. Republic, 4:308; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Jones v. Republic, 13:623l; Collins v. Republic, 22:365; Gray v. Republic, 23:49.

Distinction between essential elements and surplus allegations in indictment. Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Distinguished from manslaughter. Socho v. Republic, 1:359; Garngajuah v. Republic, 3:185; Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Greenwood v. Republic, 7:150; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Double jeopardy, trial after charge of manslaughter as ground for plea of. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.

Evidence as sufficient to support verdict. Delaney v. Republic, 20:199.

Failure to indict others no defense. Koh-Giddue v. Republic, 8:141.

"First degree" verdict, though improper, not reversible error. Gray v. Republic, 23:49.

Flight as circumstantial evidence of guilt. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Hit-and-run killing of pedestrian by driver of motor vehicle. Jones v. Republic, 13:623.

Insanity as defense. Scott v. Republic, 1:430; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Intoxication as defense. Kollie v. Republic, 3:238.

Malice, premeditation and deliberation, admissibility of attending facts in proof of. Toopah v. Republic, 23:119.

Malice, presumption of, from deliberate killing. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Malice aforethought, presumption of, from deliberate killing. Goodrum v. Republic, 20:384.

Malice against decendent, prerequisite for conviction. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Malice defined. Lawrence v. Republic, 2:65; Kelleng v. Republic, 4:33; Darnenoh v. Republic, 4:308; Jones v. Republic, 13:623.

Malice established by proof of previous ill will of defendant against decedent. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Malice prepense, judgment modified when sentence for murder and no. MacDeshield v. Republic, 22:131.

No degrees of, a crime by itself. Gray v. Republic, 23:49.

Proof of malice, premeditation or deliberation. Walker v. Republic, 1:186; George v. Republic, 1:239; Lawrence v. Republic, 2:65; Kelleng v. Republic, 4:33; Darnenoh v. Republic, 4:308; Koh-Giddue v. Republic, 8:141; Greenwood v. Republic, 8:263; Gouykro v. Republic, 11:102; Kpeh-You v. Republic, 11:108; Sartu v. Republic, 11:400; Jones v. Republic, 13:623; Wlarye v. Republic, 14:224; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Requirements of proof of cause of death after administration of drug. Johnson v. Republic, 15:66.

Resulting from rape. Kamarah v. Republic, 3:204.

Reversal of conviction on State's stipulation of insufficiency of evidence. Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Self-defense or defense of another as justification. Roye v. Republic, 1:236; Brooks v. Republic, 1:284; Socho v. Republic, 1:359; Garswar v. Republic, 2:278; Kpeh-You v. Republic, 11:108; Slocum v. Republic, 11:140.

Sentence for manslaughter when malice prepense unproved. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.


N

NAMES.

Deed not invalidated by mistake in spelling grantee's name if identity clear. Nagbe v. Nyema, 17:601.

Idem sonans rule stated. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:403.

NATIONAL BAR ASSOCIATION.

Attorney, authority in disciplinary proceedings against. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

NATIVE LAW, see Customary Law.

NE EXEAT.

Condition of bond given on issuance of writ. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Equity jurisdiction on writ. Erskine v. Smith, 1:69.

Purpose of writ. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

NEGLIGENCE, see also Actions; Act of God; Agents; Civil Procedure; Damages; Evidence; Pleadings; Trials; Witnesses.

Contributory, as bar to recovery for injuries sustained. Wreh v. Boehme, 22:213.

Evidence, Traffic  Court conviction of defendant's driver for causing accident sufficient to sustain verdict. Yes Taxi Company v. Pratt, 27:45.

Liability of employee of corporation for personal. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Pedestrian, prerequisites to recovery against motorist. Wreh v. Boehme, 22:213.

NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS, see Bankruptcy and Insolvency; Banks and Banking; Bill of Lading; Contracts; Debt; Defrauding and Cheating; Interest; Issuing Worthless Checks; Personal Property; Signatures; Sureties and Suretyship.

Interest rate when not expressed in. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Promissory note, definition of. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Promissory note, validity of. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

NEW TRIAL.

Denial where evidence to support verdict clear and convincing. Kasimu v. Republic, 25:80.

Ruling on motion for new trial not appealable. Stubblefield v. Nasseh, 25:24.

NEW TRIALS, see also Trials.

Absence of defendant and counsel during trial as ground for. Togba v. Slehwerron, 22:334.

Denial of application for psychiatric evaluation of defendant's mental condition as ground. Saamoon v. Republic, 22:321.

Discretion of trial judge in granting not generally disturbed on appeal. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Fair and impartial trial, non-receipt of as ground in criminal case. Republic v. Walser, 27:274.

Lack of supporting affidavit on motion not ground for dismissal of appeal. Yancy v. Republic, 17:674.

Motion for, as with discretion of courts. Dandy v. Republic, 21:3.

Prejudicial acts and rulings of trial judge as ground. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Prejudicial conduct of jury as ground for. McCauley v. Doe, 22:310.

Verdict contrary to evidence. Collins v. Republic, 21:366.

When case remanded for. Vianini (Liberia) Ltd. v. McBourrough, 17:439.

NOTARIES, see also Civil Procedures; Licenses; Seals; Signatures.

Presumption of sufficiency of signatures acknowledged by. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Signature of American, need not be authenticated by U.S. Government. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Statute as to, construed. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

NOTICE, see also Appeals; Arbitration; Civil Procedure; Pleadings.

Before proceedings, requirement of notice, in absence of counsel or client. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Foreclosure proceedings void when mortgagor not afforded notice. Monrovia Auto Service v. Richards, 17:289.

Sufficiency of notice of assignment when served on day case to be heard. Mulba v. Dennis, 22; 46.

NOTICE OF ASSIGNMENT.

Duty of lawyer to appear on date set in. Thompson v. Hassan, 25:168.

Required service on counsel for each appearance. Dollar v. Cole, 25:67.


O

OATHS.

Jurisdiction of official administering, indication in affidavit of place where oath taken to determine. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Place where affidavit taken, presumption as to, in favor of validating authority of official administering. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

OBTAINING MONEY UNDER FALSE PRETENSES, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Defrauding and Cheating; Embezzlement; Evidence; Forgery; Grand Juries; Indictments; Trials; Witnesses.

Acquittal of forgery no bar to prosecution. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Credulity of person defrauded, commission of crime as affected by. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Distinguished from embezzlement. Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Elements of crime. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Fraudulent design or intent indispensable element. Dean v. Republic, 17:204.

Indictment, necessity of setting forth written instrument in, when only incident of offense. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Jurisdiction to try, which courts have. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Misdemeanor of, may merge in felony of forgery. Dennis v. Republic, 3:105.

Offense triable in circuit court. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Possession of property, commission of crime when person defrauded has only. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Purpose of penal provision against. Perkins v. Republic, 23:352.

Restitution deemed part of fine. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

OFFICIAL MISCONDUCT, see also Attorney General; Bail; Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; President; Public Officers and Employees; Trials.

Defined as criminal offense. Davis v. Diggs, 11:237.

Nonfeasance in office defined. Conger-Thompson v. Republic, 15:41.

OPTIONS, see Leases.

ORDERS, see Arrest, Civil; Attachment; Certiorari; Civil Procedure; Contempt of Court; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Divorce; Ejectment; Equity; Executors and Administrators; Habeas Corpus; Injunctions; Judgments; Mandamus; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Quo Warranto; Supreme Court; Writ of Error.

Application to Supreme Court for order to court below denied when not accompanied by supporting papers. Ammons v. Barclay, 17:430.

Enforcement of void decree void ab initio. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.


P

PARDONS, see Crimes and Offenses.

PARENTS.

Illegitimate children of, mother's right to custody. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Support of child, duty of. Edris v. Republic, 20:153.

Support of child, staying order for, pending appeal. Moussallem v. Puah (Chambers), 20:684.

PAROL EVIDENCE.

Admissible when fraud pleaded to show that writing does not represent actual agreement between parties. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

PARTIES, see Appeals; Civil Procedure; Judgments; Pleadings; Remedies.

Appellees having a joint interest, effect of failure to include in notice of appeal all. Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 23:285.

Corporation, members of, not parties to suit by or against. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Corporation sues or is sued in its corporate name. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Counsel, right to add to number of. Jackson v. Eastman-Mason, 21:216.

Death, substitution of executor or administrator. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

Death, substitution on. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:443.

Death of party, default judgment for lack of timely application for substitution after. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Exclusion from courtroom of parties to litigation improper. Amagashie v. Mensah-Tormetie, 25:92.

Hearing on granting of preliminary injunction may be ex parte. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Insured tortfeasor, proper party in action against. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Intervenor, though denied relief, by filing answer becomes a party. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Issues of law, parties cannot reach understanding with judge not to rule on. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 25:116.

Joinder, required where persons inequitably affected by judgment. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Joinder of, at option of plaintiff. Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

Jurisdiction of court over defendant, extent of. Commercial Bank of Liberia v. Tip Top Tools, Inc., 24:399.

Liabilities of nominee of corporation. Monrovia Breweries, Inc. v. Brown, 19:367.

Litigants act for themselves, requirement that. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Maintenance of position inconsistent with that under which benefits accepted. Acolatse v. Dennis, 22:147.

Married woman, husband to bring suit on her behalf when. Buchanan v. Raymond Concrete Pile Company, 20:622.

May be added or dropped. Larty v. Community Funeral Home Service, Inc., 19:447.

Misnomer of party not ground for dismissal of claim or defense. Dollar v. Cole, 25:67.

Motion for continuance refused to one of several defendants where no motion of severance. Yancy v. Republic, 26:374.

No execution of judgment against deceased party unless substitution or default. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

Nonjoinder curable by amendment. King v. Simpson, 17:226.

Officer not party to suit against corporation. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Plaintiff's right to waive security. Cole v. Aboundyan, 19:443.

Pleadings, signature by attorney for one party for all joint parties. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

Police officer's liability for civil wrong. Neufville v. Diggs, 19:389.

Presence in court for jurisdiction. In re Wolo, 20:40.

Prohibition, necessary in proceeding of. Peal v. Flomo (Chambers), 23:400.

Protection of own interests, need for. Gaiguae v. Jallah, 20:163.

Putative father, right to bring action in behalf of infant. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Repudiation by party of own acts. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Sequestration of as witnesses. Raymond Concrete Pile Co. v. Awar, 21:493.

Service of all papers in proceeding. Elie J. Haj Brothers v. Dennis, 20:294.

Substitution for deceased party, power of court to order. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Substitution of, requisites regarding relationship and interest in case. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Harriero, 24:546.

Substitution of, when not granted despite death of a party. Judge of Debt Court v. Horton, 24:392.

Substitution on death of party. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

Trials de novo, designation on. Sheriff v. Sesay, 22:25.

Unable to attend trial, testimony may be taken by deposition. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:511.

When married woman is party in own right. Sodatonow v. Agip Corp., 19:77.

Writ of error not deniable because of incorrect nomenclature. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

PARTITION, see Cotenancies.

PARTNERSHIP, see also Corporations.

Property rights on death of partner. McGill v. Woermann, 1:163; McGill's Trustees v. Moddermann, 1:170; Moore v. Solomon, 1:347.

Use of name by new firm after death of partner. Moore v. Solomon, 1:347.

PARTNERSHIPS.

Act by member of law firm as binding on firm. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

Agreement void for failure to probate within statutory time. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

Law firm not a legal entity. Cooper v. Jackson-Parker, 17:339.

PATENTS.

Action for infringement. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117.

Assignment. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117.

PAYMENT.

Receipted bill of costs as evidence. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

PENAL LAW, see Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure.

PENDING ACTION, see Jurisdiction.

PENSIONS.

Benefit criteria of 1963 enactment interpreted. Shannon v. Liberia Trading Corporation, 23:66.

PERSONAL INJURIES.

Damages, establishing reasonable basis for substantial recovery. Bolado Sawmill v. Diggs, 24:231.

PERSONAL PROPERTY, see also Actions; Attachments; Bailments; Bonds; Chattel Mortgages; Contracts; Conversion; Currency; Embezzlement; Husband and Wife; Obtaining Money under False Pretenses; Partnerships.

Action for damages for injuries to distinguished from debt. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

In administration of decedent estate, real property cannot be distributed in lieu of. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Recaption, right of owner of goods to enter premises of another for. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

Recission for contract for sale of. Nassre v. Elias Bros., 5:108.

PETITIONS AND PETITIONERS, see Actions;Appeals; Bankruptcy and Insolvency; Certiorari; Civil Procedure; Constitution; Decedents' Estates; Equity; Executors and Administrators; Mandamus; Pleadings; Probate Courts; Prohibition; Reargument and Rehearing; Supreme Court.

PETTY LARCENY.

Failure to prove goods alleged to have been stolen were not given defendant by owner as ground for reversal of conviction. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

PLAINTIFFS, see also Actions; Affidavits; Appeals; Civil Procedure; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Indictments; Trials.

Abuse of process remediable by certiorari. Service v. Tolbert-Baker, 15:362.

Admiralty. Plea in abatement not allowed. Muller v. Republic, 2:187.

Affidavits. Not required in summary ejectment where no issue of fact. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Affidavits. Signature required. Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238.

Affidavits. Surplusage in common law actions. Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238; Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462.

Affidavits. Title of case need not be stated in body. Cooper v. Macintosh, 3:400.

Affidavits. Where required. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Allegations well-pleaded and not denied deemed admitted. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436; Horton v. Horton, 14:57; Alpha v. Tucker, 15:561; Chenoweth v. Liberia Trading Corp., 16:3.

Amendment of. Harmon v. Woodin & Co., 2:334; Massaquoi v. Republic, 2:461; Anderson v. Powell, 4:134; Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238; Horace v. Harris, 9:372; Davies v. Yancy, 10:89; United States Trading Co. v. King, 14:579; Flood v. Alpha, 15:331; Service v. Tolbert-Baker, 15:362.

Annexation of documentary evidence. Walker v. Morris, 15:424; Baffoe v. Shamag Corp., 16:218.

Answer. Affirmative matter must be pleaded. Massaquoi v. Lowndes, 4:260; Coffah v. Pyne, 8:380.

Answer. Burden of proof and right to cross-examine not affected by dismissal.  Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Answer cannot deny debt and plead setoff. Arrivets v. Barclay, 9:233.

Answer. Contradictory. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

Answer. Demurrer cannot be pleaded subsequent to. Dennis v. Dennis, 7:288.

Answer. Discretion to grant additional time. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:217.

Answer. Dismissal and placing of defendant on bare denial bars introduction of affirmative matter. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Answer. Dismissal for lack of proof of service. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

Answer. Dismissal of count for combining inconsistent defenses. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Answer. Failure to file. Payne v. McKenzie, 1:36; Solomon v. Sherman, 1:317; Logan v. Meyer, 2:200; Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Answer. Not dismissible on motion where complaint sole pleading of plaintiff. Horace v. Harris, 9:372.

Answer. Not filed; effect upon defense. Coffah v. Pyne and Smallwood, 8:380.

Answer. Questions of law may be raised in. Clark v. Lewis, 3:95.

Answer. Time for filing where multiple defendants. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Answer which both denies and avoids dismissible for inconsistency. Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Butchers' Assn. of Monrovia v. Turay, 13:365.

Arbitration. Copy of award must be served on parties. Morris v. Phillips, 14:588.

Attachment. Requirements for dissolution. Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Certainty, clarity and intelligibility required. Draper v. Wilson, 1:126; Dennis v. Dennis, 7:288; Fazzah v. Nat'l. Economy Committee, 8:85.

Certificates in addition to returns of process improper. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Certiorari. Petition must be verified. Frey & Zusli v. Gibson, 13:38.

Complaint alleging cause in equity dismissible for statement of venue in law. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Complaint. Defendant may be sued by any sufficiently descriptive name. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480, 504.

Complaint in action for debt on contract. Dinklage v. Liles, 1:382.

Complaint in injunction action. Wahab v. Adorkor, 12:152.

Complaint in justice of peace court. Bryant v. Beer, 5:280.

Complaint must be addressed to proper division of court. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178.

Complaint should state each separate cause of action distinctly. Wright v. Tay, 12:223.

Complaint. Wrong form of action dismissible. Jantzen v. Coleman, 2:208; Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39; Rached v. Knowlden, 13:68.

Consistency required. Jones v. Jones, 6:38.

Contempt proceedings. Kpunel v. Gbassie, 15:50.

Costs. Payment on withdrawal of complaint. Davies v. Yancy, 10:89.

Court not required to instruct jury on points omitted from. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

Criminal. "Not guilty" puts in issue all fats which prosecution must prove. Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Cummings v. Republic, 4:16.

Damages. Special must be specially pleaded. Dennis v. Bowser, 1:5; Lackman v. Johns, 1:455; Appleby v. Freeman, 2:271; Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:240; Townsend v. Dyer Memorial Hospital, 11:288; Knowlden v. Reeves, 12:103; Franco Liberian Trucking Co. v. Bettie, 13:318; United States Trading Co. v. King, 14:579; Saba Bros. v. Fredericks, 15:18; Kashouh v. Manly-Cole, 15:554.

Damages. Special need not be alleged where declaration shows slander per se. Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204.

Defamation action. Dennis v. Bowser, 1:5; Woodin & Co. v. Gibson, 2:409; Cummings v. Green, 3:11; Itoka v. Noelke, 6:239; Bakeh v. Green, 14:204.

Defined. Snyder v. Clarke, 9:226; Chenoweth v. Liberia Trading Corp., 16:3.

Demurrers. Disposition procedes pleas. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

Demurrers. In summary proceedings in magisterial courts. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Demurrers. May be asserted in same answer as pleas. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 4:39.

Denials, how made. Cavalla River Co. v. Pepple, 3:436.

Departure defined. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Divorce action. Jones v. Jones, 6:38; Dennis v. Dennis, 7:288; George v. George, 9:33; Cole v. Cole, 10:111.

Documents required in actions affecting title to real property. Cess-Pelham v. Pelham, 4:54l; Walker v. Cole, 10:111.

Duplicity. Henrichsen v. Moore, 6:351; Anderson v. Anderson, 9:301.

Ejectment action. Williams-Baguri v. Cooper, 14:101; Liberia Trading Corp. v. Cole, 15:61.

Equity actions. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Henrichsen v. Moore, 6:351; Wolo v. Wolo, 8:36; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26; Goodridge v. Dennis-Brown, 10:129; Moore v. Mensah, 11:339; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

Evasiveness. George v. George, 9:33.

General denial insufficient to give notice of particular fact. West & Co. v. Lomax, 3:147.

General denial not interpreted as affirmative defense or plea in confession and avoidance. Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278.

Husband and wife, joinder of. Pratt v. Hazeley, 3:127.

Intervention by third parties. Childs v. States, 4:138; Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:152.

Issues not raised in will not be adjudicated. Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Holder v. Teoh, 2:391; Elliott v. Dent, 3:111; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26; Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446; Fiske v. Artis, 11:334; Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226; Shaheen v. Compagnie v. Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Weeks v. Ketter, 13:546; Hill v. Hill, 13:392; Weeks v. Ketter, 13:546; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275; Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Issues of law must be decided before issues of fact. Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Schmitz v. Addman, 2:484; Monrovia College v. Coleman, 3:404; Wolo v. Wolo, 8:36; Horace v. Harris, 8:73; Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462; Reeves v. Knowlden, 11:199; Johns v. Johns, 11:312; Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20; Togai v. Johnson, 12:176; Wright v. Richards, 12:423; Johnson v. Dorsla, 13:378; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Joinder of issue. Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237.

Joint and several parties. Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238.

Judgment must be based on. Pennoh v. Brown, 15:237; Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonmi, 16:73.

Justice of peace courts. Watson v. Kromah, 4:147; Bryant v. Beer, 5:280.

Law relied on need not be expressly pleaded. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Mandamus. Necessary parties in application for. Harmon v. Horace, 10:29.

Misnomer cannot be pleaded as defense after general appearance or plea to merits. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480, 504.

Misnomer must be raised in. Kruger v. Johns, 2:89.

Mistake in pleading date or term corrigible during trial. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Motion for new trial may be amended as a quasi-pleading. Saleeby Bros. v. Haikal, 14:298.

Motions on, must be made by party filing last. Horace v. Harris, 9:372.

Notice to other party a fundamental principle. Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Hill v. Tetteh, 2:492; West & Co. v. Lomax, 3:147; Davies v. Darweh, 3:357; Massaquoi v. David, 6:320; George v. George, 9:33; Shaheen v. Compagnie Fran Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537; Kpunel v. Gbassie, 15:50.

Objections to probate of will require no prescribed phraseology. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Order to show cause. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Parties in interest who refuse to join as plaintiffs may be made defendants. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Parties. Misjoinder not ground for dismissal of action. Franco Liberian Transport Co. v. Republic, 13:541.

Parties. Necessary defined. Tubman v. Murdoch, 4:179.

Parties. Necessary, in application for prohibition. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300; Yunis v. Davies, 10:435.

Parties. Nonjoinder in equity suit may be corrected by court, sua sponte. Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

Parties. Substitution. Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43; Pratt v. Phillips, 10:147.

Party pleading last may move to dismiss cause. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:36.

Prohibition proceedings. Fazzah v. Nat'l Economy Committee, 8:85; Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Purpose of, to ascertain matters in controversy. Snyder v. Clarke, 9:226.

Recrimination. Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328; George v. George, 9:33.

Remedial writs. Less strictness in pleadings for. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Repleading. Leave cannot be granted by circuit court. Richardson v. Perry, 14:7.

Repleading. Order of Supreme Court to replead on remand not subject to rules controlling withdrawal and amendment. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Reply and subsequent pleadings must contain new matter. United States Trading Co. v. King, 14:579.

Reply. Dismissal for insufficiency does not place defendant on bare denial of facts alleged in answer. Solomon v. Sherman, 1:317; Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonmi, 16:73.

Reply. Effect of striking. Solomon v. Sherman, 1:317.

Reply. Requisites of adequate. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonmi, 16:73.

Responsiveness to prior pleadings. Jones v. Jones, 6:38.

Retraxit defined. Johnson v. Johnson, 1:29; Davison v. Davison, 3:36.

Returns. Proper form required. Davies v. Darweh, 3:357.

Revenue receipts may be affixed where stamps unavailable. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Service on clerk of corporation. Holscher v. Townsend, 7:293.

Setoff. Plea must be distinct and unambiguous. Arrivets v. Barcley, 9:233.

Severance of parties in criminal case. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Special plea bars defense on general issue. Anderson v. McGill, 1:46; Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47.

Subsequent to answer. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:229.

Supplemental not allowed. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220.

Surcharge, pleading and proof of. Clark v. Woods, 3:165.

Tender. Plea admits contract. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

To be considered in reverse order by judge. Snyder v. Clarke, 9:226.

Untimely filing of complaint voids service of summons. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:217.

Venue. Pleadings must be addressed to proper division of court. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178.

Verification in common law actions. Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238.

Waiver of plea of retraxit. Williams v. Allen, 1:259.

When answer dismissed for inconsistency case may be tried on general denial. Butchers' Assn. of Monrovia v. Turay, 13:365.

When substitution not available. Dorum v. Smallwood, 9:425.

Where complaint dismissed, improper to try case. Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462.

Where poorly drawn, case remanded. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:36; George v. George, 9:33.

Withdrawal and renewal, payment of costs as prerequisite. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

Withdrawal of complaint does not terminate jurisdiction where writ remains before court. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Withdrawal. Right of plaintiff. Davies v. Yancy, 10:89.

Writ of error. Requirements for application. Mends-Cole v. Weeks, 13:525.

Written directions to clerk not a pleading. Mitchell v. Fawaz, 15:541.

PLEADINGS, see also Answers; Civil Procedure; Complaints; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Replies.

Affidavit annexed may be sworn to by counsel. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

Amended, costs upon filing of. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394; King Peter's Heirs v. Gigger, 27:287.

Amendment of. Abi-Rached v. Lewis, 20:494; Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Answer must be responsive. Shoemaker-Deline v. Shoemaker-Porte, 19:221.

Bill of particulars must accompany complaint. Shell Co., Ltd. v. Ghandour, 18:298.

Clarity required. Shoemaker-Deline v. Shoemaker-Porte, 19:221; Salala Rubber Company v. Onadeke, 24:441.

Compatible defenses. Good-Wesley v. Dwalubor, 19:282.

Considered in reverse order since issues of law disposed of before trial of facts. Buchanan v. Juah, 17:79.

Costs paid by party amending. Kparnee v. Tano-Freeman, 18:159.

Costs upon filing amended pleadings. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394.

Defects in, last pleader has priority in moving against. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Demand for production of documentary evidence not properly made by ex parte pleading. Jackson v. Trinity, 17:631.

Dismissed complaint obviates trial. Kparnee v. Tano-Freeman, 18:159.

Division of court required. Richards v. Monrovia Brewery, 19:241.

Documents required to be annexed. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Duplicity, defined and negated. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Facts giving rise to cause of action or constituting defense, requirement of allegation of. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Failure to answer. Corneh v. Wahhab, 19:235.

Failure to deny prior allegation of opposing party. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Harmless errors as improper basis for dismissal. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

In ejectment, deed to be alleged or proffered with. Dundas v. Botoe, 17:457.

Inconsistent defenses are not permitted. Kparnee v. Tano-Freeman, 18:159.

Issues of law, must be ruled upon by court before issues of facts. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Issues of law must all be decided upon, not limited to some that are raised by pleadings. Morris v. Johnson, 26:73.

Issues of law not presented by, ruling by trial court on. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Issues of law raised in, disposal of, before issues of fact. Korla v. Korla, 22:54.

Issues of law raised by pleadings, requirement that trial court rule on all when answer dismissed on one point only. Claratown Engineers, Inc. v. Tucker, 23:211.

Joinder of causes of actions. B.F. Goodrich of Liberia, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 20:228.

Misjoinder and nonjoinder not ground for dismissal. Lartey v. Community Funeral Home Service, Inc., 19:447.

Misjoinder and nonjoinder of corporate officers. Lartey v. Community Funeral Home Service, Inc., 19:447.

Misjoinder and nonjoinder raises issue of fact. Lartey v. Community Funeral Home Service, Inc., 19:447.

Motion for leave to replead after dismissal on merits will not be granted. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

Multiple claims or defenses, how pleaded. Mourad v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 23:183.

Multiple defenses, how pleaded. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Nature of affirmative defense. Good-Wesley v. Dwalubor, 19:282.

Need to reserve rights on withdrawal. Corneh v. Wahhab, 19:235.

Non-denial of averments, admission of when responsive pleading required. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Not guilty, effect of plea of. Talib v. Republic, 20:254.

Not guilty plea as precluding right to appeal. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

Plea in abatement supersedes all other issues. Kparnee v. Tano-Freeman, 18:159.

Prejudicial withdrawal. Corneh v. Wahhab, 19:235.

Profert of documents in action of debt essential. Shell Co., Ltd. v. Ghandour, 18:298.

Remand, repleading ordered by appellate court on. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Rogers, 24:314.

Revenue stamp, time allowed for rectifying omission of. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

Right to withdraw and refile may be exercised only once. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Signature by attorney for one party for all joint parties. Jackson v. Irons, 21:328.

Undue influence, special pleading of. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Verification, proper judicial circuit for. Tuning v. Thomas, 21:33.

Verification, requirements of form and contents. Tuning v. Thomas, 21:33.

When may be amended. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

Written instrument. King v. International Trust Company of Liberia, 20:438.

POLICE, see Public Officers and Employees.

POSSESSION, see Real Property.

POST OFFICE, see also Revenue Laws; Revenue Stamps.

Breach of trust by postmaster or personnel. Freeman v. Republic, 1:306.

Conversion of stamps by postmaster or employee. Roberts v. Republic, 1:226; Dennis v. Republic, 2:494.

Postmaster a revenue officer. McGill v. Republic, 1:169.

Private sale of unclaimed parcels by postmaster illegal. Clarke v. Republic, 2:498.

Prosecution for unlawful taking of mail. McGill v. Republic, 1:169.

Stealing money from post letter bag. Freeman v. Republic, 1:306.

POWER OF ATTORNEY, see also Agents; Principal and Agent.

Survival after death of donor. Tuning v. Thomas, 21:33.

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION.

Discharge of defendant on preliminary examination no bar to subsequent prosecution. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

PRESIDENT, see also Constitution; Public Officers and Employees; Republic of Liberia; Statutes; Treason.

Authority to execute deeds for grants of land by government. Harris v. Locket, 1:79; Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Bound by official acts of predecessors in office. Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Conspiracy against life of, capital offense. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Duties and responsibilities of cabinet. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Impeachment of. Opinion, 1:509; Matter of King, 3:337.

Liability for crime committed in office. Matter of King, 3:337.

Nondelegable power to appoint and commission public officers. Henrichsen v. Martin, 6:356.

Power to exercise clemency after conviction. Dennis v. Republic, 17:396.

Public officers appointed by, extent of privileges grantable. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:443.

Public officers subject to process of courts except when acting as agents of. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

PRESIDENT OF LIBERIA.

Habeas corpus, power to suspend writ of, to deal with national emergency. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

PRESUMPTIONS, see Evidence.

Authority of official administering oath, presumption in favor of validating. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Basis of. Walker v. Kazoula, 25:325.

Sheriff's return showing service, rebuttable presumption of correctness of. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413.

PRICE CONTROLS, see Constitutional Law.

PRINCIPAL AND AGENT, see Agents; Power of Attorney.

Creation of relation. Baky v. George, 22:80.

Power of attorney, when sufficiency of, presume. Baky v. George, 22:80.

PRINCIPLE AND AGENT, see Agents

PRISONS.

Civilians not to be confined in military barracks when other facilities available. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Confinement in military camps of civilians awaiting trial unlawful. Nasser v. Smith, 26:115.

Jurisdiction over civilians awaiting trial resides exclusively in trial court. Nasser v. Smith, 26:115.

PRIVATE PROSECUTOR, see Criminal Procedure.

PROBATE, see also Ejectment, Real Property; Recording.

Caveat, filing of prevents probate judge from probating document until issue is determined. Johnson v. Johnson, 27:351.

Commissioner of probate cannot order survey of land of decedent for partitioning. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

Employment contract, not required for. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

Notice of objections to required. Hunter v. Horton, 19:142.

Of executor's deed as notice to heirs. Moore v. Woods, 17:64.

Partnership agreement void for failure to probate within statutory time. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

Placarding of deed before probate, less than required period for. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Probated and registered deed superior as evidence of title. Dundas v. Botoe, 17:457.

Undoing by ejectment or other action what court has done with respect to probate of will or deed. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Will accepted for probate, against whom admissible. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

PROBATE COURTS, see also Appeals; Bonds; Civil Procedures; Contempt of Court; Courts; Decedents' Estates; Fraud; Deeds; Executors and Administrators; Judges and Justices; Real Property; Wills.

Appeal from, dismissed for failure to file bill of exceptions. Morris v. Jebbah, 15:278.

Appointment of administrators. Hodge v. Williams, 2:487; Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; King v. Howard, 9:135; In re Caranda, 9:240.

Ascertainment of assets of decedent and administration of estate within jurisdiction of, therefore petition in equity to discover estate denied. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Bond. Action on administrator's controlled by statute. Nungbar v. Fiske, 13:304.

Caveat. Defined. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176; Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Caveat. Entry not ground for suspension of proceedings. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Contempt by, to disregard writ of prohibition. In re Caranda, 9:240.

Contempt of, punishable by Supreme Court. Int'l. Trust Co. of Liberia v. Weah, 15:568.

Costs assessed against commissioner. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Determination of issues of fact as to next of kin should precede issuance of letters of intestate estate. Harmon v. Tompo, 15:272.

Duty and power of appraiser in proceeding to discover estate. Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161.

Execution of ruling by circuit judge cannot be set aside by probate commissioner. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Fraud. No jurisdiction of action. Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Fraud. Objections to probation of deeds. Nah v. Nagbe, 16:89.

Fraud or gross negligence of clerks. Mingle v. Richards, 11:323.

Improper for commissioner to adjudicate as to deed wherein he is named grantor. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Investigation of executors and administrators. Strong v. Williams, 2:515; Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Issues of fact concerning genuineness of a will must be referred by probate court to a jury duly empanelled in circuit court. Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Jurisdiction as to probation of deeds. Howard v Roberts, 2:217; Ross v. Roberts, 3:325; Salifu v. Lassannah, 5:152; Smith v. Page, 11:146.

Jurisdiction in matters affecting decedent's estates. Sherman v. McGill, 1:81; Johns v. Pelham, 2:550; Brown v. Summerville, 4:353; Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43; Smith v. Faulkner, 9:161; Sharpe v. Urey, 11:251; Worjroh v. Harris, 11:388; Tee v. Chea, 12:205; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57; In re Caranda, 14:320; King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Jurisdiction inferior to that of circuit courts. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Jurisdiction lacking to try charges of infamous crimes. Tompo v. Republic, 13:207.

Jurisdiction of foreclosure of mortgage. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

Jurisdiction of partnership estate. McGill's Trustees v. Moddermann, 1:170.

Jurisdiction over infant's property. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Nimley v. Kaba, 14:82.

No jurisdiction to try unliquidated claim against estate for damages caused by intestate. Barclay v. Thompson, 17:351.

Objectants entitled to opportunity to appear. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Power to cite administrators of intestate estate to appear without summons. Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Power to punish for contempt. Watts-Johnson v. Richards, 12:8; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245; Caranda v. Porte, 13:57; In re Caranda, 14:320; Int'l. Trust Co. of Liberia v. Weah, 15:568.

Power to remove administrators of estates. Dennis v. Weeks, 11:317.

Power to revoke admission of will to probate. Williams v. Finch, 10:249; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Procedure for commencement of proceedings. White v. Harmon, 2:17; Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Proceedings not civil actions. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Real Property. Authorization of sale. Brown v. Allen, 2:115; Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Real Property of decedent's estate not distributable in lieu of personal property. Nungbar v. Fiske, 13:304.

Real Property. Power to adjudicate title to. Smith v. Page, 11:146; Worjroh v. Harris, 11:338.

Removal of judges. Sancea v. Republic, 3:347.

Responsibilities for supervision of executors and administrators. Sharpe v. Urey, 11:251; Woodson v. Heuston, 12:133.

Review of ruling of colleague by another Commissioner of Probate, rule against. Ballah v. Johnson, 27:343.

Review of ruling of colleague by commissioner of probate. Jartu v. Estate of Konneh, 10:318.

Violation by party of order constitutes contempt regardless of soundness of order. Int'l. Trust Co. of Liberia v. Weah, 15:568.

Witness in investigation of intestate estate not subject to jurisdiction as part. Rasamny v. Ketter, 12:317.

PROBATION.

Affects concluded as well as prospective unlawful acts of a lower court. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Discretion of court as to granting. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Other remedies available, not to be resorted to when. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Flomo, 27:52; Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

Purpose for which remedy invoked. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Flomo, 27:52.

Respondents, who are proper and necessary. Boye v. Nelson, 27:174.

PROCEDURE, see Appeals; Civil Procedure; Criminal Procedure; Law; Trials.

Appeals, application of new statute regulating. F. Resamny Bros. v. Brunet, 20:3.

PROCESS, see also Waiver.

Compulsory, right of accused to. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Law enforcement officers, when subject to process. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Service, deputizing persons to make. Agip (Liberia) Corporation v. Sodatonow, 20:222.

Service as soon as possible on person arrested without warrant under Emergency Powers Act. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Service of by sheriff in another county, method of. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Timely service and filing of, at least 15 day s prior to first day of term. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

PROCUREMENT, see also Divorce.

PROFERT.

Of instrument necessary on petition for its cancellation. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

PROHIBITION, see also Actions; Appeals; Certiorari; Civil Procedure; Contempt of Court; Courts; Injunctions; Judges and Justices; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Justices of the Peace; Magistrates; Mandamus; Probation; Quo Warranto; Supreme Court; Trials; Writ of Error.

Abuse for delay censured. Cole v. Payne, 12:183; Bryant v. Morris, 12:198; Johns v. Howard, 12:208.

Act of trial judge in requiring party before him charged with contempt to tender appearance bond does not warrant issuance of writ. Harris v. Smith, 26:273.

Acts already completed cannot be restrained by. Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226; Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:512.

Acts remaining to be done and those illegally done may be restrained by. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Acts which can be undone can be restrained by. Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:512.

Application for to Supreme Court amendable. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Application must be verified. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Arbitrary conduct of trial judge, remedy for. Union National Bank, Inc. v. Hodge (Chambers), 20:635.

Availability of another extraordinary remedy, when not a bar. McCarthy v. Gray, 23:142.

Availability when other adequate remedy exists. Kilpatrick v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 10:84.

Basis for granting of writ. Nasser v. Minister of Justice, 25:382.

Basis for issuance of writ must be shown. Alraine (Liberia) v. Koroma, 22:308.

Bill of exceptions cannot be attached to application. Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226.

Chambers Justice may issue order pendent elite. King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Circumstances in which application for writ premature. Royal Exchange Assurance v. Barreire (Chambers), 21:587.

Circumstances in which writ may issue. Coleman v. Crawford, 19:29.

Commissioner of probate restrained from ordering survey of land not described in probated instrument. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

Complete relief granted. Fazzah Bros. v. Collins, 10:261.

Criminal prosecutions. When granted. Parker v. Worrell, 2:525; Matter of King, 3:337.

Defined. Parker v. Worrell, 2:525; Fazzah v. Nat'l Economy Committee, 8:85; Cole v. Payne, 12:183.

Denied to prevent enforcement by magistrate of stipulations for support of child. Wright v. Bedell, 17:163.

Directed against rather than party to parent case. Dweh v. Findley, 15:658.

Discretion of court as to granting. Kilpatrick v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 10:84.

Does not lie when other adequate remedy. Harris v. Smith, 26:275.

Execution of judgment in ejectment restrained. Davies-Johnson v. Alpha, 13:573.

Foreclosure proceeding restrained. Fazzah Bros. v. Collins, 10:261.

Function and history. Hodge v. Williams, 2:487; Fazzah v. Nat'l. Economy Committee, 8:85; Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226.

Function and purpose. Wilson v. Kandakai, 21:452.

Function defined. Thomas v. Ministry of Justice, 26:129.

Function described. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Ground for granting. Gaiguae v. Jallah, 20:163.

Habeas Corpus. Execution restrained. Okagbare v. Okagbare, 13:593.

Improper, on hearing of writ, to seek enforcement of lower court judgment as well as denial of writ. Dennis v. Republic, 7:212.

Joinder of all parties required. Yunis v. Davies, 10:435.

Judge prohibited from presiding over case in which his relative was party. Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Judge's oral instructions to sheriff prohibited. Dweh v. Findley, 15:638.

Justice of Peace respondent in Replevin action. Parker v. Worrell, 2:525.

Justice of the peace not restrained from exercising statutory jurisdiction. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Lower tribunal is sole necessary party. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Maintainable when court lacking jurisdiction has not completely executed its judgment. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Manifest necessity an indispensable requisite. Dennis v. Republic, 7:212.

No substitute for appeal. Fazzah v. Nat'l. Economy Committee, 8:85.

Not granted to correct party's neglect to act in own interest. Francis v. Pynches, 15:224.

Not granted where lower court neither exceeded jurisdiction nor proceeded by wrong rule. Richards v. Parker, 11:396; Cole v. Payne, 12:183; Bryant v. Morris, 12:198; Johns v. Howard, 12:208; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245.

Not granted where nothing remains to be done. Sinoe v. Nimley, 16:152.

Not granted where respondent did not proceed by wrong rule. Carter v. Massaquoi, 24:511.

On application by township commissioner to restrain survey of public land. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

Oral argument on application for, may be disallowed. Wright v. Bedell, 17:163.

Ordinary remedies available, not to be resorted to when. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Parties, necessary. Peal v. Flomo (Chambers), 23:400.

Petitioner need not be party to proceedings below. Davies-Johnson v. Morris, 13:573.

Petitioner's rights must be adversely affected by prohibited act. Dweh v. Findley, 15:638.

Probate court respondent in appointment of administrators. Hodge v. Williams, 2:487.

Prohibition for, non-requirement of delay allegation. Kollie v. Hilton (Chambers), 22:503.

Proper remedy to restrain inferior court from passing judgment in case already adjudged. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Proper to restrain commissioner of probate from exceeding statutory jurisdiction. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

Retrospective correction of abuse or excess of jurisdiction. Mensah v. Tecquah, 12:147.

Returns must be filed when ordered by Supreme Court. In re Gibson, 16:202.

Supreme Court Justice cannot restrain decision of Court en banc. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453.

Supreme Court mandate not restrainable by. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Supreme Court's order not subject to. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:582.

To prevent execution of a judicial order in absence or excess of jurisdiction. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

Trial court restrained from enforcing judgment. Fazzah v. Nat'l. Economy Committee, 8:85.

Trial court's errors and irregularities not corrigible by. Fazzah v. Nat'l. Economy Committee, 8:85; Caranda v. Fiske, 12:245.

Tribal chief's illegal judgment restrained. Odei v. Verdier, 15:285.

Untimely application deemed waiver of right to apply. Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226.

Venue. Remedy to enforce change is appeal from denial not prohibition. Johns v. Howard, 12:208.

Verification by petitioner required. Wilson v. Kandakai, 21:452; Royal Exchange Assurance v. Barreire (Chambers), 21:587; Johnson v. Morris, 23:154.

Verification of application by part. King v. King (Chambers), 23:418.

Verification of application ordinarily required. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

Verification of petition by party required. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Verification of petition for writ of. Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:512.

Verification of returns not required. Sinoe v. Nimley, 16:152.

Violation after notice of filing constitutes contempt. In re Caranda, 9:240.

Void judgment, granted to prevent enforcement of. National Iron Ore Co. v. Gibson, 26:365.

Void judgment of circuit court. Enforcement restrained. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

When amendment to petition deemed to have been interposed. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Writ issuable after judgment, where same taken by default or jurisdiction lacking on face. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Writ may be issued on petition of one not a party to suit out of which writ grew. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Writ of error, distinction from. Elie J. Haj Brothers v. Dennis, 20:294.

PROVOCATION, see Crimes and Offenses; Homicide.

PUBLIC LANDS, see Real Property.

Conveyance to chief and tribal residents vests title in tribal authority. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:403.

Township commissioner granted prohibition to restrain survey of public land in township. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

PUBLIC OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES, see also Attorney General; Attorneys and Counselors; Clerks of Courts; Constitution; Education; Elections; Embezzlement; Highways and Streets; Interior, Secretary of; Mandamus; Municipal Corporations; Official Misconduct; Post Office; President; Prohibition; Sedition; Supreme Court; Treason.

Abuse of authority not trespass ab initio. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

Action on bond as remedy against. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75; Moore v. Republic, 2:143.

Agents of government. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415; Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Assignment of salary as evidence of criminal liability. Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411.

Cabinet officers subject to ordinary process of courts except when acting as agent of President. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

Commissioner of education disqualified to serve as teacher. McAuley v. Republic, 1:354.

Confidential agent of Chief Executive, nonliability when acting as. Ghoussalny v. Nelson, 20:591.

Consul, not personally liable on contract made in official capacity. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Consular official may be tried in home country for forgery committed abroad in connection with government accounts. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Consular officials not entitled to extraterritorial privileges and immunities of diplomatic officials. Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Court process, when law enforcement officers subject to. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Embezzlement by. Clarke v. Republic, 2:498; Hill v. Republic, 3:130; Massaquoi v. Republic, 3:411; Seton v. Republic, 4:238; Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Swaray v. Republic, 15:149; Togba v. Republic, 15:206.

Execution against municipal corporation cannot be levied against its chairman. Wilks v. Page, 2:126.

Illegal act void. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Immunity under political acts, fallacious claim of. Thomas v. Morgan, 25:37.

Impeaching proceedings. Opinion, 1:509; Matter of King, 3:337.

Malfeasance, deviation from procedure provided by law, resulting in injury to person, as crime of. Samuels v. Republic, 23:258.

Mandamus and not specific performance proper remedy to compel performance of duties. Bah v. Philips, 27:210.

Mandamus to compel performance by public officer. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Mandamus to compel Secretary of State to issue passport. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

Mandamus writ against President, futility of issuance of. Ghoussalny v. Nelson, 20:591.

Ministerial court officers' duties. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Hevdakor, 20:471.

Ministerial duty defined. Ross v. Arrivets, 6:364.

Negligence, responsibility of innocent party for. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Nondelegable Presidential power of appointment. Henrichsen v. Martin, 6:356.

Nonfeasance in office defined. Conger-Thompson v. Republic, 15:41.

Official misconduct triable only on indictment. Davis v. Diggs, 11:237.

Postmaster deemed a revenue officer. McGill v. Republic, 1:169.

President's appointment of, extent of grant of privileges incident thereto. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:443.

Prosecution of post office official for breach of duty. McGill v. Republic, 1:169; Roberts v. Republic, 1:226; Freeman v. Republic, 1:306.

Prosecution of treasury officer for default. Johnson v. Republic, 1:75.

Public policy violated by officers acting as legal counsel for trespassers upon 2:415.

Public policy violations by, guidelines. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:443; Emidon Limited v. Liberia Cold Stores, Inc., 20:487.

Regulations. Authority to promulgate subject to statute. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Responsibilities of members of cabinet. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365; In re Cassel, 14:391.

Restoration to office. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175.

Robbery under cover of office. Crawford v. Republic, 4:378.

Security officer, when use of gun by, justified. Freeman v. Republic, 22:188.

Subpoena, service of, frustrated by sheriff. Doe v. Republic, 21:279.

PUBLIC POLICY.

Extent of, analyzed. Emidon Limited v. Liberia Cold Storage Stores, Inc., 20:487.


Q

QUO WARRANTO, see also Attorney General; Certiorari; Constitution; Judges and Justices; Jurisdiction; Mandamus; Municipal Corporations; Prohibition; Supreme Court.

Defined. Emmons v. Williams, 3:30; In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175; King v. Whitfield, 2:542.

Issuable only by Supreme Court. Green v. Brumskine, 2:202.

Jurisdiction dismissal for want of. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175; Emmons v. Williams, 3:30.

Remedy for illegal ouster from public office. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175.

Remedy to contest usurpation of public office, commission or franchise. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175; King v. Whitfield, 2:542.


R

RAPE, see also Assault; Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Trials; Witnesses.

Acquittal in case of variance in evidence. Smith v. Republic, 3:58.

Carnal knowledge established by proof of penetration. Coleman v. Republic, 1:320.

Corroboration of testimony of prosecutrix necessary for conviction. Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Smith v. Republic, 3:58; Faber v. Republic, 3:69.

Defined. Coleman v. Republic, 1:320.

Evidence sufficient to convict on charge of murder from rape. Kamarah v. Republic, 3:204.

REAL PROPERTY, see also Actions; Aliens; Attachment; Constitution; Customary Law; Deeds; Divorce; Ejectment; Eminent Domain; Equity; Escheat; Executors and Administrators; Fraud; Highways and Streets; Homesteads; Husband and Wife; Immigrant Allotments; Leases; Probate Courts; Trespass; Warranties; Wills.

Acquiescence as evidence of authenticity of boundary line. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Acquiescence as waiver of objection to conveyance. Blunt v. Barbour, 1:58; McAuley v. Madison, 1:287; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95.

Administrator, authorization by Probate Court of sale by. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Administrator, purchase by, of property estate conveyed to innocent purchaser. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Administrator's deed to self invalid. Savage v. Dennis, 1:51.

Adverse possession. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Birch v. Quinn, 1:309; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Minor v. Pearson, 2:82; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Clark v. Lewis, 3:95; Thorne v. Thompson, 3:193; Karnga v. Williams, 10:10; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Williams-Bagury v. Cooper, 14:101; Soco v. Johnson, 15:320; Toles v. Williams, 15:357.

Adverse possession, principles of in asserting title to. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Aliens' rights constitutionally restricted. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; East African Co. v. Dunbar, 1:279; West v. Dunbar, 1:313; Couwenhoven v. Green, 2:301; Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Beavans v. Jurs, 3:28; African Industrial Co. v. Cole, 7:381; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:159; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Belated claims, disallowance of. Wayne v. Cooper, 21:50.

Cancellation of conveyances by court in equity. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Cancellation of deed by court causes title to revert to prior owners. Pratt v. Smith, 26:160.

Cancellation of deed by court does not confer title; action of ejectment appropriate remedy. Barbour-Tarpeh v. Dennis, 25:468.

Communal deed granted pursuant to statute upheld. Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Complaint when plaintiff claims title, filing of document of title with. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Condemnation by government. Johnson v. Republic, 1:103.

Conditional sale distinguished from mortgages. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Constitution as preventing State from granting land previously transferred. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Conveyance between husband and wife. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453.

Conveyance by person without title. Wayne v. Cooper, 21:50.

Conveyance invalid where grantor had neither title nor possession. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Conveyance to husband and wife, tenancy by the entirety. Estate of Lloyd K. Wishnant, In re, 24:298.

Conveying interest in. Yarkpawolo v. Robertson, 19:226.

Court's instruction to jury that defendant in ejectment action "had no deed" reversible error. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

De facto corporation may acquire and hold title. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

Decedents' cannot be distributed in lieu of personal property. Nungbor v. Fiske, 13:304.

Decree to remove cloud on title and quiet possession. Reeves v. Knowlden, 11:199.

Deed. Evidence of title. Smith v. Hill, 1:157; Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; King v. Cooper, 6:12; Railey v. Clarke, 10:330; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Deed; failure to probate and register within statutory time, limitation on effect of. Kissell v. Diago, 22:329.

Deed. Failure to register and probate within statutory time. Salifu v. Lassanah, 5:152; Barbour v. Bickersteth, 8:183; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Deed. Improper for probate commissioner to adjudicate where named grantor. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Deed. Improper to probate pending appeal where title disputed. Caranda v. Fiske, 13:154.

Deed of land from government. Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Deed. Validity determined in probate court. Smith v. Page, 11:146.

Deeds duly probated and registered superior to prior instruments not probated or registered. Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Deeds required to be in writing. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Devise granting fee simple. Watson v. Ware, 10:158.

Discrimination in acquisition of because of class, creed or origin prohibited. Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Documents must be filed with pleadings in actions affecting title. Cess-Pelham v. Pelham, 4:54.

Dower right of widow. Wright v. Wright, 5:208.

Easement of ingress and egress. Witherspoon v. Brown, 11:177.

Emblements defined. African Industrial Co. v. Cole, 7:381.

Eminent domain. Johnson v. Republic, 1:103.

Encroachment upon. Pratt v. Phillips, 7:276.

Equitable mortgages. English and United States doctrines. Carew v. Jennesah, 13:168.

Escheat to Republic. Birch v. Quinn, 1:309; Dossen v. Republic, 2:467.

Estates at will defined. Pyne v. Bardu, 3:371.

Estates. Contingent remainders defined. Roberts v. Howard, 2:226.

Estates limited to take effect after fee simple. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220.

Estates. Vested remainders defined. Roberts v. Howard, 2:226.

Estoppel, applied to claimant failing to object to possession of another. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Estoppel, applied to repudiating seller whose title was after required. Bailey v. Sancea, 23:150.

Fee by implication. Moore & Son v. Cooper, 1:134.

Fee tail. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220.

Fraudulent procurement of deed cannot be alleged for first time on appeal from judgment in ejectment action. Freeman v. Webster, 4:493.

Freeholder defined. Pyne v. Bardu, 3:371; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Grantee's duty to examine into executrix's right to convey. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Homesteads. McAuley v. Jorgusin, 1:289; Wiles v. Wiles, 1:423; Prout v. Cooper, 5:412; Perry v. Knight, 6:154; Maier v. Jurgensmayer, 6:256.

Immigrant allotments. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Incumbrance defined. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Infant's cannot be conveyed by parent unless specially authorized in writing. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Injunction ancillary to action for specific performance of contract to convey. Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:504.

Injunction does not try title. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400.

Injunction to prevent trespass dissolved where title in dispute. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400.

Injunction to restrain trespass requires proof of title. Moore v. Mensah, 11:339.

Instrument dividing property between owners. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Instrument of conveyance, interpretation of. Wayne v. Cooper, 21:50.

Intestate succession established by will describing descendent as "my grandson." Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Issue in ejectment not ties of blood but title. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Issues of title not determinable by court of equity. Johnson v. Cassell, 1:161.

Judgment relied upon as proof of title must designate property with certainty. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Lease a defense in summary ejectment proceeding. Ajavon v. Bull, 14:178.

Lease admitted into evidence in proceeding to probate deed. Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Leasing to foreigners. Paterson, Zochonis and Co., Ltd. v. Witherspoon, 19:411.

Life estate. Barclay v. Freeman, 1:263.

Life estate, effect of. Wayne v. Cooper, 21:50.

Limitations of actions contesting probate and registration of deeds. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365.

Long established title, reluctance of court to disturb. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Mortgage and sale with right to repurchase. Brown v. Settro, 8:284.

Mortgage defined. Brown v. Settro, 8:284.

Mortgage. Equity of redemption. Brown v. Settro, 8:284.

Mortgage foreclosure. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26.

Mortgage foreclosure. Enforcement improper where sale of 3 separate tracts although sale of house on 1 tract sufficient to satisfy judgment, interest and costs. Dennis v. Reffell, 9:310.

Mortgage. Modern doctrine regards as security. In re Smallwood, 8:3.

Mortgagor's equity of redemption. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Objections to probate of warranty deed dismissed where objectant had no written evidence of title. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112.

Oral evidence of interest or transaction inadmissible. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112.

Oral promise to execute deed unenforceable. Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Partition of estate to satisfy claim against devisee. Moore & Son v. Cooper, 1:134.

Possession defined. Barclay v. Freeman, 1:263.

Priority of title. Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Probate, undoing of, by action at law. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Probate within four months of acquisition, effect on title when purchaser fails to. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Probation of conveyance not reviewable in ejectment action. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Public land grants. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; Harris v. Locket, 1:79; Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Recording interest in. Morris v. Jackson, 19:311.

Reformation or rescission of deed for cloud on title. Republic v. Massaquoi, 10:350.

Remainder, effect of vesting of. Wayne v. Cooper, 21:50.

Remedy for breach of covenant in lease is action on contract, not ejectment. Tubman v. Westphal et al., 1:367.

Right of access. Witherspoon v. Brown, 11:177.

Rights of married women. Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Williams v. young, 1:293; Birch v. Quinn, 1:309; Brown v. Allen, 2:115; Curtis v. Brown, 3:320; Wright v. Wright, 5:208; Cole v. Dixon, 6:301; Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26.

Sale by executrix void if not authorized by court. Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Specific performance. Collins v. Elias Bros., 11:258; Kamara v. Logan, 12:28; Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480; Reeves-Gibson v. Johnson, 15:612.

Specific performance, granted when buyer acts in reliance on seller's promise. Bailey v. Sancea, 23:150.

Specific performance, sufficiency of terms of contract. King-Gibson v. Carter, 20:618.

Specific performance, when granted. Bailey v. Sancea, 23:150.

Substitution for property sold to person other than legatee. Anderson v. Anderson, 10:384.

Survey. Appellate court may remand ejectment action for impartial survey of land. Freeman v. Webster, 14:493.

Survey. Resurvey should follow lines of original survey. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Tenancy by curtesy. Brown v. Payne, 1:9.

Title by adverse possession. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271; Page v. Harland, 1:463; Karnga v. Williams, 10:10; Williams-Baguri v. Cooper, 14:101; Soco v. Johnson, 15:320; Toles v. Williams, 15:357.

Title by specific testamentary devise. Johns v. Pelham, 2:550.

Title cannot be determined in action of injunction. Curtis v. Brown, 3:320; Davies v. Darweh, 3:357; Young v. Embree, 5:242.

Title cannot be determined in summary ejectment proceeding before magistrate. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:338.

Title defined. Reeves v. Hyder, 1:271.

Title, degrees of. African Indust. Co. v. Cole, 7:381.

Title derived from Republic. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Tolling of statute of limitations by absence from Liberia as defense against claim of adverse possession. Toles v. Williams, 15:357.

Trespass. Damages for. Clark v. Barbour, 2:15; Clarke v. Snyder, 9:111.

Verdict and judgment in ejectment as evidence of title. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Waiver of affirmative defense in ejectment action. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Warranty of title by grantor who reacquires property, effect of denial of. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Words of limitation construed. Moore & Son v. Cooper, 1:134; Barclay v. Freeman, 1:263; Williams v. Young, 1:293; Sherman v. Stubblefield, 1:351.

REARGUMENT, see Appeals.

Basis for granting stated. West African Trading Corporation v. Alrine (Liberia) Ltd., 25:3.

When allowable. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

REARGUMENT AND REHEARING, see also Appeals; Certiorari; Civil Procedure; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Pleadings; Supreme Court; Trials.

Basis for granting defined. Daniel v. Compania Trasmediterranea, 4:97; Gummah v. Republic, 4:374; Snyder v. Republic, 5:88; Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:206; Bryant v. Harmon, 12:405; Hill v. Hill, 13:392; King v. Cole, 15:15; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343; Webster v. Freeman, 16:44, 209; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 16:282; Liberia Trading Corporation v. Cole, 20:413.

Burden of proof on. Dennis v. Republic, 7:341.

Change in membership of Court no basis for. Daniel v. Compania Trasmediterranea, 4:97; Ex parte Williams, 4:189.

Comprises only points raised on original argument and overlooked by Court. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:405; Hill v. Hill, 13:392; Togba v. Republic, 15:648.

Denied and judgment corrected; where judgment had remanded, and opinion had dismissed, case. Ex parte Massaquoi, 7:404.

Denied where appeal not completed in statutory time. Caranda v. Richards, 14:294.

Denied where court has not overlooked any fact or point of law. Perry v. Ammons, 17:58.

Denied where no material variance between judgment and opinion. Ex parte Massaquoi, 7:404.

Dismissal for petitioner's failure to appear. Tucker v. O'Connor, 15:578.

Granted on showing of patent and prejudicial error by officer of Court. Williams v. Republic, 14:602.

Limited Reargument may be granted. Togba v. Republic, 15:648.

Motion denied where failure to show material question overlooked on prior hearing. Daniels v. Daniels, 17:53.

Petition, requirement for, after proceeding closed. In re Wolo, 20:40.

Reargument denied unless court inadvertently overlooked argument on prior hearing. Buchanan v. Juah, 17:196.

REARGUMENTS AND REHEARINGS.

Appeal properly prosecuted, requirement for. Brazie v. Gynneh, 21:120.

Denial of application of one year after opinion. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Ground for granting. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 22:32.

Overlooking fact or point of law by court as justifying. Nurse v. Republic, 21:326.

When granted before Supreme Court. Brazie v. Gynneh, 21:120.

REBUTTERS, see Pleadings.

RECKLESS DRIVING.

Willful disregard of consequences needed to constitute offense. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12.

RECORD, see Appeals; Clerks of Courts; Evidence; Pleadings; Trials.

RECORDING.

Form of caveat for. Caine v. Freeman, 18:238.

Instruments affecting interest in reality. Shell Co., Ltd. v. Ghandour, 18:298.

Time allowed for objections to. Caine v. Freeman, 18:238.

RECORDS, see also Appeals; Clerks of Court.

Court. Not to be removed without permission. Thomas v. Dayrell, 17:284.

Court. Penalty imposed for tampering with. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:268.

RECRIMINATION, see Divorce; Pleadings.

RECUSAL, see Judges and Justices.

REFEREES, see also Arbitration; Courts; Equity.

Continuing responsibility of court. United Liberian Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

Findings of fact determinative only where supported by evidence. United Liberian Rubber Co. v. Laszkowski, 14:74.

REGULATIONS, see also Mandamus; Public Officers and Employees; Republic of Liberia; Statutes.

Executive branch of government cannot exercise judicial functions. Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317; Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Subordinate to constitutional and statutory provisions. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

RELEASES.

Defined. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES.

Civil courts, religious matters determinable by. Gibson v. Church of Christ  Mission in Liberia, Inc., 24:263.

Faith adherence determines allegiance to. Gibson v. Church of Christ  Mission in Liberia, Inc., 24:263.

Membership, determination criteria. Gibson v. Church of Christ Mission in Liberia, Inc., 24:263.

REMAINDERS, see Real Property.

REMAND, see Appeals.

REMEDIAL WRITS.

Procedure in seeking, strict observance of. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413; King v. King (Chambers), 23:418.

REMEDIES.

For breach of lease. Monrovia Breweries, Inc. v. Brown, 19:367.

Labor wage dispute moneys due, how obtained. Shannon v. Liberia Trading Corporation, 23:66.

Pension benefits unpaid, support debt action. Shannon v. Liberia Trading Corporation, 23:66.

Protection of interests. Gaddini v. Iskander El Habr, 19:407.

Pursuit of right essential to establish denial of right. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Rights not asserted in prior proceedings. Bestman v. Dunbar, 19:207.

REPLEVIN, see also Civil Procedure; Personal Property.

Damages cannot be awarded to a non-party. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

Determination on evidence of ownership by nonparty not reviewable by certiorari. Nahyahda v. Carter, 15:297.

Expenses recoverable by successful defendant. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

Liability of sureties on Replevin and redelivery bonds. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

May be brought in magisterial court. Moore v. Bull, 13:106.

Prohibition against illegal procedure by justice of peace. Parker v. Worrell, 2:525.

Recovery by successful defendant for diminution in value of replevied property. Holt v. Nimley, 17:128.

REPLIES, see Pleadings.

Not dismissible solely for failure to traverse prior adverse pleading. Cooper v. Brapoh, 17:26.

Reversible error to dismiss complaint before filing of reply. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

Use of word "fraud" not departure in pleading if complaint alleged fraud. Sherman v. Clarke, 17:419.

REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA, see also Attorney General; Civil Procedure; Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Immigrant Allotments; Interior, Secretary of; Post Office; President; Public Officers and Employees; Quo Warranto; Regulations; Revenue Laws; Revenue Stamps; Sedition; Statutes; Supreme Court; Treason; Treaties.

Action by, for breach of conditions of bond. Moore v. Republic, 2:143.

Adverse possession no defense against. Birch v. Quinn, 1:309.

Appeal by, in criminal prosecution. Republic v. Jones, 1:379; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Authority over tribal peoples. Davis v. Republic, 1:17; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317.

Bond must be filed by, in criminal appeal. Republic v. Jones, 10:379.

Cannot appeal discharge for double jeopardy. Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469.

Concurrent powers with City of Monrovia. Decision, 1:15.

Confiscation of enemy property in wartime. Bank of Monrovia v. Enemy Property Liquidation Commission, 16:324.

Consul as agent of. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

Contracts by courts with attorneys to defend poor persons binding on. Wolo v. Republic, 4:151.

Costs neither paid nor received by. Dennis v. Republic, 2:534.

Customs collections. Scope of authority of government. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Ejectment not maintainable against. Republic v. Potter, 13:48.

Enemy Property Liquidation Commission. Bank of Monrovia v. Enemy Property Liquidation Commission, 16:324.

Extension of sovereignty over hinterland. Karmo v. Morris, 2:317.

Laches no defense against suit by. Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Liable on contract made by consul in official capacity. Wiles v. Peters, 9:179.

No right to title by adverse possession of real property against. Birch v. Quinn, 1:309.

Not required to file appeal bond. Republic v. Collins, 13:457.

Not suable for violation of conditions of bond. Republic v. Sherman, 1:139.

Obligation to grantee under warranty clause of public land sale deed. Davies v. Republic, 14:249.

Public land grants. Bingham v. Oliver, 1:47; Harris v. Locket, 1:79; Dlyon v. Lambert, 1:178; Harmon v. Taylor, 8:416; Johnson v. Beysolow, 11:365; Davies v. Republic, 14:249; Walker v. Morris, 15:424.

Right to intervene. Childs v. States, 4:138.

Setoff against not allowed except as provided by statute. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145.

Sovereign immunity bars ejectment action against. Republic v. Potter, 13:48.

Suable for taking of property without just compensation. Johnson v. Republic, 1:103.

Suable only as provided by statute. Johnson v. Republic, 1:103.

RES ADJUDICATA.

Bar to action only when prior adjudication on merits. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

RES JUDICATA.

Application of doctrine to privies who were not parties to prior judgment. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Bar to action only when prior adjudication on merits involving same parties and subject matter. Morris v. Johnson, 26:73.

Chambers Justice's unappealed ruling, finality of. Saab v. Bharwaneys, Inc., 24:289.

Contempt, doctrine not applicable in proceedings for. Alpha v. Tucker, 21:458.

Defined. Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337; Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Doctrine not operative when person not party to suit. Dennis v. Dennis, 24:490.

Doctrine's applicability elucidated. Shannon v. Liberia Trading Corporation, 23:66; Karpeh v. Fisher, 23:91; Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Invocation of doctrine requires prior judicial determination of subject matter. Liberia Trading Corporation v. Hall (Chambers), 21:543.

Issues once adjudicated, disputing by same parties of. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

Judgment operative fact although not covered by doctrine. Jackson v. Mason, 24:97.

Prohibition is proper remedy to restrain inferior court from passing judgment in case already adjudged. Pearce v. Flomo, 26:299.

Supreme Court decision, effect of. Borbor v. Tay, 21:112.

"Without prejudice," effect when used in a judgment explained. Morris v. Johnson, 26:73.

"Without prejudice," when used in judgment nullifies res judicata aspects. Morris v. Johnson, 26:73.

RESCISSION, see Contracts; Equity; Personal Property.

RESTITUTION, see also Crimes and Offenses; Sentences.

Sentence, order as part of. Nimenibo v. Republic, 20:87.

RESTRAINING ORDERS, see Injunctions.

RETURN.

Recital in return of ministerial officer presumed correct. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

RETURNS, see also Appeals; Civil Procedure; Pleadings; Sheriffs.

Acknowledgment of service of notice of appeal sufficient proof without sheriff's. Karneh v. Republic, 17:639.

Insufficiency of allegation in petition to rebut presumption arising from return. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Omission of revenue stamp renders document a nullity. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

On subpoena necessary to prove unavailability of witness. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

Service, rebuttable presumption of correctness of sheriff's return showing. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413.

Sheriff's create rebuttal presumption of truth of statements of fact. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Sheriff's return is proof of service unless shown to be false. Perry v. Ammons, 17:58.

REVENUE LAWS, see also Customs Collections; Post Office; Revenue Stamps; Statutes.

Ad valorem duties. McGill & Bros. v. Republic, 1:129.

Exporting without permit. West v. Republic, 1:410.

Illegal act of customs officer void. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Jurisdiction of admiralty courts. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145; Lee v. Republic, 1:184; Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Postmaster deemed a revenue officer. McGill v. Republic, 1:169.

Revenue defined. Lee v. Republic, 1:184.

Sales of liquor. Muller v. Republic, 2:187; Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195; Woermann v. Republic, 2:251; Republic v. Joe, 2:297.

Seizure of goods to prevent smuggling is legal. Dennis v. Republic, 1:323.

Statute specifying payment in a stated currency is mandatory. Sherman v. Republic, 1:145; Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Tender of payment in currency other than authorized by statute not a discharge of obligation under. Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Trading in contravention of. Berlin v. Republic, 1:407; Miltenberg v. Republic, 2:195.

Transaction between merchant and his factors not a barter or sale within meaning of. Woermann v. Republic, 2:251.

Unlawful taking of letter from post office deemed violation of. McGill v. Republic, 1:169.

REVENUE STAMPS, see also Post Office; Revenue Laws.

Absence does not render appeal bond incurably defective where clerk certified stamp was originally affixed. Wright v. Richards, 11:386.

Absence does not render bond defective in criminal appeal. Bokai v. Republic, 13:299.

Absence does not render document incurably defective when cancellation procedures employed establishes affixation. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 21:487.

Absence generally renders appeal bond defective. Moore v. Gross, 2:45; Greaves v. Johnstone, 2:121; Freeman v. Republic, 2:189; Tisdell v. Zeonvonyon, 6:24; Sandfish v. James, 6:235; Leigh v. Taylor, 9:329; Wright v. Richards, 11:386; Richards v. Holt, 12:292; Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Appeal, requirement as to papers on, and appeal bonds. Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp., 21:252.

Appeal bond defective, effect of unstamped motion papers when. Kamara v. Khalill Niam Bros., 21:402.

Appeal bond defective without. Bull v. Lartey, 17:367.

Appeal bonds, requirement for. K. Rasamny Bros. v. Brunet, 21:271.

Certificate may serve as substitute for receipt. Gibson v. Tubman, 13:217.

Fine not imposed when insufficient stamp made sufficient. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

Insufficiency, correction procedure declared nonexistent on 1976 motion to dismiss appeal. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:330.

Insufficiency generally renders appeal bond defective. Leigh v. Taylor, 9:329.

Lack on bond directed by court ground for dismissing application for writ of error. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Lack renders document a nullity. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Not required on notice of completion of appeal. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Hevdakor, 20:471.

Not required on preliminary remedial writ. Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Omission of, allowance by trial court of time to rectify. Acolatse v. Dennis, 22:147.

Receipts may be affixed where stamps unavailable. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137; Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Required on documentary evidence. Scotland v. Republic, 3:252.

Substitution of other government stamps when revenue stamps unavailable. Pratt v. Hazely, 3:127.

Time allowed for rectifying omission on pleadings. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

ROBBERY, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Larceny; Trials; Witnesses.

Defined. Crawford v. Republic, 4:378.

Essential elements. Crawford v. Republic, 4:378.

RULES OF COURT, see also Courts.

Application of, limited to facts of case. Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

Enforcement by judges. Bank of Monrovia, Inc. v. Hall, 21:448.

Interpretation by Circuit Court not disturbed in absence of clear abuse of discretion. Cole v. Industrial Building Contractors, 17:476.

Observance of. Cooper v. C.V.A.O., 20:397.

Supreme Court, inherent and constitutional right to make. Cooper v. C.V.A.O., 20:397.


S

SALES, see also Chattel Mortgages; Contracts; Personal Property; Real Property.

Barter defined. Woermann v. Republic, 2:251.

Bill of sale annexed to complaint deemed bill of particulars. Baffoe v. Shamag Corp. 16:218.

Caveat emptor applied. Holscher v. Porte, 3:390.

Conditional, of real property. Bryant v. Harmon, 12:330.

Defined. Woermann v. Republic, 2:251.

Interference with performance. Van Heusden v. Walker, 2:431.

Order may be accepted by shipment in reasonable time. Naoura Bros. v. Curti, 15:628.

Payment and delivery vests title in vendee. Baker v. Williams, 1:233.

Payment of instalments on delivery of goods. Naoura Bros. v. Curti, 15:628.

Rescission of contract for sale of personal property. Nassre v. Elias Bros., 5:108.

Severability of terms. Naoura Bros. v. Curti, 15:628.

Transactions between merchant and his factor not deemed. Steinberg v. Greywood, 2:238; Woermann v. Republic, 2:251.

SEALS, see also Affidavits; Evidence; Pleadings; Signatures.

Depositions valid without. Kra v. Republic, 1:440.

Process signed by Justice of Supreme Court valid without. Review, 1:209.

Writ issue by Justice of Supreme Court valid without. Bassil v. Hansford, 2:353.

SEARCHES AND SEIZURES.

Warrant generally required for search by police. Davies v. Rif, 25:144.

SECRETARY OF INTERIOR, see Interior, Secretary of.

SECURITY OFFICERS, see Public Officers and Employees.

SEDITION, see also Bail; Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; President; Republic of Liberia; Treason; Trials; Witnesses.

Constitutionality of statute. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Defined. Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Sie v. Republic, 12:59.

Fomenting insurrection of tribal peoples. Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Sie v. Republic, 12:59.

Nature of proof required for conviction. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

Necessary elements of attempt distinguished from completed crime. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204.

SEDUCTION, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Conversation; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grant Juries; Indictments; Rape; Trials; Witnesses.

Definition and essential elements. Teddaway v. Republic, 5:126.

SELF-DEFENSE, see Assault; Murder.

SELF-INCRIMINATION.

Constitutional privilege against applies to extra-judicial confessions. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Criminal, responsibility, only ground for asserting privilege. Harmon v. Republic, 24:176.

Criminal suspect must be warned against, prior to questioning. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Defendant in criminal case testifying in own behalf, assertion of privilege. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Defendant in criminal prosecution is not compelled to testify. Bing v. Republic, 18:377.

No inference from failure of defendant to testify. Bing v. Republic, 18:377.

Privilege against inapplicable to testimony relating to civil liability. Johns v. Arraskalar, 17:372.

Testimony elicited on cross-examination from a defendant in a criminal case may be used against him. Scott v. Republic, 18:13.

SENTENCES, see also Crimes and Offenses; Judgments.

Date of execution specified, validity when no. Dandy v. Republic, 21:3.

Deception hindering execution of process as contempt. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

Detention time served prior to sentencing, to be deducted from prison term. Sacknor v. Republic, 23:30.

Excessive punishment constitutionally defined. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Lesser crime for, when greater unproved. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.

Restitution, failure or inability to comply with order for, not grounds for further detention. Sacknor v. Republic, 23:30.

Restitution as part of, to be fixed by trial court. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

Restitution order as part of sentence. Nimenibo v. Republic, 20:87.

Waiver by failure to object to improper or no. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

SENTENCING.

When lesser crime found on appeal, time already served is credited. Scott v. Republic, 18:13.

SERVICE.

Challenge to return of, how investigated. MacCarthy v. Gray, 23:142.

Corporation, through whom made. Koroma v. Parker Paint Company, Inc., 23:133.

Proof of service in record as inconclusive. Dwalubor v. Good-Wesley, 21:43.

Recital in return of ministerial officer presumed correct. Eitner v. Sawyer, 26:247.

Return of, not conclusive. Fagans v. Harris-Fagans, 23:190.

Sheriff's return, rebuttable presumption of correctness of. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413.

Sheriff's return proof unless shown to be false. Perry v. Ammons, 17:58.

SETOFFS, see Contracts; Debt; Pleadings.

SHERIFF, see Returns.

SHERIFFS, see also Appeals; Attachment; Attorneys and Counselors; Civil Procedure; Clerks of Courts; Criminal Procedure; Judgments; Mandamus; Pleadings; Trials.

Arrest, duty to hold in custody person under. Edgar Mitchell and Sons Distillery v. Nelson, 22:67.

Bailiff as assistant in serving precepts. Fagains v. Harris-Fagans, 20:368.

Duty in connection with execution on property. Bracewell v. Coleman, 6:176, 206.

Execution of statues governing writs. Ross v. Arrivets, 6:364.

Falsification of records by. Whea v. Bonwein, 16:51.

Improper for judge to refuse to permit investigation of alleged attempt by sheriff to block procurement of witnesses. John v. Republic, 7:261.

Injunction against. Kissa v. Stubblefied, 1:342.

Levy of execution on property of nonparty to judgment. Jantzen v. Modern Housing Construction Co., 14:508.

May issue notice of criminal appeal instead of clerk. George v. Republic, 14:158.

Notice of appeal may be directed to. Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Cess-Pelham v. Republic, 14:161; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:212.

Notice of appeal not valid for omission of clause commanding sheriff to summon appellee to appear at designated term. Bokai v. Republic, 13:299.

Notice of appeal to be directed to. Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231.

Prohibition against judge's oral instructions to. Dweh v. Findley, 15:638.

Replevin, statutory period for retention of property replevied. Carter v. Massaquoi, 24:511.

Return of notice of appeal by constable improper. Johnson v. Gibson, 15:283.

Return of precept. Fagains v. Harris-Fagans, 20:368.

Return of, validity upheld by Supreme Court. Donzoe v. Thorpe, 27:166.

Service and return of notice of appeal. Bokai v. Republic, 13:299.

Service of process by, a jurisdictional defect. Melton v. Republic, 2:25.

Service of process in another county by, method of. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Sufficiency of return on writ of habeas corpus. Gray v. Beverly, 1:500.

SIGNATURES, see also Affidavits; Evidence; Pleadings; Will.

Attorney may sign bill of exceptions for client. East African Co. v. McCalla, 1:292.

Bond defective if unsigned. McBurrough v. Republic, 1:35.

Doubt as to testator's signature resolved in favor of respondent seeking probate. Amagashie v. Mensah-Tormetie, 25:92.

Genuineness may be ascertained by comparison with admitted genuine one. Amagashie v. Mensah-Tormetie, 25:92.

Of affiant on affidavit. Blacklidge v. Blacklidge, 1:371; Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 4:238.

Of American notary, authentication. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Of attorney on bill of exceptions essential. East African Co. v. McCalla, 1:292.

Of trial court on bill of exceptions essential. Anderson v. Dennis, 1:55.

Placing of on will. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Presumption of knowledge of effect of. Murdock v. United States Trading Co., 3:288; Smith v. Barbour, 8:229.

Presumption of sufficiency where notarized. Jackson v. Duncan, 11:43.

Testamentary instrument inadmissible into evidence when unsigned. Diggs v. Ferguson, 2:397.

Testimony as to genuineness of. Washington v. Lloyd, 1:83; Freeman v. Freeman, 8:187.

Variance between handwriting of document and. Washington v. Lloyd, 1:83.

SLANDER, see also Defamation.

Defamatory words must be stated in complaint and substantially proved at trial in action of slander. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Morris, 26:397.

Per se defamatory words, actionable and non-actionable. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Special damages allegations require proof at trial to uphold judgment. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Special damages to be pleaded when defamatory words not actionable per se. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80; Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Morris, 26:397.

SLAVE TRADING, see also Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Customary Law; Evidence; Labor; Trials.

Definition and elements of the crime. Simpson v. Republic, 3:300.

Indictment of former President. Matter of King, 3:337.

Report of international commission concerning. Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Matter of King, 3:337.

SMUGGLING, see also Bail; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; Grand Juries; Indictments; Trials; Witnesses.

Criminal prosecution for, not triable in admiralty court. Mirza v. Republic, 13:41.

Exportation of goods as. Harmon v. Republic, 6:308.

Jury trial mandatory. Mirza v. Republic, 13:41.

Smuggled goods may be seized without warrant. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

SODOMY.

Conviction of wife after acquittal of husband. Oruma v. Republic, 21:14.

SPECIAL PERFORMANCE, see also Real Property.

Clean hands required of plaintiff for court to render decree in his favor. Agbage v. Brown, 27:339.

Parol realty contract, denied in spite of part performance, for uncertainty of description. King-Gibson v. Carter, 20:618.

SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE.

Based on breach of contract. Barclay-Dunbar v. Peabody, 19:159; Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:99.

Money payments not contemplated. Simpson v. Peters, 19:185.

STAMPS, see Post Office; Revenue Stamps.

STARE DECISIS, see also Courts.

When rule established by line of decisions need not be followed. Construction &; Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

STATE, SECRETARY OF, see also Constitution; President; Public Officers and Employees; Supreme Court; Treaties.

Issuance of passport by, compelled by mandamus. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

Subject to jurisdiction of courts where not acting as agent of President. Wiles v. Simpson, 8:365.

STATUTE OF FRAUDS, see also Contracts; Deeds; Evidence; Fraud; Pleadings; Wills.

Applicable in Liberia. Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:112.

Deeds required to be in writing. Cassell v. Campbell, 24:239.

Oral promise to convey real property unenforceable. Rauls v. Manning, 10:229.

Promise to answer for debt, default or miscarriage of another. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

Specific performance decreed. Montgomery-Trays v. Montgomery, 18:202.

STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS, see Limitations of Actions.

Time outside Republic not computed. Freeman v. Liberian Supply Co., 19:438.

STATUTES, see also Civil Procedures; Constitution; Courts; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Customary Law; Jurisdiction; Limitations of Actions; Pleadings; Republic of Liberia; Revenue Laws.

Administrative remedies to be exhausted before raising question of constitutionality. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Appeals. Provision specifying ground for dismissal supersedes prior law. Cooper v. Brapoh, 16:297.

Civil arrest. Strictly construed. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92.

Common law adopted by. Pritchard v. Parker, 2:426.

Common law. Derogation by statute strictly construed. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Common law not applied when in conflict with. Daniels v. Daniels, 17:53.

Common law subordinate to. Crawford v. Republic, 1:214; Pritchard v. Parker, 2:426.

Constitutionality determinable by Supreme Court. Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243; In re Constitutionality of Act of Legislature, 2:157; Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317; Harmon v. Republic, 2:480; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Fazzah v. National Economy Committee; 8:85; Koffa v. Republic, 13:232; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Construction according to intent. Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Massaquoi v. David, 6:320; Roberts v. Roberts, 7:358.

Construction according to intent in enactments. Browne v. Republic, 22:121; Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Construction as to bill of exceptions. Cess Pelham v. Witherspoon, 8:296; Johns v. Cess Pelham, 8:296.

Construction, Expressio unius est exclusion alterius. Roberts v. Roberts, 7:358.

Construction of later conflicting with earlier. Maier v. Horace, 6:256.

Construction of remedial legislation. Yancy v. Republic, 4:204.

Construction of supplanted law inapplicable to 1956 Code. George v. Republic, 14:158.

Construction, principles of. Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Roberts v. Roberts, 7:358; Buchanan v. Arrivets, 9:15; Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65; George v. Republic, 14:158.

Criminal. Acts or omissions not mentioned in statutes not indictable thereunder. Wade v. Republic, 12:284.

Criminal Code supplemented by common law. Flowers v. Republic, 1:334.

Customary law subordinate to. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Different, for different court not interchangeable. Deady v. Republic, 8:256.

Earlier statute on same subject, effect of interpretation of. Bestman v. Republic, 20:216.

Ex post facto defined. Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Extraordinary powers granted to executive or judicial officers or bodies strictly construed. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Inconsistencies construed to effect reconciliation. Brumskine v. Vietor, 2:123.

Intent of legislature not extensible for construction. George v. Republic, 14:158.

Legislative intent, construction where none apparent. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Legislature cannot usurp powers of courts. In re Constitutionality of Act of Legislature, 2:157.

Married women. Statutory enlargement of property rights liberally construed. Pritchard v. Parker, 2:426.

Old Blue Book construed. Thomas v. Dennis, 5:92; Zogai v. Gemayel Bros., 6:238.

Pleading facts to invoke benefit of statute. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Primacy over common law. Crawford v. Republic, 1:214; Pritchard v. Parker, 2:426.

Primacy over customary law. Karpeh v. Manning, 5:162.

Primacy over rules of court. Nimba Logging Corporation v. Mallobe (Chambers), 20:640.

Publication makes an act of Legislature effective. Johnson-Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 26:146.

Publication of Civil Procedure Law, effect of. Karneh v. Dagadu, 20:79.

Purpose, interpretation of statutes with same general. Brown v. Grandee, 21:157; Abraham v. Cooper, 21:157.

Regulations subject to. Bowens v. Strong, 2:415.

Repeal and modification. Brumskine v. Vietor, 2:123; Ricks v. Worrell, 3:21.

Repeal by implication not favored. Construction & Maintenance Services, Inc. v. Richards, 26:321.

Stare decisis as to construction. Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Strict application when remedy for wrong provided. Vamply of Liberia, Inc. v. Kandakai, 22:241.

Summary proceedings. Scope strictly construed. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Treaties constitute domestic law when confirmed by Legislature. Davis v. Republic, 1:17.

Use of word "may" in statute relating to filing of bond as allowing option. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Vested rights not affected by repeal or modification. Brumskine v. Vietor, 2:123.

When silent, common law controls. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Wisdom of legislation not for courts to determine. Harris v. Williams, 9:344.

STAY, see Judgments

STIPENDIARY MAGISTRATES.

Jurisdiction in debt action. Habre v. Jallah, 20:309.

STIPULATIONS, see also Attorneys and Counselors; Contracts; Civil Procedure; Criminal Procedure; Pleadings; Trials.

Agreements made in open Court, to constitute consent judgments must be so acknowledged and entered by court order. Acolatse v. Chase Manhattan Bank, 23:14.

Agreements made in open court, when not judgments. Acolatse v. Chase Manhattan Bank, 23:14.

As to testimony of witnesses. Smith v. Republic, 7:205.

By state of insufficiency of evidence ground for reversal of conviction of murder. Soa v. Republic, 15:242.

Enforcement of valid. Stereo Hotel v. S. & A. Construction and Trading Co., 21:415.

Judgment by confession, for. Stereo Hotel v. S. & A. Construction and Trading Co., 21:415.

Mandamus to set aside, denied where petitioner knew and agreed with terms therein. Vonjama v. Massaley, 9:96.

Of correctness of judgment of conviction of crime by defendant's counsel of appeal. Gissi v. Republic, 13:6; Jarrett v. Republic, 16:56.

Purposes of expounded. Commercial Bank of Liberia v. Tip Top Tools, Inc., 24:397.

Should be construed in accordance with intention of parties. Brown v. Cavalla River Co., Ltd., 12:136.

To withdraw prosecution of cause. Bracewell v. Cavalla River Co., 7:18; Cavalla River Co. v. Fazzah, 7:18; Wahab v. Fazzah, 7:18.

SUBPOENAS, see also Evidence; Witnesses.

Cross-examination, use of document on, when introduced by opposing counsel, without subpoena duces tecum. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Duces tecum. Demand that opposing party produce documentary evidence to be made by. Jackson v. Trinity, 17:631.

Duces tecum, use of for production of documents explained. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

SUBSTITUTIONS, see Parties.

SUMMARY EJECTMENT, see Ejectment.

SUMMARY JUDGMENT.

Basis for granting motion for. Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

Motion for untimely after case has been ruled to trial. Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

Time when Defendant may make motion for. Dennis v. Philips, 21:506.

SUMMONS, see also Civil Procedures; Courts; Jurisdiction; Pleadings; Sheriffs; Trials.

Computation of time for appearance of joint defendants. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Constructive service on person temporarily absent from Republic illegal. Johns v. Pelham, 6:113.

Court may order summons issued to party added on its own initiative. Franco Liberian Transport Co. v. Republic, 13:541.

Defective, appearance requirement in. Jantzen v. Burney, 4:119.

Dismissal of complaint for lack of proper. Kolenky v. Liberian Eastern Timber Corp. (Letco), 22:103.

Misnomer of defendant. Dennis v. Gooding, 10:123.

Necessity in probate proceedings. Railey & Montgomery v. Clarke, 10:330.

Posting property in ejectment action. Karnga v. Williams, 10:114.

Requirements. Kamara v. Kamara, 20:114.

Return date required. Ross v. Arrivets, 6:364.

Service by publication when party cannot be found in Republic. Abi-Rached v. Gemayel, 17:14.

Service on day after day stated in writ does not affect jurisdiction if timely. Sodjie v. Tartimeh, 2:362.

Service outside magisterial area. Wanney v. Massaquoi, 10:241.

Statute authorizing service by publication strictly construed. Samuels v. Samuels, 11:276.

Statutory requirements as to service. Melton v. Republic, 2:25; Williams v. Horton, 13:444.

SUPERSEDEAS, see also Appeals; Bonds; Civil Procedure; Contempt of Court; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Supreme Court.

Appeal operates as, divesting trial court of jurisdiction. Obeidi v. Simpson, 17:606.

SUPPORT.

Wife who abandons husband, for. Morris v. Flomo, 26:314.

SUPREME COURT, see also Amicus Curiae; Appeal Bonds; Appeals; Bonds; Civil Procedure; Constitution; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Information; Judges and Justices; Jurisdiction; Equity; Pleadings; Rearguments and Rehearings; Republic of Liberia; Statutes.

Amicus curiae. Request to counselor to serve mandatory. In re Simpson, 14:429.

Amounts in litigation, attitude toward. Union National Bank v. M.C.C., 21:487.

Appeal bond, lack of jurisdiction to grant leave to correct insuffiency of. K. Resamny Bros. v. Brunet, 20:3.

Appeal from justice of peace court to circuit court may be carried to. Vietor v. Vines, 2:186.

Appeal to, divests trial court of jurisdiction. Horace v. Howard, 13:200.

Appeal to full Court from Chambers operates as supersedeas. In re Gibson, 16:202.

Appeals, powers of with respect to judgments appealed from. Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Application for order to court below must be accompanied by supporting papers. Ammons v. Barclay, 17:430.

Applications and petitions to court for remedial process are amendable. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Attorney seeking review of decision by Chief Executive is subject to disbarment. In re Acolatse, 26:456.

Authority of Justices over clerks and marshals. Perry v. Richardson, 14:116.

Bill of information, means for having unresponsive lower court enforce mandate. Massaquoi-Fahnbulleh v. Urey, 25:432; Barbour-Tarpeh v. Dennis, 25:468.

Bill of information as remedy when judicial officer attempts to execute mandate of Court improperly. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Chambers. Application in, for prohibition to full Court constitutes contempt. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:528.

Chambers. Authority of Justice presiding during recess of Court. Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Chambers. Effect of issuance of writ in. Bucamil v. Watson, 5:271; Toomey v. Peabody, 5:271.

Chambers. Justice presiding in, cannot issue writ of prohibition to adversely affect decision of Court en banc. Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453.

Chambers. Justice presiding in, may dispose of applications for remedial writs during recess. Nahyahda v. Carter, 15:297.

Chambers. Justice presiding in many receive and transmit information of contempt to court en banc. Alpha v. Tucker, 15:561.

Chambers. Justices may act for one another. Montgomery v. Findley, 14:463.

Chambers. Unprofessional conduct for counselor to request Chief Justice to intervene in appeal to full bench. In re Smallwood, 13:191.

Chambers Justice, ad hoc Supreme Court Justice precluded from acting as. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Chambers Justice, Chief Justice as. Dhaliwal International Trading Company (Ditco) v. King, 26:195.

Chambers Justice, "submission" is not a cognizable proceeding before. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Chambers Justice's intervention after action of full court. In re Bestman et al., 20:567.

Chamber's practice when constitutional issue raised, referral to full court. Ayad v. Dennis, 23:165.

Cognizance only of matters found in certified record of proceedings in lower court. Gallina Blanca, S.A. v. Nestle Products, Ltd., 25:116.

Complaints against judges by lawyers to be submitted promptly and fairly. Marcars Construction Company, Inc. v. K & H Trading Company, 26:108.

Concurrent jurisdiction of trial court. Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Constitutional issues to be reserved for court en banc. Keyor v. Borbor, 17:465.

Constitutional quorum lacking, judgment of invalid. Bassa Brotherhood Industrial and Benefit Society v. Dennis, 20:443.

Contempt, constitutionally established power independent of legislative action. In re Constitutionality of Sections 12.5 and 12.6 of the Judiciary Law, approved May 10, 1972, 24:37.

Contempt, inherent power of to determine and punish acts of. In re Doe, 23:38

Contempt of court, inherent right of to adjudicate. Branly v. Vamply of Liberia, Inc., 22:337.

Court's own jurisdiction primary consideration. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Hevdakor, 20:471.

Decisions binding on all other courts. Phelps v. Williams, 3:54.

Declaration of unconstitutionality of legislation, cautious manner of considering. Morris v. Reeves, 27:334.

Disciplinary authority over attorneys, inherent power of. In re Weah, 20:535.

Disciplinary proceedings, role of. In re Weah, 20:535; In re Gibson, 20:577.

Disciplinary proceedings against attorney, authority in. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Discretion in issuance of remedial writs. King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Division of opinion and affirmation by operation of law. Dennis v. Republic, 7:341.

Doing for party what party failed to do for himself. Wilson v. Dennis, 23:263.

Double jeopardy can only be determined in certiorari proceedings if first raised in court below. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Finality of decision. In re Acolatse, 22:219.

Finality of determination of. Wahab v. Helou Brothers, 24:250.

Functions of. Yancy v. Republic, 4:3.

Grievance and Ethics Committee recommendations, jurisdiction of court to consider and pass on directly. In re… Pelham, 27:112.

Grievance and Ethics Committee recommendations, right of chairman of committee to defend report before Court. In re… Pelham, 27:112.

Inferior court's disregard of mandate is contempt. Amierable v. Cole, 13:17.

Inferior court's disregard of Supreme Court's mandate as contumacious. National Industrial Forest Corporation v. Baysah, 25:74.

Inferior court's rule when not rule of, only effective before inferior court. Leigh v. Bank of Monrovia, 22:360.

Intervention by third parties. Johnson v. Yarkpawolo, 20:503.

Issuance of writs of execution from disapproved. James v. Logan, 4:161; DeShields v. King, 4:170.

Issues raised on appeal and in related case, when court will refrain from reviewing. Johnson v. Morris, 23:154.

Issues untimely raised or improperly presented not considered. Flood v. Alpha, 15:331.

Judge's failure to execute mandate constitutes contempt. Richardson v. Perry, 14:7.

Jurisdiction constitutionally restricted. Marrschalk v. Zagury, 1:117; Ex parte Williams, 4:189; Markwei v. Amine, 4:199; Wright v. Wright, 5:208.

Jurisdiction of to adjudicate issues on appeal divested when motion to dismiss appeal is meritorious. Mines Management Associates v. Freeman, 27:297.

Jurisdiction over pending case cannot be usurped by inferior court. Weeks v. Johns, 13:498.

Jurisdiction to penalize violator of injunction issued by lower court before appeal. Karpeh-Buchanan v. Buchanan-Ratazzi, 15:510.

Lower courts must respect perquisites of. Morris v. Saad, 13:135.

Mandate, interference with. Cooper v. Dunbar, 21:295.

Mandate to be executed and returns made. Thomas v. Dayrell, 17:284.

Mandate to lower court cannot be restrained by prohibition. Smith v. Stubblefield, 15:582.

Mandates, enforcement of upon unresponsive lower court by means of bill of information. Massaquoi-Fahnbulleh v. Urey, 25:432; Barbour-Tarpeh v. Dennis, 25:468.

Matters of record only, cognizant of. Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93.

May act on unverified application for prohibition. Kanawaty v. King, 14:241.

May dismiss application for writ of error and modify judgment below. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

May render judgment which lower court should have rendered. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Townsend v. Cooper, 11:52; Simpson v. Caranda, 13:121; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Williams v. Tubman, 14:109.

Motion, if irregular, prevents consideration of jurisdictional or any other issue. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 25:394.

Need not pass on every issue raised in bill of exceptions or brief. Lamco J.V. Operating Company v. Verdier, 26:445.

Non-discriminatory basis of court's decisions. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Notice of hearing before Justice. Ashumana v. Lewis, 21:104.

Nunc pro tunc filing order to be executed without delay even though no date specified for completion. Marcars Construction Company, Inc. v. K & H Trading Company, 26:108.

Opinions binding on inferior courts. Richards v. McGill, 6:81; Manning v. Karpeh, 6:172.

Opinions published when read from bench. Barnes v. Republic, 5:395.

Order to replead on remand not subject to rules controlling withdrawal and amendment of pleadings. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Orders of all courts, enforcement of. Nyepon v. Reeves, 21:406.

Original jurisdiction, decision in information proceedings for contempt of court as exercise of. Anandani v. Massaquoi, 26:286.

Original jurisdiction, limited. Stubblefield v. Nassah, 25:152.

Original jurisdiction, limitations on. Alpha v. Tucker, 21:458.

Overruled decision lacks authority. Mark-Reeves v. Republic, 15:343.

Overruling of own decision where contrary to statute. Brownell v. Brownell, 5:76; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232.

Power of to reverse guilty verdict and discharge defendant. Sarbo v. Republic, 21:481.

Power to compel subordinate court to execute mandate. Thomas v. Dayrell, 17:284.

Power to determine constitutionality of statutes. Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243; Harmon v. Republic, 2:480; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Fazzah v. Nat'l. Economy Committee, 8:85; Koffah v. Republic, 13:232; In re Cassell, 14:391.

Power to grant habeas corpus. Farrow v. Decorsey, 1:243.

Power to restrain proceedings of lower courts. Adjavon v. Bull, 13:314.

Prejudicial acts and rulings of trial judge as ground for reversal and remand for new trial. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Preservation of balance of government. Crusoe-Marsh v. Morgan-Bedell, 20:334.

Prior decisions, binding effect of. Alpha v. Tucker, 20:120.

Process bearing signature of Justice valid without seal of court. Review, 1:209.

Prohibition, Court's mandate not restrainable by. Raymond International (Liberia) Ltd. v. Dennis, 25:131.

Reargument, basis for in. Dabbah v. Dabo, 23:207.

Record, cognizance only of matters and issues contained in. Peal v. Flomo (Chambers), 23:400.

Refusal to hear case piecemeal. Morris v. Johnson, 21:195.

Removal of Justice from office. In re Removal of Justice McCants-Stewart, 2:175.

Res judicata, Supreme Court decision as. Borbor v. Tay, 21:112.

Review or reversal by Justice on order of another Justice. Ashumana v. Lewis, 21:104.

Rules. Text of. 2:661; 13:693.

Rules. Where motion for advancement of cause on docket, facts must fall within exceptions. Pratt v. Phillips, 7:218.

Rules of court, inherent and constitutional right to make. Cooper v. C.V.A.O., 20:397.

Settlement of procedure of subordinate courts. Jantzen v. Williams, 4:231; Cummings v. Republic, 4:284.

Supervisory power over inferior courts. Massaquoi v. Worrell, 3:331.

Suspension of order of Chief Justice. Ashumana v. Lewis, 21:104.

Technical issues not affecting merits, attitude toward. Sirleaf v. Reeves, 20:433; LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Hevdakor, 20:471; Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 23:201.

Technical points not affecting merits, attitude toward. Pratt v. Hazeley, 3:127; Leigh v. Bank of Monrovia, 22:360.

Technical requirements not enforced if unconscionable. Sodatonou v. Bank of Liberia, Inc., 20:512.

Time when appeal may be heard. Standard Motor Corp. v. Pratt, 21:381.

Unconstitutionality issue raised for first time on argument, refusal of Court to pass on. Morris v. Reeves, 27:334.

Withdrawal of appeals, subject to approval of Court. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Writ of error proceedings, power of single justice to determine. Zormelo v. Dennis, 20:117.

SURETIES, see also Appeal Bonds.

Sufficiency of surety, manner of expecting to. Saab v. Bharwanoy, Inc. (Chambers), 23:425.

Surety against whom judgment rendered not relieved by production of principal. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

SURETIES AND SURETYSHIP, see also Appeals; Appeal Bonds; Bail; Bonds; Constitution; Contracts; Insurance; Interest.

Appeal bond with only one surety. Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65.

Authority of surety to bring legal action for principal. Kruger v. Johns, 2:89.

Contract of, distinguished from guarantee. Elias Bros. v. Kutu, 5:23.

On appeal bonds, statutes controlling justice of the peace courts and circuit courts differ and not interchangeable. Deady v. Republic, 8:256.

On bail bond in civil action, number required. Massaquoi v. Munah, 9:53.

Qualifications on appeal bond. Van Ee v. Gabbidon, 11:65.

Requirements on bail bond in civil actions distinguished from requirements on appeal bond. Massaquoi v. Munah, 9:53.

Signature omitted from appeal bond. Dennis v. Holder, 10:301.

Two or more qualified, required on appeal bond. Cavalla River Co. v. Fazzah, 7:13.

SURREBUTTERS, see Pleadings.

SURVEYS AND SURVEYORS, see Deeds; Ejectment; Real Property.


T

TAXES.

Stamp tax, certificate of counsel as subject to. Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413.

TENANTS AND TENANCIES, see Leases.

TENDER, see Contracts; Currency; Debt.

TERM OF COURT.

Appealing party may not fix term at which appeal will be heard. Vamply of Liberia v. Manning, 25:188.

TERMS.

Extension of term of assigned judge ordered to conclude trial. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

TESTIMONY, see Witnesses.

THEFT.

Worthless check, payment by drawer to avert prosecution for drawing of. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

TITLE, see Bill of Lading; Conversion; Cotenancies; Customary Law; Deeds; Embezzlement; Ejectment; Equity; Escheat; Evidence; Fraud; Highways and Streets; Homesteads; Husband and Wife; Immigrant Allotments; Leases; Personal Property; Real Property; Robbery; Sales; Trespass; Wills.

Deeds and other writings, admissibility of, as evidence of transfer of title. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Magistrate without jurisdiction in ejectment when title in issue. Kolola v. Kroma, 17:436.

Nature of title to tribal lands. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:403.

Plaintiff has burden of proving in ejectment. Neal v. Kandakai, 17:590.

Procedure when in issue in ejectment action. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

TORTS, see Election of Remedies.

TOWNSHIPS.

Application by township commissioner to restrain survey of public land. Dukuly v. Wesley, 17:70.

TRAFFIC COURTS.

Appeal, right of applies to Special Traffic Court conviction. White v. Thorpe (Chambers), 20:644.

TREASON, see also Bail; Constitution; Crimes and Offenses; Criminal Procedure; Evidence; President; Republic of Liberia; Trials; Sedition; Witnesses.

By native inhabitants. Davis v. Republic, 1:17.

Conviction for not barred though some acts may constitute sedition. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Defined. Davis v. Republic, 1:17; Horace v. Republic, 16:341.

Motion for arrest of judgment after conviction. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Previous conviction not evidence of guilt. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Requisites of indictment. Horace v. Republic, 16:341.

Self-incriminatory statement of counsel per se deemed confession. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

TREATIES.

Acquisition of hinterland territory by. Karmo v. Morris, 2:317.

Become domestic law when confirmed by legislature. Davis v. Republic, 1:17.

With tribal peoples. Davis v. Republic, 1:17; Karmo v. Morris, 2:317.

TRESPASS, see also Actions.

Injunction to prevent, dissolved where title in dispute. Cooper v. Macintosh, 8:400.

On the case defined. Brown v. Brown, 1:1; G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. David, 3:210.

Quare clausum fregit defined. G.F. Overbeck, Ltd. v. Davis, 3:210.

Statutory remedy preempts common law action vi et armis. Attia v. Summerville, 1:215.

Title, proper to admit evidence of in action for. Everyday v. Due, 27:291.

To real property. Clark v. Barbour, 2:15; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Vi et armis upon person or property. Attia v. Summerville, 1:215.

TRIALS, see also Admiralty; Appeals; Attorneys and Counselors; Bills of Exceptions; Calendar; Civil Procedure; Contempt of Court; Continuances; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Cross-Examination; Damages; Double Jeopardy; Error; Evidence; Habeas Corpus; Hearings; Homicide; Judges and Justices; Juries and Jurors; Jurisdiction; Justices of the Peace; Magistrates; Motions; New Trials; Probate Courts; Reargument; Self-incrimination; Supreme Court; Venue; Verdicts; Witnesses.

Absence of counsel as dilatory tactic not basis for reversal. Mathelier v. Mathelier, 17:45.

Absence of defendant and counsel during, as ground for new trial. Togba v. Slehwerron, 22:334.

Adjournment. Necessity of recording arrangements. Markwei v. Amine, 4:155.

Admiralty, by judge without jury. Kruger v. Johns, 2:89.

Affirmative matter barred when defendant placed on bare denial by dismissal of answer. Saleeby v. Haikal, 14:537.

After-discovered evidence ground for new. Harmon v. Republic, 6:186; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:37; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Toles v. Williams, 14:384; Hood-Adams v. Jackson, 15:431.

After issues of law disposed of, court may proceed immediately to trial of issues of fact. Nah v. Nah, 17:89.

Allegations of injury and damage required proof at trial to recover. Mayson v. Bowen, 24:365.

Associate counsel may continue examination of witness commenced by counsel. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Barring evidence of defense when party wrongly placed on bare denial. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Bastardy proceedings. Due process. Harge v. Republic, 14:217.

Burden of proof. Vianini Ltd. v. McBourough, 19:39.

Burden of proof not affected by dismissal of defendant's pleadings. Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32.

Burden of proof on party asserting affirmative. King v. King, 24:414.

Charge to jury confined to record. Vianini Ltd. v. McBourough, 19:39.

Charges to jury. Counsel should request instructions to disregard prejudicial questions. Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Charges to jury. Court may summarize evidence. Koon v. Koon, 14:34; George v. Republic, 14:339.

Charges to jury. Court's instruction that defendant in ejectment action "had no deed" reversible error. Duncan v. Perry, 13:510.

Charges to jury. Effect of failure to except on prosecutor's claim of misdirection. In re Benson, 5:343.

Charges to jury. Exceptions not nullified by clerical error. Saleeby Bros. v. Haikal, 14:298.

Charges to jury, exceptions to be made specifically at time of. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

Charges to jury. Must be reduced to writing at party's request. Banks v. Republic, 7:279; Porte v. Porte, 9:279; Duncan v. Perry, 13:510; Coleman v. Schweitzer, 16:319.

Charges to jury. Not required on points not raised in pleadings. McAuley v. Madison, 1:287.

Charges to jury, objections to must be particularized. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Charges to jury; written request for, duty of judge. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Citation of statutes at, proper manner of. Tubman v. Laquoi, 22:479.

Coercion by court of defendant into testifying. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Computation of quarterly session during which jury may be empaneled. Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

Concluded record need not be opened for exceptions. Gibson v. Harris, 19:139.

Conduct by judge without bias or prejudice. Tubman v. Republic, 23:301.

Consent of prosecution to new trial. Baigyen v. Republic, 18:155.

Continuance. DeShield v. Mends Cole, 19:395.

Continuance of, because of legislative duties of party or counsel, not matter of right. In re Morgan, 22:378.

Correction of irregularities by Supreme Court. Markwei v. Amine, 4:155.

Court's failure to specify ground for overruling objection to immaterial question, not reversible error. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Court's signature on bill of exceptions essential. Anderson v. Dennis, 1:55.

Criminal; accomplice testimony on behalf of prosecution, competence of. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Criminal; accomplice's testimony admissible but with caution. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Criminal. Burden of proof. Dunn v. Republic, 1:401; Hance v. Republic, 3:161; Simpson v. Republic, 3:300; Ware v. Republic, 5:381; The v. Republic, 10:234; Tendi v. Republic, 12:109; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Taylor v. Republic, 14:524; Johnson v. Republic, 15:66; Williams v. Republic, 15:99; Republic v. Dillon, 15:199.

Criminal. Complaining witness not disqualified for interest. Brooks v. Republic, 1:284.

Criminal; corroboration of accomplice's testimony, furnishing of by entire circumstances attending commission of crime. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Criminal. Defendant in prosecution for larceny has burden of proof in mitigation of restitution. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Criminal. Defendant not entitled to list of State's witnesses. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Criminal. Demonstrative evidence inadmissible when produced by person incompetent to testify. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Criminal; disqualification of judge, bias required for. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Criminal. Double jeopardy. Wood v. Republic, 1:445; Mason v. Republic, 4:81; Greenwood v. Republic, 8:263; Republic v. Collins, 13:457; Republic v. Aggrey, 13:469; Williams v. Republic, 14:452; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Criminal, failure of defendant to pursue rights at, effect. Toe v. Republic, 24:462.

Criminal. Functions of court and jury. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Phillips v. Republic, 4:11; Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Criminal; granting of new trial on court's own motion as double jeopardy. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Criminal; incompetency of indigent defendant's Defense Counsel, procedure to appoint a better qualified attorney. Republic v. Walser, 27:274.

Criminal; informers as feigned accomplices in conspiracy, no corroboration required. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Criminal; insanity defense, complete when defendant sustains burden of proof. Saamoon v. Republic, 22:321.

Criminal; judicial atmosphere of. Bestman v. Lewis (Chambers), 21:568.

Criminal; lack of testimony on defendant's behalf, effect on prosecution's burden of proof. Flomo v. Republic, 26:51.

Criminal; new trial, unwarranted inflammatory remarks of prosecution as grounds for. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Criminal. Nonessential allegations in indictment need not be proved. Glay v. Republic, 15:181.

Criminal. Parol evidence rule inapplicable. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Criminal. Prejudicial language of prosecutor. Cummings v. Republic, 4:284; Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Criminal. Procedure for polling jury. Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Criminal. Procedure in disbandment of jury by reason of manifest necessity. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Criminal, proof required for conviction. Davis v. Republic, 24:319.

Criminal; psychiatric evaluation of defendant's mental condition, when application for granted. Saamoon v. Republic, 22:321.

Criminal; reasonable doubt, defined. Collins v. Republic, 22:365.

Criminal. Requirements as to introduction of evidence of character of defendant. Lewis v. Republic, 5:358.

Criminal. Retrial after quashing of indictment. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Criminal; retrial for failure to grant application for psychiatric evaluation of defendant's mental condition. Saamoon v. Republic, 22:321.

Criminal. Right of confrontation. Tobah v. Republic, 2:53; Brown v. Republic, 2:548.

Criminal. Right of defendant to compulsory process to secure appearance of witnesses. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Stubblefield v. Republic, 10:104; Sarbo v. Republic, 21:481.

Criminal. Right of defendant to produce witnesses on insanity plea. Tay v. Republic, 9:92.

Criminal; rights of defendant not to testify at. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Criminal. Self-incriminatory statement of counsel pro se admissible as confession. Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Criminal; sequestration of jury. Sarbo v. Republic, 21:481.

Criminal. Verdict for greater offense than charged illegal. Brooks v. Republic, 1:284.

Cross examination, dismissal of answer as depriving defendant of right to. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

Cross-examination. Scope and purpose. Moore v. Republic, 2:143; Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Massaquoi v. Lowndes, 4:260; Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Foreign Mission Brd. of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv. v. Grant, 11:22; Johnson v. Republic, 13:435; Cooper v. Republic, 13:528; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204; Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547; Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Cutting off testimony of witnesses disapproved. Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

De novo, manner of conducting. Sheriff v. Sesay, 22:25.

Defense not pleaded cannot be asserted. Nah v. Nah, 18:195.

Delayed appearance by party not an abandonment of cause. Theume v. Ross, 3:386.

Denial of motion for continuance when party simultaneously caused subpoena to issue for material witness. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 17:180.

Direct and redirect examination. Scope and purpose. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Massaquoi v. Lowndes, 4:260; Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:250; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204; George v. Republic, 14:339; Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Directed verdict in criminal case may be requested at any time during. Monger v. Republic, 18:76.

Discretion of court as to conduct of. Yancy v. Republic, 15:88.

Discretion of court as to recall of witness. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Disposition of questions of law without application of party. Gibson v. Jones, 3:78.

Documentary evidence, duty of court to present to jury. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Double jeopardy. Failure to object to disbandment of jury not waiver of constitutional rights. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Eliciting testimony from friendly witness. Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Engagement of counsel before superior court, excuses absence at. Walker v. Kazoula, 25:325.

Equity action; by judge without jury, despite abolition of distinction between actions at law and suits in equity. Wilson v. Wilson, 27:182.

Error attributable solely to party cannot be laid in bill of exceptions. Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

Evidence, exclusion of by trial court sua sponte, authority for and method of. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Evidence, multiple objections to introduction of, disposal of by court. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Evidence, offering or objecting to in good faith, error to threaten counsel with contempt for. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Examination of witnesses, authority of trial judge over. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Exceptions to charge must be specific. Scott v. Republic, 18:13.

Exceptions to judgment by court-appointed attorney as factor against issuance of writ of error. Mulba v. Dennis, 22:46.

Facts alleged must be proved. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:168; Hill v. Hill, 13:257.

Facts, when contested, must be proved. King v. International Trust Company of Liberia, 20:438.

Failure to timely move to set verdict aside. Simonovitch v. Liberian Construction Corp., 19:418.

Fair, deprivation of, for defendant, Talib v. Republic, 20:254.

Fair. Requirements. Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529; Yancy v. Republic, 4:268; Hutchins v. Republic, 5:63; Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Fair and impartial, setting aside judgment of conviction for lack of. Garlo v. Republic, 20:234.

Fair trial, denial of, as lack of due process. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Fair trial, grounds for remand to insure. Cooper v. Republic, 20:43.

Fair deliberation of jury essential. Bei v. Ginger, 18:53.

Form of verdict may be amended. Vianini Ltd. v. McBourough, 19:39.

Function of jury. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

Function of judge and jury. Moore v. Gye, 19:429.

Functions of judge and jury regarding evidence. Quezon v. Republic, 23:33.

General denial, limitation on defendant in questioning when placed on. Caulcrick v. Lewis, 22:37.

Hearing required beyond review of record. Togba v. Smith, 24:458.

Hostility of prosecution's own witness must be established. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Impeachments to be tried by Senate. Opinion, 1:509.

Improper influence of judge on jury. Bei v. Ginger, 18:53.

Improper where complaint dismissed. Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462.

In absence of counsel who does not appear nor move for continuance. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

Incompetent witnesses. Dennis v. Republic, 18:220.

Indigent persons, representation of, procedure. Everyday v. Due, 27:291.

Inessential testimony wrongly admitted not cause for reversal. Gibson v. Republic, 18:353.

Inflammatory comments by judge. Bing v. Republic, 18:377.

Insuring fair trial. Danbar v. Tarawally, 18:344.

Investigation of excuse of illness of jurors in criminal case. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

Issues of fact as to damages must be determined by jury. Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313.

Issues of fact as to setoff or counterclaim must be determined by jury. Saleeby Brothers v. Haikal, 14:298.

Issues of fact trial follows decision on issues of law. Maritime Transport Operators, GMBH v. Koroma, 25:371.

Issues of law may be tried regardless of issues of fact not raised by pleadings. Watson v. Oost Afrikaansche Compagnie, 13:94.

Issues of law must be decided before hearing issues of fact. Payne v. Atim, 17:578.

Issues of law must be decided before issues of fact. Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Sodjie v. Tartimeh, 2:362; Schmitz v. Addman, 2:484; Monrovia College v. Coleman, 3:404; Wolo v. Wolo, 8:453; Horace v. Harris, 8:73; Johns v. Witherspoon, 8:462; Reeves v. Knowlden, 11:199; Johns v. Johns, 11:312; Geeby v. Geeby, 12:20; Togai v. Johnson, 12:176; Wright v. Richards, 12:423; Johnson v. Dorsla, 13:378; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304; Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73; Sancea v. Mallobe (Chambers), 21:563; Farhat v. Thomas, 24:453; Dennis v. Dennis, 24:490; Cooper v. K. & H. Construction Company, 27:187; Multinational Gas and Petrochemical Company v. Crystal Steamship Corporation, S.A., 27:198; Cooper v. Davis, 27:310.

Issues of law must be tried before issues of fact. Abi-Rached v. Lewis, 20:494.

Issues of law not presented by pleadings, ruling by trial court on. Giko v. Giko, 22:155.

Issue of title question of fact for jury in ejectment action. Harris v. Locket, 1:79; Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446; Larsannah v. Passawe, 14:599; Toles v. Williams, 14:384.

Joinder of unsummoned parties, authority of judge sua sponte. Union Maritime et Commerciale Corporation (UMARCO) v. Dennis, 25:267.

Joint, number of challenges in criminal action. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Joint, right to severance. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Horace v. Republic, 16:341.

Judge, comments of, patently prejudicial. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Judge, neutrality of. Talib v. Republic, 20:254.

Judge, strict neutrality required of. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Judgment required unless trial terminated by nonsuit or retraxit. Johnson v. Johnson, 1:29.

Jurisdiction of subject matter, when challengeable. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Jury, right of person charged with crime to impartial and speedy trial by. Kamara v. Republic, 23:329.

"Jury of vicinity," meaning of, in Constitution. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Jury should be instructed to disregard improper or prejudicial statement by prosecution. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Jury tampering. Ginger v. Bai, 19:372.

Jury term, cases begun within, may continue until conclusion. Addo v. Texaco Africa, Ltd., 25:229.

Jury term, empanelling after, court without jurisdiction over subject matter. African Mercantile Agencies v. Bonnah, 26:80.

Jury trial, when applied for. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay's Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:520.

Letter to counsel by court notice of assignment for trial. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105.

Misstatement of fact by judge on collateral matter, not error. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Mistake in tactics by attorney as ground for relief. Kamara v. Republic, 20:10.

Modification of verdict as to damages. Potter v. Stevenson, 1:53.

Motion by government for abatement of prosecution and award of new. Tay v. Republic, 9:92.

Motion for directed verdict in criminal case. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Motion for new trial after unfavorable verdict prerequisite to appeal to Supreme Court. Gardiner v. Republic, 8:406; Nyenee v. Republic, 9:189; Bracewell v. Republic, 15:520.

Motion in arrest of judgment cannot be sustained solely on weight of evidence. Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204.

Motion in arrest of judgment on jurisdictional grounds. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Motion in arrest of judgment. Time for filing. Republic v. Weafuah, 16:122.

Motion to advance cause on trial docket. Pratt v. Phillips, 7:218.

Motion to set verdict aside. Simonovitch v. Liberian Construction Corp., 19:418.

Motion to set verdict aside, denial proper. Johnson-Biggers v. Good-Wesley, 26:146.

Necessary proof in criminal cases. Marpleh v. Republic, 19:335.

New trial after disbandment of jury. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119.

New trial. After-discovered evidence. Harmon v. Republic, 6:186; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:37; Toles v. Williams, 14:384; Hood-Adams v. Jackson, 15:431.

New trial after quashing of indictment. Williams v. Republic, 13:452.

New trial. Conditions imposed by appellate court in awarding. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

New trial defined. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

New trial. Denied in absence of miscarriage of justice. Killix v. Republic, 8:173.

New trial. Granted where jury improperly influenced by counsel. Shaheen v. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278.

New trial, motion for, after return of verdict. Saleeby Brothers, Inc. v. Barclay Export Finance Company, Ltd., 20:319.

New trial, motion for, as prerequisite for considering bill of exceptions. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

New trial. Motion for. Court cannot deprive party of right to file. Mullibah v. Edwards, 14:313.

New trial. Motion for. Effect of failure to file. Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Koffah v. Republic, 6:336; Gardiner v. Republic, 8:406.

New trial. Motion for. May be amended like pleading. Saleeby Bros. v. Haikal, 14:298.

New trial. Motion for. Timeliness. Padmore v. Republic, 3:418; Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Barnes v. Republic, 5:395; Benwein v. Whea, 14:445.

New trial. Motion for. Unnecessary as prerequisite to appeal where trial of mixed questions of law and fact. Johns v. Witherspoon, 9:376.

New trial. Motion for. Waiver of right to file. Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Brown v. Republic, 14:437.

New trial, necessity for motion for, as prerequisite for considering bill of exceptions. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

New trial, negative aspects of adversary's case as ground for. Haider v. Kassas, 20:324.

New trial. Required when jury disagrees. Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

New trial. Substitution of juror as ground. Cummings v. Republic, 4:284.

New trial waived, motion in arrest of judgment when. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

New Trial. Within discretion of trial judge unless defendant prejudiced thereby. Killix v. Republic, 8:173.

Nonexpert witness may testify only as to facts within personal knowledge. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Nonsuit defined. Johnson v. Johnson, 1:29.

Notice a basic right. Horton v. Horton, 14:57.

Notice of assignment, failure to serve, effect on default judgment. Diallo v. LaFoundiaria Insurance Co., 24:498.

Number of counsel litigant may retain unlimited. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Objections. Refusal to note or allow to be made. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Objections to judge's charge must be specific. Liberia Mining Co., v. Zwannah, 19:73; Fahnbulleh v. Republic, 19:99.

Objections to questions asked by judge or juror. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

One case at a time, judge to try. Abi-Rached v. Lewis, 20:494.

Ordeals, criticized. Salala Rubber Company v. Onadeke, 24:441.

Permitting irrelevant examination. Dennis v. Republic, 18:220.

Pleadings considered in reverse order since issues of law disposed of before trial of facts. Buchanan v. Juah, 17:79.

Prejudicial acts and rulings of trial judge as ground for reversal and remand for new trial. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Prejudicial remarks by court to jury, ground for new trial or reversal of judgment. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Presence of plaintiff at, when not required. Monrovia Construction Corporation v. Wazami, 23:58.

Probate court should try issues of fact before granting letters of administration. Harmon v. Tompo. 15:272.

Producing deed to disputed property barred when not alleged or proffered in pleadings. Dundas v. Botoe, 17:457.

Proof by person alleging fact, requirement of. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

"Public and impartial," meaning of, in Constitution. Sackor v. Republic, 21:394.

Recall of witness in trial court's discretion. Scott v. Republic, 1:430.

Record. Evidence offered on trial to be included. Faber v. Republic, 3:69.

Record, judicial notice of. Gbassage v. Holt, 24:293.

Remand to specified court must be complied with. Cooper v. Alamendine, 20:416.

Requisites for directed verdict. Monger v. Republic, 18:76.

Responsibility of trial court to conduct adequate hearing in divorce action. Potter v. Potter, 15:269.

Retraxit defined. Johnson v. Johnson, 1:29; Davison v. Davison, 3:36.

Retrial after remand as double jeopardy. Griffiths v. Republic, 22:288.

Retrial on order of Supreme Court when action not fully adjudicated. Baky v. George, 22:80.

Right to speedy, and unavailability of witness for prosecution. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

Rulings must be reduced to writing. Brown v. Grant, 1:87; Webbe v. Parhat, 5:292.

Rulings not appealable absent objection and exception. Johnson v. Republic, 13:435.

Sassywood and similar aboriginal ordeals illegal. Jedah v. Horace, 2:265; Posum v. Pardee, 4:299; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Koffah v. Republic, 6:336; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63.

Single assignment of civil case for disposition of issues of law and trial of fact issues proper. Ericsson v. Ghoussalny, 17:180.

Subject matter controlled by pleadings. Williams v. Allen, 1:259; Elliott v. Dent, 3:111; Dennis v. Reffell, 9:26; Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446; Fiske v. Artis, 11:334; Coleman v. Cooper, 12:226; Shaheen v. Française de l'Afrique Occidentale, 13:278; Hill v. Hill, 13:392; Weeks v. Ketter, 13:546; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275; Tetteh v. Stubblefield, 15:3.

Summary of evidence by trial judge. Obi v. Republic, 20:166.

Summary proceedings dispense with formal procedures. Pratt v. Republic, 2:289.

Testimony by member of coroner's jury. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

Trial court may not usurp functions of jury. Lartey v. Corneh, 18:177.

Tried after judge's assignment expired, reversal. Union National Bank v. Monrovia Construction Company, 23:197.

Unfair presumed from failure to have proper record made. Republic v. Harmon, 5:300.

Venue. Change in criminal case on ground of local prejudice. Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Venue, change of, when motion for made. Toe v. Republic, 24:462.

Verdict cannot be set aside for defect in form. Jogenson v. Knowland, 1:266.

Verdict. Contrary to evidence, ground of motion for new trial. George v. George, 9:33.

Verdict for greater offense than charged illegal in criminal. Brooks v. Republic, 1:284.

Verdict for multiple causes of action. Kassabli v. Cole, 19:294.

Verdict in action of debt should state sum due. Williams v. Lewis & Co., 1:220.

Verdict must be followed by judgment when motion for new trial denied. Cole v. Cole, 10:111.

Verdict. Waiver of right to poll jury. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Verdict. When proper for court to direct. Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Waiver of objection of unreadiness to proceed. Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

When alibi constitutes defense. Yancy v. Republic, 19:63.

When defendant is discharged without remand by appellate court. Yancy v. Republic, 18:97.

When final judgment may be entered. Vianini Ltd. v. McBourough, 19:39.

When notice must be given by party calling witness to rebut testimony of opponent. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

When separate trials of criminal defendants granted. Gio v. Republic, 17:681.

Withdrawal of identical action inadvertently instituted, when and how permitted. Holder v. Liberian Development Bank, 22:376.

Withdrawal of suit after jury empanelled amounts to retraxit. Williams v. Johnson, 1:247.

Withdrawal of suit before. Johns v. Hirsch, 1:387.

Witness not permitted to listen to testimony of another on same side. Togai v. Johnson, 15:187.

Witnesses may be subpoenaed during. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

TRIBAL LANDS.

Title held in trust for tribal residents. Lartey v. Corneh, 17:403.

TRIBAL LAW, see Customary Law.


U

UNDUE INFLUENCE.

Pleading specially, requirement of. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

UNINCORPORATED ASSOCIATIONS.

Land granted to, deemed to have been made to de facto corporation. Holder v. Dunbar, 17:719.

USURY, see Contracts; Debt; Interest.

Bonus payments, legality of. Tucker v. Brownell, 24:333.

Probing for substance of. Goba v. Dennis, 19:459.

Test of. Goba v. Dennis, 19:459.

Warranty deed as evidence of. Goba v. Dennis, 19:459.


V

VENDOR AND PURCHASER, see Sales; Real Property.

VENUE, see also Actions; Civil Procedure; Courts; Criminal Procedure; Equity; Jurisdiction; Pleadings.

Appeal, not prohibition, remedy to enforce change. Johns v. Howard, 12:208.

Application for change not a waiver of constitutional right to jury trial. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Bond must be timely filed in change. Attia v. Payne, 1:205.

Change denied where trial by judge without jury. Massaquoi v. Republic, 2:461.

Change does not estop party as to any legal right. Liles v. Batam, 1:70.

Change in criminal case on ground of local prejudice. Capehart v. Republic, 3:143; Bryant v. Republic, 6:128; Sawyerr v. Republic, 8:311; Republic v. Dillon, 15:119; Republic v. Gbollie, 15:382.

Change in justice's court. Pratt v. Republic, 4:386.

Change terminates trial judge's jurisdiction. Batam v. Liles, 1:64; Massaquoi v. David, 6:320.

Complaint alleging cause in equity dismissible for statement of venue in law. Moddermann v. Roberts, 1:218; Yangah v. Melton, 12:178; Kaba v. Saleeby Bros., 14:275.

Defective statement in indictment does not go to jurisdiction. Koffah v. Republic, 6:336.

Divorce, proper in action of. King v. King, 22:106.

Failure to name particular term or division of court in notice of appeal not ground for dismissal. Carew v. Jessenah, 13:103.

Jurisdiction, effect on, when venue improper. King v. King, 22:106.

Limitations of time for change. Attia v. Tuning, 1:31; Snetter v. Snetter, 2:372.

Notice to opposite party of change required. Massaquoi v. David, 6:320.

Transmission of record in change. Attia v. Payne, 1:205.

VERDICT, see Trials.

New trial, denial of, where evidence to support verdict clear and convincing. Kasimu v. Republic, 25:80.

VERDICTS, see also Crimes and Offenses; Evidence; Juries and Jurors; Trials.

Amendment directed by trial judge. Oruma v. Republic, 21:14.

Contrary to evidence, setting aside of judgment based thereon. Appleton v. Republic, 23:109.

Contrary to evidence, setting aside when. Collins v. Republic, 21:366.

Conviction of lesser crime than charged. Paye v. Republic, 20:298.

Criminal cases, guilt beyond reasonable doubt. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Damages, specification of special and general. B.F. Goodrich of Liberia, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 20:228.

Evidence must support. Salala Rubber Company v. Onadeke, 24:441.

Not indicating guilt or innocence of defendant. Dandy v. Republic, 21:3.

Reversal on appeal, limitation on grounds for. Haider v. Kassas, 20:324.

Right of court to disturb. Liberian Oil Refinery Company v. Mahmoud, 21:201.

Setting aside sua sponte by trial judge, error. Wright v. Reeves, 26:38.

Several causes of action, specification of amount awarded on each of. B.F. Goodrich of Liberia, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 20:228.

Special damages, statement of. Saleh v. Montgomery, 21:125.

VERIFICATIONS, see Pleadings.


W

WAIVER, see also Civil Procedures; Contracts; Criminal Procedure; Equity; Evidence; Jurisdiction; Pleadings; Real Property; Trials; Witnesses.

Appellee's right to move for dismissal not waived by acknowledgement of untimely service. Toure v. Fahs, 15:252.

Application for change of venue not a waiver of right to jury trial. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Circumstances showing. Nurse v. Republic, 20:351.

Defined. Horton v. Horton, 14:57; Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502; Freeman v. Firestone Plantations Company, 23:276.

Disqualification of juror waived. Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Failure to compel judge to take necessary action. Morris v. Republic, 4:125.

Failure to file appeal bond as. Delaney v. Republic, 4:251.

Failure to impeach credibility of witness as. Phillips v. Republic, 4:11.

Failure to object to grand juror at proper time. Snyder v. Republic, 5:45.

Insufficiency of indictment, plea of "Not Guilty" as waiving. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

Jurisdictional irregularities waived by failure to seek remedial process. Sherman v. Clarke, 16:242.

Misnomer waived if not timely pleaded. Kruger v. Johns, 2:89; Pennoh v. Pennoh, 13:480, 504.

Of constitutional right not to be twice put in jeopardy for same offense. Williams v. Republic, 14:452.

Of dilatory defect in indictment. Thompson v. Republic, 14:133.

Of exceptions taken but not included in bill. Torkor v. Republic, 6:88; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:569.

Of lien by chattel mortgagee. Kaba v. Saleeby Brothers, 14:275.

Of objection of unreadiness to proceed to trial. Kobina v. Abraham, 15:502.

Of objection to excessive interest. McGill's Trustees v. Worrell, 1:175.

Of objections to jurisdiction. Hill v. Republic, 2:517; King v. Williams, 2:523.

Of points of law raised in pleadings. Sodjie v. Tartimeh, 2:362; Kaizolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 16:73.

Of right to appeal by payment of costs. Liberia Trading Corp. v. Abi-Jaoudi, 14:43.

Of right to appeal by withdrawal. New York v. Seabreeze, 2:26; Liberia Trading Corp. v. Abi-Jaoudi, 14:43.

Of right to impeach witness. Phillips v. Republic, 4:11.

Of right to move for new trial. Berry v. Republic, 3:24; Brown v. Republic, 14:437.

Pleading to indictment as waiver of defects. Ware v. Republic, 5:381.

Readmission of injured employee to employer's hospital as waiver by employer of rights. Freeman v. Firestone Plantations Company, 23:276.

Right to poll jury on verdict in prosecution for murder waived by absence of counsel. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Service of process, failing to object to improper or no. Reeves v. Webster-Ankra, 22:181.

WARRANTIES.

Contract law, applicability of. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Damages rule. Levin v. Juvico Supermarket, 24:187.

Real property, denial of warranty of title by grantor who requires. Bailey v. Sancea, 22:59.

Realty title, effect of in seeking injunctive relief against successor grantee. Dunbar v. Farhart, 24:427.

WIDOWS, see Husband and Wife.

WILLS, see also Decedents' Estates; Evidence; Executors and Administrators; Probate Courts; Real Property.

Administrator cum testamento annexo has power to administer only property named in. Stryker v. Massey, 9:88.

Ambulatory nature. Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Attesting witness defined. Koon v. Koon, 14:34; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

Caveat not ground for suspension of probate proceedings. Hill v. Parker. 13:556.

Construction. Moore & Son v. Cooper, 1:134; Barclay v. Freeman, 1:263; Williams v. Young, 1:293; Sherman v. Phillips, 1:351; Jones v. Dennis, 6:220; Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107; Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394; Duncan v. Karpeh, 10:194; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232; Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Construction not a proper function of probate proceedings. Rauls v. Manning, 10:229; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Construction of, within jurisdiction of monthly and probate court. Cooper v. Cooper, 17:503.

Contested instrument admitted into evidence. Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Copy admissible into evidence. Fuller v. Johnson, 1:56.

Date not material part. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Defenses to objections to probation dismissible for inconsistency. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Denial of probate on technical grounds no bar to reoffer. Glaydor v. Howard, 9:43.

Devise of fee by implication. Moore & Sons v. Cooper, 1:134.

Devise of fee by life tenant void. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Devise of fee simple. Dossen v. Republic, 2:467; Watson v. Ware, 10:158.

Devise of joint tenancy. Williams v. Young, 1:293.

Devise of life estate. Barclay v. Freeman, 1:263.

Devise of property subject to homestead exemption. Bryant v. Republic, 6:128.

Devise on condition. Moore & Son v. Cooper, 1:134; Sherman v. Phillips, 1:351.

Doubt as to testator's signature resolved in favor of respondent seeking probate. Amagashie v. Mensah-Tormetie, 25:92.

Estoppel to contest. Williams v. Finch, 10:249.

Forgery of. Coleman v. Republic, 2:139; Andrews v. Gardner, 10:389; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

Guardian, testamentary, supersedes claims of all other guardians. Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394.

Homestead exemption cannot be created by. Prout v. Cooper, 5:412.

Intent of testator controls construction. Sherman v. Phillips, 1:351; Dossen v. Republic, 2:467; Bryant v. Rolland, 8:394; Duncan v. Karpeh, 10:194; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

Issues of fact concerning genuineness must be decided by jury. Jones v. Dennis, 6:220; Gage v. Pratt, 6:246; Roberts v. Roberts, 7:358; Ware v. Watson, 8:335; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Joint tenancy cannot be partitioned solely by testamentary disposition. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Legitimacy and intestate succession established by will describing descendent as "my grandson." Richardson v. Gabbidon, 15:434.

Lost. Contents may be established by parol evidence. Ware v. Watson, 8:335.

Need not dispose of property. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

No construction required where intention of testator clearly expressed. Cooper v. Cooper, 17:503.

Objectants entitled to opportunity to appear in probate proceedings. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Objections to probate require no prescribed phraseology. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Parol evidence inadmissible to contradict testamentary language. Richards v. Coleman, 6:285.

Partial invalidity no bar to probate of valid portion. Simpson v. Caranda, 13:121.

Placing of testator's and witnesses' signatures. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330.

Probate, against whom admissible when accepted for. Benson v. Johnson, 23:290.

Probate denied where devise of real property void. Richardson v. Stubblefield, 7:107.

Probate proceedings limited to determining validity of instrument presented for probate. Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Probate set aside for fraud and undue influence. Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82.

Probation establishes validity of instrument without setting issues as to distribution of decedent's property or title thereto. Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Probation not reviewable in ejectment action. Cooper-King v. Cooper-Scott, 15:390.

Qualifications of objectants to probate. Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82.

Requisites for execution. Brown v. Brown, 1:14; Railey v. Clarke, 10:330; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232; Tunning v. Greene, 15:137; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Revocation. Benson v. Clarke, 12:426; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Revocation of probate. Williams v. Finch, 10:249; Benson v. Clarke, 12:426.

Right to devise property. Roberts v. Roberts, 1:107.

Supervision of estate by court prior to probation. King-Howard v. Karpeh, 16:11.

Testimony of attesting witnesses. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330; Tunning v. Greene, 15:137; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Undue influence. Weeks v. Dennis, 11:82; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Koon v. Koon, 14:34; Thomas v. Dayrell, 15:304.

Unsigned, inadmissible into evidence. Diggs v. Ferguson, 2:397.

WITNESSES, see also Criminal Procedure; Cross-Examination; Evidence; Self-Incrimination; Trials.

Absence of, when no bar to trial. Hutchins v. Republic, 5:63.

Accessory, corroboration necessary of evidence of. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

Accomplices, testifying on behalf of prosecution competency of. Browne v. Republic, 22:398.

Accomplice's testimony admissible, but with caution. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Accomplice's uncorroborated testimony insufficient per se to sustain conviction. Coleman v. Republic, 2:1; Soa v. Republic, 14:242.

Associate counsel may continue examination commenced by counsel. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:446.

Basis for granting continuance when witness unavailable. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

Children as. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Complaining in criminal prosecution not disqualified for interest. Brooks v. Republic, 1:284.

Compulsory process, right of accused to. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Compulsory process to secure attendance. Constitutional right of accused in criminal case. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70; Ware v. Republic, 5:50; Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211; Tay v. Republic, 9:92; Stubblefield v. Republic, 10:104; Sie v. Republic, 12:59.

Contempt by, what constitutes. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Continuance, absence as ground for. Republic v. Wright, 20:77.

Continuance, absence on day of trial as ground for. Serjleh v. Republic, 20:371.

Continuance for absence of material. Appleby v. Freeman, 2:271; Ross v. Roberts, 3:266; Morais v. Republic, 5:3; Hutchins v. Republic, 5:63; Bryant v. African Produce Co., 7:93; Wright v. Tay, 11:164; Samuels v. Samuels, 12:27; Sie v. Republic, 12:59; Larmouth v. Republic, 13:493; George v. Republic, 14:339; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372.

Contradiction among witnesses for prosecution as creating doubt in favor of accused. Burphy v. Bureau of Traffic, 25:12.

Contradiction of one another, effect of. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Corroboration of accomplice's testimony, furnishing of by entire circumstances attending commission of crime. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Corroboration of principal witness required in criminal trial. Republic v. Smith, 25:207.

Credibility. Direct examination as to. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Criminal prosecutions. Defendants cannot be questioned as to previous offenses. Cooper v. Republic, 13:528.

Criminal prosecutions. Defendant's right of confrontation. Tobah v. Republic, 2:53; Brown v. Republic, 2:548.

Cross-examination as to interest, motive, inclination and prejudice. Bryant v. Bryant; 4:328; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547.

Cross-examination, credibility questioning on. Sarbo v. Republic, 21:481.

Cross-examination. Scope and purpose. Moore v. Republic, 2:143; Yancy v. Republic, 4:3; Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Massaquoi v. Lowndes, 4:260; Bryant v. Bryant, 4:328; Peehn v. Republic, 5:192; Massaquoi v. Republic, 8:204; Foreign Mission Brd. of Nat'l. Bapt. Conv. v. Grant, 11:22; Johnson v. Republic, 13:435; Cooper v. Republic, 13:528; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Bakeh v. Greene, 14:204; Speare-Hardy v. Republic, 14:547; Salami Bros. v. Wahaab, 15:32; Shamag Corp. v. Turkett, 16:257.

Cross-examination, scope of. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Cross-examination allowed as to all matters touching the case or likely to discredit witness. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

Cross-examination of prosecution's, after plea of not guilty. Talib v. Republic, 20:254.

Cutting off testimony before conclusion. Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Deceased. Admissibility of evidence of testimony at prior proceeding. Tolbert v. Gibson, 2:608.

Defendant in criminal case as own witness, treatment of. Passawe v. Republic, 24:516.

Defendant's failure to exercise diligence to procure attendance of material witness ground for denial of continuance. Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372.

Delay to obtain, when permissible. Witherspoon v. Republic, 6:211.

Depositions of, when proper. Thompson v. Republic, 9:400.

Direct and redirect examination. Scope and purpose. Cummings v. Republic, 4:16; Massaquoi v. Lowndes, 4:261; Firestone Plantations Co. v. Greaves, 9:250; Hill v. Parker, 13:556; Thompson v. Republic, 14:133; Baker v. Greene, 14:204; George v. Republic, 14:339; Johnson v. Republic, 15:88.

Disqualification by reason of conviction of infamous crime. Logan v. Republic, 2:472.

Disqualification for listening to testimony of other witness. Togai v. Johnson, 14:187.

Disqualified for conviction of petit larceny. Reawhe v. Johnson, 17:361.

Examination of witnesses, authority of trial judge over. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Expert testimony. Couwenhoven v. Beck, 2:364; Ledlow v. Republic, 2:529; Ammons v. Republic, 12:360.

Expert testimony, scope. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154; Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Expert witness, establishing qualification of. Tubman v. Republic, 23:301.

Former testimony. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256; Gould v. Gould, 1:389; Bey-Solow v. Gordon, 2:95; Tolbert v. Gibson, 2:608; Mason v. Republic, 4:81.

Husband and wife not competent against each other. Dennis v. Republic, 3:45.

Identifying signature, scope of examination of. Freeman v. Freeman, 8:187.

Impeachment by prior extra-judicial deposition. Gardner v. Neal, 13:422.

Impeachment by proof of bias, prejudice, hostility or animus. Ammons v. Republic, 12:360.

Impeachment. Prerequisites and conditions. Ware v. Republic, 5:381; Logan v. Republic, 5:398.

Imprisonment of State's, in criminal prosecution. Cooper v. Republic, 1:256.

Incompetency by reason of conviction of infamous crime. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Incompetency for interest. Gould v. Republic, 1;393.

Incriminating, compelling answer that may be. Tozoe v. Republic, 22:113.

Insanity cannot be proved by lay. Scott v. Republic, 1:430.

Investigation of attempt by sheriff to block procurement of. John v. Republic, 7:261.

Juror in former proceedings in same case, competency of to testify in subsequent proceedings. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Leading questions, allowed for adversary not own. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Letters rogatory, requirements for testimony sought through deposition by issuance of. Saleeby Bros., Inc. v. Barclay's Export Finance Co., Ltd., 22:204.

Medical doctor qualified as expert on mental competence. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Must be duly summoned. Neal v. Kandakai, 17:590.

Nonexpert may not be asked hypothetical question on cross-examination. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Nonexpert may testify only as to facts within his own knowledge. Karpai v. Sarfloh, 26:3.

Nonexpert may testify only as to facts within personal knowledge. Swaray v. Republic, 15:149.

Not subject to jurisdiction as parties. Rasamny v. Ketter, 12:317.

Notice required as to recall. Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Parties, sequestration of as. Raymond Concrete Pile Co. v. Awar, 21:493.

Party in civil action not required to testify unless summoned. Cole v. Payne, 12:183.

Poor defendant to be assisted in obtaining. Gartargar v. Republic, 4:70.

Presence of witness in court during testimony of other. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Prisoner, competency of to testify. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Prisoner conducted into court to testify with or without a writ of habeas corpus ad testificandum, validity of. Yancy v. Republic, 27:365.

Privilege against self-incrimination. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269; Tenteah v. Republic, 7:63; Massaquoi v. Republic, 14:372; Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Probate court cannot order payment to be made by witness who was not summoned as party. Rasamny v. Ketter, 12:317.

Qualification of, to testify as to genuineness of signature. Washington v. Lloyd, 1:83; Freeman v. Brownell, 8:187.

Qualified to testify in criminal trial although not listed as having appeared before Grand Jury. Jackparwolo v. Republic, 14:359.

Question properly asked of expert on automobile accidents. Haid v. Ebric, 17:662.

Real or demonstrative evidence inadmissible when produced by person incompetent to testify. Williams v. Republic, 15:99.

Recall for further testimony in trial court's discretion. Scott v. Republic, 1:430; Hill v. Parker, 13:556.

Recall of, discretionary with court. Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154.

Refusal to testify in absence of precept. Burney v. Jantzen, 4:322.

Relationship to a party does not disqualify a witness. Baz Brothers Corporation v. Gray, 26:99.

Requirements for subscription to deed. Wallace v. Green, 13:269.

Right of court to question. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

Self-incrimination, defendant testifying in own behalf can assert privilege. Anderson v. Republic, 27:67.

Self-incrimination, failure to warn of right against. Dennis v. Republic, 20:47.

Stipulation as to testimony of. Smith v. Republic, 7:205.

Subpoena, issuance of, when accused requires. Doe v. Republic, 21:279.

Subpoena, service of, frustrated by sheriff. Doe v. Republic, 21:279.

Subpoena deuces tecum, propriety of service on defendant. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

Subpoena during trial. Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Subpoena unnecessary where witness is party. Harmon v. Woodin & Co., Ltd., 2:334.

Testimony restricted to facts within knowledge. Ammons v. Republic, 12:360; Nyumo v. Republic, 24:154..

To prove unavailability sheriff's returns on subpoena necessary. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

To wills. Railey v. Clarke, 10:330; Johns v. Republic, 13:143; Koon v. Koon, 14:34; Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232; Tunning v. Greene, 15:137.

Veracity of. Attoh v. Republic, 9:3.

Waiver of right to impeach. Phillips v. Republic, 4:11.

Weight of testimony affected by interest. Cole v. Sharpe, 14:232.

When not required to answer. Dennis v. Republic, 6:269.

When notice must be given by party calling witness to rebut testimony of opponent. Gray v. Republic, 26:357.

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION.

Labor Practices Law, employee's leaving of hospital for cause as forfeiture of benefits under. Freeman v. Firestone Plantations Company, 23:276.

WRIT OF ERROR, see also Appeals; Civil Procedure; Mandamus; Pleadings; Prohibition; Quo Warranto; Supreme Court; Trials.

Application of amendable. Nasser v. Gray, 26:115.

Arbitration award as frame of reference. Karpeh-Wreh v. Baker-Azango, 18:293.

Basis for granting. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

Bond, requiring posting of discretionary with Justice granting writ. Teewia v. Urey, 27:91.

Circumstances under which issued. Dennis v. Henderson, 18:260.

Compliance with statutory provisions required. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

Condition for issuance. Motion, 1:529; Wodawodey v. Kartiehn, 4:102; Mends-Cole v. Weeks, 13:525.

Contents of application for. Dollar v. Cole, 25:67.

Costs, statutory requirement to pay prerequisite to issuance. Morris v. Reeves, 27:334.

Defective service of process as ground for. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 18:267.

Denied in default after service of process. Benson v. Findley, 18:285.

Distinguished from mandamus. Karnga v. Coleman, 5:405.

Effect of mistake of clerk in issuance of. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Functions of, cannot be performed by certiorari. Compagnie Française de l'Afrique Occidentale v. Cole, 13:180.

Granted when inferior tribunal has denied litigant day in court. Jallah v. Sheriff, 25:226; Teewia v. Urey, 27:91.

Issued where distribution of intestate property decreed although status of widow questioned and report of administrator not passed upon. Railey v. Brewer, 9:64.

Issued where failure to aver that application is not for dilatory purpose not raised by defendant. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Issued where irregularities in trial and disregard of governing law. Freeman v. Twe, 7:227.

Issued where litigant denied day in court. Gbae v. Geeby, 14:147.

Issued where no jury trial in ejectment action although facts not admitted. Pratt v. Phillips, 9:446.

Mandamus no substitute. King v. Randall, 10:225.

Not issued where application defective. Mends-Cole v. Weeks, 13:525.

Object defined. Logan v. James, 3:360.

Payment of accrued costs as prerequisite for issuance of writ. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

Persons not made parties, remedy of. Marshall v. Blaine, 6:70.

Petitioner must have been a party to action in which error committed. Schilling & Co. v. Tirait, 16:164.

Procedure required to be strictly followed. Harmon v. Republic, 4:195.

Request for time to settle judgment waives trial defects and is ground to deny writ. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

Serious omission in presentation to Justice in Chambers. Witherspoon v. West & Co., 7:3.

Statutory requirements to be strictly observed. Borbor v. Gillatey, 25:124.

That absence of petitioner from court at time of rendition of judgment was unavoidable is prerequisite for issuance. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite. 26:338.

Time to apply for. Lynch v. Azango, 18:256.

To Supreme Court from Magistrate Court or Justice of Peace Court not allowed. Kyne v. Mulbah, 25:183.

When certified copies of record not mandatory for hearing. Nigerian Ports Authority v. Brathwaite, 26:338.

Will not issue when judgment satisfied. Karpeh-Wreh v. Baker-Azango, 18:293.

Withdrawal of an appeal bars future grant of writ. Brown Boveri Cie, AG. v. Lewis, 26:170.

WRIT OF POSSESSION.

Execution in accord with its instructions. Gbeh v. Flomo, 25:58.

WRITS, see Actions; Attachments; Certiorari; Civil Procedure; Clerks of Courts; Courts; Injunctions; Judges and Justices; Judgments; Jurisdiction; Mandamus; Pleadings; Prohibition; Quo Warranto; Supreme Court; Trials; Witnesses.

WRITS OF CERTIORARI, see also Certiorari.

Failure to appear formally at preliminary hearing for injunction no bar from applying for writ. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

Granted to review granting of continuance. Lewis v. Yancy, 17:319.

Issuable only where action is pending. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Order which conforms with statutory provision will not be reviewed by. Katri v. Commercial Bank, 17:413.

Proper for review of issuance of preliminary injunction. Kontar v. Mouwaffak, 17:259.

WRITS OF ERROR.

Affidavit denying harassment or delay, requirement of. B.F. Goodrich, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 23:251; Freeman v. Kini (Chambers), 23:413; Holmen v. Montgomery, 23:19.

Application to be treated as bill of exceptions. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:116.

Bond, filing of, as prerequisite to issuance of writ. Lotico Logging Company v. Stewart (Chambers), 23:393.

Bond, posting of. Paterson, Zochonis and Company v. Flomo, 20:404.

Certificate on merits absolutely required. Nimba Logging Corporation v. Mallobe (Chambers), 20:640.

Contents required. Mulba v. Dennis, 22:46.

Court will determine if writ should issue even though returns a nullity. International Trust Co. v. Mends-Cole, 17:562.

Default judgment, remedy for review of. Union National Bank, Inc. v. Hodge (Chambers), 20:635.

Denial of day in court as ground for issuance when counsel declines appearance after notice. Mulba v. Dennis, 22:46.

Denied after return of writ of possession in ejectment action. Joh v. Hill, 17:122.

Denied when judgment satisfied except for payment of costs. Joh v. Hill, 17:122.

Denied when petition and affidavit fail to conform to statutory requirements. Goodridge v. Kennedy, 17:584.

Entire record in lower court reviewable. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:241.

Error in court below, as means for correcting. Gaiguae v. Jallah, 20:163.

Exceptions to judgment by court-appointed attorney as factor against issuance of. Mulba v. Dennis, 22:46.

Form of specifications. Paterson, Zochonis and Company v. Flomo, 20:404.

Judgment fully executed precludes issuance of. Gray v. Crump-Macauley, 17:157; Toomey v. Brown, 17:211.

Lack of revenue stamp on bond directed by court as ground for dismissing application for. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Not deniable because of incorrect nomenclature of parties. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Partial payment of judgment as affecting issuance. Massaquoi v. Swaray (Chambers), 23:406.

Power of single Supreme Court justice to hear error proceedings. Zormelo v. Dennis, 20:117.

Prerequisites for granting. Anderson v. Satia, 17:251.

Procedure before Justice in chambers when application for alternative writ withdrawn, amended, and refilled. Cooper v. Sambola, 17:116.

Proper procedure for appeal on denial of writ by Justice in chambers. Nah v. Nah, 17:89.

Requirement of bond in discretion of Justice. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Requirement that application not made for purpose of delay. Sawyer v. Freeman, 17:274.

Reversal or modification of lower court's judgment after denial of. B.F. Goodrich, Inc. v. Bsaibes, 23:251.

Supreme Court may dismiss application for and modify judgment below. Helou Bros. v. Kiazolu-Wahab, 17:520.

Time limit on application. Brazie v. Gynneh, 20:343.

When writ will be issued. Kiazolu-Wahab v. Sonni, 17:105; Cole v. Industrial Building Contractors, 17:476.

WRITS OF HABEAS CORPUS.

Custody of children, effect upon. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

Welfare of child, concern of court in custody proceedings. Turner v. Burnette, 24:212.

WRONGFUL DEATH.

Right to bring action when no statutory provision. LaFondiaria Insurance Companies, Ltd. v. Heudakor, 22:10.

WRONGFUL DISMISSAL, see Labor


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